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THE 



AMERICAN 

Journal of Pharmacy. 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, 
HE^ T RY. KRAEMER. ' 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR I90I. 



HENRY N. RITTBNHOUSE, JOSEPH W, ENGLAND, 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER, RICHARD V. MATTISON, 

WALLACE PROCTER, JOSEPH P, REMINGTON, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME 73 

{ 



PHILADELPHIA : 
1901. 



( 




THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, igoi. 



ADULTERATIONS OF ESSENTIAL OILS. 
By Dr. Geo. R. Pancoast and Lyman F. Kebi<er. 

In early times technical equipments for the production of volatile 
oils were very incomplete, and various expedients were necessarily- 
resorted to for the purpose of extracting the many odorous princi- 
ples from the host of plant tissues; fatty products, turpentine and 
alcohol were frequently employed for this purpose, and consequently 
there was a certain justification formerly for the presence of some 
of these solvents in certain essential oils. But modern methods 
render the use of these foreign substances entirely unnecessary and 
they must be looked upon as adulterations pure and simple. 

Adulteration is chiefly resorted to on the one hand because of its 
profitableness, and on the other hand because of the ignorance of 
the consumer and his desire to purchase as cheaply as possible. 
The latter frequently does not seem to care for quality, but wants 
quantity. It is often due to this that an honest producer may be 
induced to offer spurious goods, because he cannot get reasonable 
prices, while his competitor is able to dispose of large quantities of 
adulterated oils. It must not be forgotten that formerly the adul- 
terator could ply his art fearlessly without much danger of exposure, 
and this probably emboldened him. To-day he is compelled to act 
a little more cautiously owing to the developments of the chemis- 
try of terpenes and their derivatives, as well as a more or less 
complete knowledge of the composition of a number of the volatile 
oils. The " Black Art " of volatile oils is passing away. 

The writers are fully convinced that the large distillers and 
reputable wholesalers are not responsible for some of the adulter- 
ated oils met with, even though they pass through their hands. 

(i) 



2 Adulterations of Essential Oils. { A ^ n J a a u r r y f^ m - 

They are generally beyond their control, as will be seen by some of 
the subsequent remarks. 

The guileless farmer or peasant who constructs a crude still and 
collects oils by his primitive methods (besides the impurities to be 
expected from this source) frequently adds a goodly proportion of 
a cheaper oil or synthetic sent to him by a friend in the wicked 
city. Synthetic oil of wintergreen is said to be largely used in this 
manner, and the resulting product sold for true oil of wintergreen. 

The Turkish peasant in like manner and for similar reasons adds 
geranium oil to his rose leaves before he begins his distillation of 
pure otto of rose. Even John Chinaman, forced to keep " open 
door, " manages to return the " Foreign Devils" coal oil by con- 
scientiously " plugging " some of the essential oils which he sells, 
especially oils of aniseed and cassia. And the warm-blooded 
Sicilian, in response to an increasing demand for his goods, rejuven- 
ates a worn-out or poor quality oil by adding the necessary constit- 
uents taken from a cheaper source; for example, oil of lemon is- 
fortified with citral obtained from oil of lemongrass, and oil of ber- 
gamot is " pieced out " with lemon and orange oils. 

Then some of the primitive distillers themselves, and possibly 
some of the middlemen or the jobbers, try their hands at improving 
nature. This is practiced in some instances to such an extent that 
the farther the oil travels, and the larger the number of hands it 
passes through, the more it adds unto itself, until finally, in some 
instances, at least, it is not recognized by its friends. Some of these 
adulterations may be due to ignorance, carelessness or accident, but 
many, very many, are due to design, and unless there is some im- 
provement in this respect, we may be prepared to hear in the near 
future of some one liberally supplying himself with synthetics, 
esters, aldehydes, alcohol, oil of copaiba and plenty of French tur- 
pentine, then opening up an office with the sign " Essential Oils 
Made to Order While You Wait." 

Essential oils are frequently met with that are unnaturally low in 
their characteristic constituent, so much so that, being otherwise 
satisfactory, only one conclusion can be drawn, viz., that they have 
been robbed or looted; for example, de-mentholized peppermint 
oil ; oil of cloves, minus a large part of its eugenol ; caraway, de- 
prived of some of its carvone ; and oil of lemon, abnormally low in 
its citral. We shall hereafter for brevity's sake call this class of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1901. j 



Adulterations of Essential Oils. 



3 



oils "looted oils." By such tactics a double profit is made by 
the manipulator. The consumer in these cases makes two pur- 
chases where he should make but one and save money by so doing ; 
as for instance, he buys eucalyptol and a cheap oil of eucalyptus ; 
then, in order to make the oil answer the proper requirements, it is 
necessary for him to use the eucalyptol to strengthen his inferior 
oil of eucalyptus. 

Another matter not generally known is that certain manufactur- 
ers claim that some absolutely pure oils need to be modified so as to 
conform to some arbitrary standard ; for example, one very promi- 
nent and reliable house lists oil of pimento at $2. 10 per pound, but oil 
of pimento said to be made to meet the requirements of the U.S. P. 
is offered at $1.60. The same criticism is applied to the U.S. P. 
requirements for oils of bay and coriander. 

Among the favorite articles used as adulterants, and to be looked 
for, are cheaper essential oils (turpentine, copaiba, cedarwood and 
gurjun balsam), alcohol and fixed and mineral oils. 

PRELIMINARY TESTS. 

(1) Physical appearance. 

(2) A common method and a very useful one is that of exposing a 
drop or two of the oil on white glazed paper, and from time to time 
observing the odor. By this means alone, in many cases, a cheap 
oil can be detected, especially turpentine. Lemon and orange re- 
quire from twelve to fifteen minutes ; bergamot, two to four hours ; 
lavender, twelve to fifteen hours ; cloves, twenty-five hours ; and 
sandal wood, two days, for comparison. Fixed oils leave a perma- 
nent greasy stain. Results by the above procedure give only indi- 
cations, which must be verified by established methods. 

Alcohol. — Several tests can be applied to give indications of the 
presence or absence of alcohol. Oils free from alcohol (acetone or 
purified wood alcohol), when dropped into water, remain transpar- 
ent, but the presence of alcohol causes the globules to become 
opaque or milky. When a considerable amount is present, it may 
be approximately estimated by placing a given volume of the oil 
into a graduated cylinder, adding an equal volume of water, agitat- 
ing well, and then -setting aside until complete separation results. 
If there is any appreciable diminution in the volume of oil, alcohol 
(acetone, acetic ether or purified wood alcohol) is present. The 



4 Adulterations of Essential Oils. { A ^uary P i9oi m * 

diminution of volume is generally proportional to the amount of 
adulterant. Glycerin can be used in place of water. 

In order to positively establish the presence of any of the above, 
fractional distillation must be resorted to and the substance finally 
identified by means of the iodoform reaction, boiling point, etc. 

CHEAPER ESSENTIAL OILS. 

Turpentine generally introduces abnormalities, lower specific 
gravity, diminished solubility, lower boiling temperatures and dis- 
turbed optical rotation. The latter can easily be remedied by mixing 
the proper proportions of dextrogyrate and lsevogyrate turpentines. 
Before a positive opinion can be given relative to the presence of 
added turpentine, in many cases a careful comparison must be made 
and the characteristic derivatives of pinene isolated. 

Cedatwood, copaiba and gutjun balsam oils are generally indi- 
cated by their lesser solubilities, higher specific gravities and opti- 
cal rotations, but the two latter can readily be adjusted by the 
proper kind and amount of turpentine. 

Mineral oils (petroleum, kerosene, etc.) are generally revealed by 
their insolubility and indifference to the action of strong acids and 
alkalies. They may be variously isolated, by their insolubilities, 
polymerizing the oil with concentrated sulphuric acid and then dis- 
tilling the mixture with aqueous vapor, or by oxidizing with fuming 
nitric acid and then removing the oxidized portion with hot water, 
thus leaving the unaffected petroleum behind. 

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 

The specific gravity is one of the best known properties of oils and 
is the one most generally applied because it is readily determined. 
The specific gravity is a very important factor, but is readily tam- 
pered with, consequently very careful deductions based on it must 
be made. 

Solubility Very definite and satisfactory data have been estab- 
lished for many oils relative to their solubility ; so much so that 
this physical property is probably more reliable than any other single 
one. The common adulterants are generally revealed by the applica- 
tion of this test. The volatile oils are quite readily soluble in alcohol, 
ether, acetone, acetic ether, glacial acetic acid, carbon disulphide, 
chloroform, benzol, petroleum ether and paraffin oil. 



A jaSa?yfS m "} Adulterations of Essential Oils, 5 

The optical rotation is exceedingly valuable, frequently being the 
only means by which the purity of an oil can be arrived at, and 
should never be omitted. 

Fractional distillation is usually resorted to in cases of admixture. 

The congealing -point is especially useful and necessary with anise 
oils. 

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF CONSTITUENTS. 

Before an oil can be submitted to a chemical examination, it is 
necessary to know at least its chief constituents, and then the 
methods must be so adjusted that these constituents can be esti- 
mated quantitatively with a considerable degree of accuracy. Such 
methods have been elaborated only within recent times, and are 
based on well-known organic reactions. 

The oldest and probably the most useful is the method of 
ester determination or saponification. It was originally applied to 
essential oils as we now apply it to fixed oils, and is based on the 
fact that fixed alkalies resolve the esters into their respective alco- 
hols and acids, the alkalies combining quantitatively with the latter. 
Then, knowing the ester in a given oil, the amount can readily be 
calculated by the quantity of alkali consumed by a given weight of 
oil. The linalyl acetate of lavender and bergamot oils is readily es- 
timated by this process. 

Aldehydes. — In the case of aldehyde-bearing oils, as cassia, the 
property of sodium bisulphite forming a compound soluble in water, 
containing an excess of sodium bisulphite, is utilized. This process 
is of much practical value with oil of cassia, and the oil is now 
generally purchased on the basis of aldehyde content. 

Acetylization. — Many of the oils contain alcohols as essential con- 
stituents. These can mostly be estimated by converting them into 
acetic esters, by means of acetic anhydride, removing water-soluble 
products by washing with water, then dehydrating the residue by 
means of fused sodium sulphate, and estimating the amount of acetyl 
group contained in a given weight of the acetylized oil. 

PHENOL DETERMINATION. 

It is the custom in France to rectify oil of thyme with consider- 
able quantities of turpentine oil. The original cause of this pro- 
cedure is probably due to the fact that the consumer requests a 
colorless oil, and oil of thyme contains a goodly per cent, of phenol 



6 



Adulterations of Essential Oils. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1901. 



bodies, which cause the freshly distilled oil to develop a coloration 
in a short time. The smaller the amount of phenol, the longer the 
oil will remain colorless. Careful analyses of this oil show that a 
pure product contains about 25 per cent, of phenols, and these can 
be approximately estimated by treating a given volume of oil with 
a 5 per cent, solution of sodium hydroxide, in a burette, and not- 
ing the diminution of volume of the oil. The alkaline solution 
forms soluble compounds with the phenols. 

The following comprises a list of oils and the impurities found in 
them by various observers, as well as the writers : 

Almonds, bitter, true. — There are no objections, so far as the 
writers know, to the preparation of a so-called oil of bitter almonds 
made from apricot or peach kernels, but it ought not to be offered 
as the genuine article. The true oil is often adulterated with 
alcohol, nitrobenzol, turpentine and benzaldehyde, the latter 
sometimes in toto. 

Aniseed, spermaceti up to 35 per cent., alcohol as much as 80 
per cent., kerosene, wax, oils of fennel, cedar, copaiba, camphor, 
turpentine, fennel stearoptene and oil of caraway, obtained from 
both the seed and the chaff. 

Angelica, copaiba. 

Amber, crude, resin mixed with coal oil and turpentine. It is 
rumored that crude petroleum is frequently supplied for this article. 

Amber, rectified, resin oil, turpentine and kerosene. Note 
remarks made under amber, crude. 

Bay, cloves, pimento, turpentine and oils containing phenols. 
It has also been adulterated with redistilled oil of cinnamon leaf, 
with a slight admixture of redistilled oil of lemongrass. Such an 
article has been pronounced by those of little experience superior 
to the pure product, appearing sweeter, more aromatic and not as 
heavy in odor as a pure oil. 

Birch, methyl salicylate, and there is no absolute method to de- 
tect it. 

Bergamot, lemon, orange, French turpentine, linaloe, fatty oils. 

Cajeput ; this is often looted. A mixture of rosemary or savin 
with camphor and resin of milfoil is often substituted. Oils of 
campjior and turpentine must be looked for. 

Cajeput, Formosa, said to be a mixture of cajeput and oil of 
camphor. 



A j^Sa&, P i9oi. m '} Adulterations of Essential Oils. 7 

Camphor y benzine, coal oil, turpentine, one case 25 per cent. 
Canada snakeroot, copaiba, 
Cananga, coca nut oil. 

Cassia, coal oil, fatty oils, resin (one case 18 per cent.), oil gurjun 
balsam, cloves, cinnamon leaf, cedarwood. A 90 per cent, aldehyde 
containing oil of cassia reduced to a 70 per cent, strength oil, by 
the addition of enough coal oil. A large profit in coal oil. 

Caraway seed, often a looted oil ; turpentine, oil of caraway chaff 
and added limonen. The term " twice rectified " for this article is 
rather misleading, as each rectification reduces the percentage of 
carvol. The single distillation of Dutch caraway seed produces a 
superior oil and of much greater strength than the so-called 
" twice rectified." 

Cedrat, a mixture of orange and bergamot. 

Cedar, hemlock, spruce, turpentine, oil of camphor. 

Cedar leaf , cedarwood, thuja. 

Celery seedy celery leaf, turpentine. 

Chamomile, cedar, copaiba, turpentine, milfoil, lemon. The manu- 
facturer sometimes distils lemon or turpentine over his chamomile 
flowers. 

Cinnamon, cloves, cassia. 

Citronella, Japanese oil of camphor, the light variety. This article 
was preferred by some, as it had a sweeter odor. Fatty oils, oil of 
gurjun, coal oil, coca nut oil. A controversy occurred in England 
as to whether a mixture of citronella 35 per cent., lemon 10 per 
cent, and coal oil 55 per cent, could pass as citronella oil. 

Coriandefy orange, cubebs, cedar, turpentine. Oil of orange 
distilled with coriander. 

Copaiba, oil gurjun balsam. 

Cloves, clove stems, fatty oils, copaiba, pimento, coal oil, turpen- 
tine and carbolic acid. A looted oil is sometimes met with. 
Cubebs, copaiba. 

Curacoa orange, bitter orange and bergamot. 
Dilly caraway chaff oil, mace, turpentine. 

Eucalyptus, looted oil, cheaper grades of eucalyptus. Turpen- 
tine is said to smooth a rough oil. 

Fennel seed y looted oil, fennel chaff, alcohol, oils containing phe- 
nols. 

Geranium, gingergrass, rectified citronella, fatty oils. 



$ Adulterations of Essential Oils. { A janSa^fmf. 111, 

Geranium, Turkish, fixed oils, turpentine, coal oil. 
Gingergrass oil, mineral oil and turpentine. 
Hemlock, spruce, turpentine. 
Juniper wood, turpentine. 

Lavender, garden, spike, oil of camphor, turpentine. 

Lavender flowers, turpentine, alcohol. A poor oil is sometimes 
found " plugged " with ester. According to Schimmel, the test for 
solubility, one part to three of 70 per cent, alcohol, does not prove 
or disprove the presence of turpentine. The method of distillation 
is responsible in the majority of cases for the variations in specific 
gravity, optical rotation and solubility. 

Lemon, poor lemon oil, with citral from lemongrass added, poor 
or old orange oil, turpentine. When testing on paper, use a piece 
of fresh lemon peel for comparison. 

Lemongrass, fixed oils. 

Limes, expressed, lemon. 

Melissa, lemon, citronella or lemongrass distilled over melissa 
leaves. Mixtures of lemon and citronella or lemongrass. 
Matico, alcohol, turpentine. 
Mace, distilled, poor quality nutmeg oil. 

Neroli, petit-grain, with a little bergamot, improves the quality 
of a poor oil. Lemon or orange increase optical rotation. Petit- 
grain or linaloe decrease optical rotation. 

Orange, alcohol, turpentine. When testing on paper, use orange 
peel for comparison. 

Origa7ium, a mixture of thyme, oil of camphor, turpentine and 
coloring matter ; crude oil of sassafras, rectified resin oil, Barbadoes 
tar, crude petroleum. 

Palmarosa, coca nut oil, petroleum. 

Patchouli, cedarwood, cubebs, turpentine, coal oil. 

Peppermint, mixture (peppermint, glycerin, alcohol and turpen- 
tine) copaiba, erigeron, turpentine, castor oil, pennyroyal, alcohol, 
glycerin, oil of camphor, sassafras, looted oil. 

Pennyroyal, de-mentholized mint, turpentine, alcohol, residue from 
peppermint distillation. 

Petit-grain, turpentine. 

Pimento, cloves, carbolic acid. 

Pine-needle oil, turpentine. Much confusion exists in these oils, 
due partly to the nomenclature of the coniferse. 



A January P i h ™"} Adulterations of Essential Oils. g 

Pinus Sylvestris, Scotch oil of fir, coal oil, turpentine. Very little 
genuine is to be had. 

Rose. — The leaves of rosa alba added to the Bulgarian rose, as 
the oil from this mixture contains more stearoptene, so that the 
distiller is able to add more geranium oil without reducing the 
melting point below the minimum. Indian geranium or ginger- 
grass, palmarosa, true oil of rhodium, light paraffin oils, fixed oils, 
guaiac wood oil, alcohol, spermaceti, paraffin. This is the record 
breaker for number of adulterations. 

Rhodium, a mixture of rose and copaiba. 

Rosemary, camphor and lavender, turpentine, spike oil, petroleum 
oil, alcohol, rectified camphor oil. * 
Rue, turpentine, coal oil. 

Sandal, " German" mixture of sandal-English and copaiba. 

Sandal, " East India" or " English" castor oil, copaiba, fatty oils, 
cedarwood, oil of gurjun, West India sandals. Chloroform and 
alcohol were found in one sample that is said to have answered the 
U.S.P. requirements. This oil should be from one to two years old, 
as ageing considerably improves the fineness of the aroma. The 
U.S.P. requires a specific gravity 0-970 to 978. Ten observers, 
including Schimmel, Umney, Parry, Bush and Squires, average 
0-971 to 0-979. Optical rotation, — 12 to — 20 ; santalol, from 
86 to 98 per cent. 

A safe average for a good oil would be, optical rotation, from 
— 17 to — 19 ; specific gravity, 0-975 at l S° C-> an< ^ santalol at 
least 90 per cent. A lot of oil made by a certain firm had a 
specific gravity of 0-9767; optical rotation, — I7'5°; contained 
97-16 per cent, of santalol, and was freely soluble in five volumes of 
70 per cent, alcohol. 

Savin, juniper, turpentine. Mr. Dohme found 80 per cent, of 
turpentine in one sample. 

Sassafras, safrol, coal oil, oil of camphor. 

Spearmint, turpentine. 

Spruce, turpentine. 

Tansy, spruce, turpentine. 

Thuja, cedar, pine leaf, turpentine. 

Thyme, camphor, turpentine. A recent examination showed 
that a pure article can be obtained, but generally it runs very low 
in phenol content. 



10 



Drug Culture. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
1 January, 1901. 



Verbena, lemongrass. • 
Vetivert, fixed oils. 

Wine, light oil, fusel oil and the distillate obtained from the resi- 
due left in the manufacture of ether. 

Wormwood, turpentine. Residue from the distillation of oil of tansy. 
A mixture was once sold as oil of wormwood which cost about 
65 cents per pound to make. It consisted of oils of cedar, spruce, 
amber, tansy refuse, alcohol and turpentine. One of the authors 
had a sample of this unique compound shown him. Even a hasty 
examination should have disclosed most of the ingredients. 

Wintergreen, true. — There is practically little of this oil to be had. 
Birch, pure methyl salicylate and mixtures of the two are often sold 
for it. When it was a common commercial article, Japanese oil of 
camphor, other light oils, v coal oil, sassafras and chloroform were 
the chief adulterants. There appears to be no satisfactory test to 
identify an admixture of methyl salicylate and birch except optical 
rotation, and this observation must be made with extreme care. 

Ylang Ylang (Flower of Flowers), kananga, fatty oils, syn- 
thetic oil. 

In conclusion, the writers would state that they make little claim 
for originality. This paper contains the results of some years of 
observation and information supplied by friends. Existing litera- 
ture was largely drawn upon, chief among which were "Die 
Aetherische Oele," von E. Gildermeister und Fr. Hoffmann ; the 
English translation of this by Edward Kremers ; " The Chemistry 
of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes," by Ernest J. Parry; 
" Odorographia, " by J. Ch. Sawer, and the " Semi- Annual Reports 
of Schimmel & Co. " 



DRUG CULTURE. 
By F. B. Kilmer. 

^1 have heretofore urged attention to the study of medicinal plants 
at their source of supply, both in their natural habitat and under 
cultivation. 

In one instance I pleaded for the publication of specific informa- 
tion as to the propagation, growth, collection and preparation of 
medicinal plants, having in view the highest conservation of their 
medicinal constituents, and of securing more uniform production, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ]_ 
January, 1901. J 



Drug Culture. 



1 1 



and especially the issuance, either by the Government or otherwise, 
of bulletins containing information as to the best modes of cultivat- 
ing, collecting and preparing such medicinal plants as are suited to 
the climates of our States and territories. 1 

That these appeals have not passed unheeded is evident from the 
interest now manifested in the subject of drug culture. 

The object of the present communication is to stimulate, and, if 
possible, add a few practical notes to the somewhat meagre litera- 
ture on this subject. In the consideration of the cultivation of 
medicinal plants several points present themselves: 

It is stated that the time is not far distant when we will be de- 
pendent upon the agriculturist for our medicinal plants ; that the 
destruction of wooded lands and other causes are lessening the 
supply of drug-yielding plants, and that drug farms will soon be a 
necessity. 

Scientific agriculture has taught the grower how to develop given 
products of plant life force. If, by scientific cultivation, we can 
augment or regulate the important active principles of drug plants, 
there is hope for an economic and scientific recompense. 

After a somewhat careful review of the situation it is evident to 
me that the problem in the cultivation of medicinal plants can best 
be solved by the American pharmacist. 

In this country we can call to our aid resources of a most extensive 
and varied soil and climate, and scientific agriculture here reaches 
the'highest attainable point. From the beginning we shall have the 
advantages of American machinery and methods as against peasant 
labor, which now supplies the bulk of the European products. But 
of striking importance to pharmacy and medicine is the fact that 
intelligent drug culture will tend to throw light upon the problem 
as to the relative value and activity of drugs gathered in a wild 
state, as compared with those under culture. 

Heretofore cultivation has not been necessary or expedient for 
many drug plants. Our knowledge of the influence of cultivation 
upon their medicinal and active principles is, therefore, very meagre. 

In respect to narcotic drugs, the statement that those which grow 
wild contain the greater proportion of alkaloids is generally accepted 



1 " In L,ands Where Drugs Grow." American Journal of Pharmacy, 
April, 1900. 



12 



Drug Culture, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1901. 



as true, yet I have seen specimens of cultivated belladonna root 
which would assay over I per cent, alkaloids. We are also con- 
fronted by the fact that under industrial stimulus cultivation has 
had the effect of increasing the alkaloidal yield in cinchona, poppy, 
coca, the caffeine-bearing plants, tobacco, etc. 

On one hand the possibility of a scarcity of certain drugs and the 
probability of the betterment of our vegetable materia medica would 
seem to be questions of great importance to pharmacy, and would 
seem to answer the first and most natural query : Will it pay ? 

The following notes here are given with a view to stimulate 
further study rather than as having any practical value. 

It is quite apparent that the conditions which influence the growth 
of plants and agricultural products in general will apply more or 
less to the cultivation of drug plants. 

The controlling influences of climate (heat, light and moisture) 
upon plant growth are well known. To a certain extent climatic 
conditions are more than soil. The influence of climate upon the 
medicinal principles of plants is undeniable, but in this respect we 
have no accurate data upon which to form conclusions. 

Numerous alkaloidal drugs at the present time are grown in 
Great Britain and Western Europe. Here we have cool summers 
(in England considerable humidity) and a gradual approach of cold 
weather. Maturity is late and indefinite. Under these conditions 
we find that certain plants are rich in alkaloids. 

These same plants, if transplanted to America, would probably 
be killed by the fall frosts before maturity, and after a few genera- 
tions they would acquire the quick-ripening habits which are char- 
acteristic of our vegetation. Would the alkaloidal yield follow 
this change of growth? 1 

Temperature is seemingly not the all-important factor influencing 
the alkaloidal yield. Some Northern-grown tobaccos are weak in 
nicotine and others are very rich. Kentucky tobacco is very high 
in alkaloid. Certain tropical-grown tobaccos are the weakest of 
all. Poppies have been grown in France yielding many times the 
amount of morphia of those grown in India. Indications point to 
humidity and rainfall as more potent than heat. 



1 Atropa belladonna is quite at home in England, but I have seen thrifty speci- 
mens in the tropical gardens of the West Indies as well as in Northern New York. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
January, 1901. J 



Drug Culture. 



13 



In my observations upon the European narcotic drugs, the most 
thrifty specimens, rich in alkaloids, were found among the dense 
foliage of forests where the rays of the sun never reach the soil, 
and, as naturally would be expected, these same plants, when culti- 
vated in narrow valleys with a northern or eastern aspect, were the 
most prolific in growth. 

In considering the influence of climate upon drug culture we 
must also bear in mind that there are vertical as well as horizontal 
zones of vegetation, and we must therefore expect that the growth 
of drug plants will follow the well-known range of trees, shrubs, 
vines, grasses, etc., in this respect. 1 

As to the soil best adapted to the growth of medicinal plants we 
know almost nothing. It will be necessary to study each plant by 
itself in this respect. Taking the European-grown drugs as types, 
it has seemed to me that those regions where the soil was a mix- 
ture of humus and calcareous earths were the most productive; 
soils rich in sand or clay produced the least. 

In England aconite and henbane are cultivated in Kent on light 
sandy soils. They grow wild on marshy land. The soil in Lincoln- 
shire, where drugs are cultivated, contains a good percentage of fine 
sand and vegetable matter and is not very high in lime. 

In another section, where the same drugs are grown, the soil is a 
brown loam lying over a chalk formation, and contains 15 per 
cent, of lime. The vegetable matter from this soil is not very 
high. From the Continent a sample of soil on which lavender and 
several narcotic herbs are grown was reported to contain 35 per 
cent, vegetable matter, 51 per cent, of sand (quite fine), 10 per cent, 
of lime and 2 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 

So far as I could learn the potash content in these soils was not 
high. Observing the conditions under which many medicinal 
plants thrive, we might conclude that rich soil was not a necessity. 

In one of my experiments I selected a very poor red shale soil 
where grass would not grow, even under fertilization with compost, 
and on this soil the growth of rhubarb, digitalis, conium, cotton, 
aconite, etc., was a pronounced success. 2 

1 The writer is preparing a list of the common drug plants suited to the tem- 
perate zone of the United States with such information as can be gathered as to 
the zone of vertical cultivation, and will be pleased to receive aid and sug- 
gestions. 

2 An analysis of this red shale soil gave the following results : 



14 



Drug Culture. 



( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1901. 



In botanical gardens . the drug plants in the richest beds generally 
look the least thrifty. It has been stated by experienced drug cul- 
tivators that the alkaloidal content of plants is lessened by high 
fertilization. This statement accords with such actual practices as 
have come under my notice. Against this statement we have re- 
ports of experiments made in the sewage gardens of Berlin and else- 
where which tend to show that fertilization with sewage gives an 
increase in the alkaloidal yield. 

In plants which yield aromatic principles high fertilization is con- 
ceded to be beneficial. 

I am inclined to the opinion that fresh manure is prejudicial, and 
that compost, especially that from rotted leaves, straw, etc., is the 
best. We seem to have no information respecting the use of arti- 
ficial fertilizers upon drug plants. 

It is probably unnecessary to urge the selection of good seeds. It 
will be found advisable to obtain seeds from plants grown in the 
same geographical region, or especially in the region representing 
as nearly as possible the same climatic conditions as our own. My 
experience has shown that from some cause but a small propor- 
tion of the seeds of medicinal plants germinate. (In some of my 
experiments only 25 per cent, of selected seeds were fertile.) 

Every farmer sows from five to twenty times more seed than he 
needs, and of the seeds which germinate, it is estimated that not 
more than 10 per cent, give mature plants. 

For the present the source of seed supply for medicinal plants 
not indigenous to our country must be such as can be obtained 
from wholesale druggists. These will often prove unreliable. The 
processes of drying, age and other influences to which they have 
been subjected are not conducive to growth. 

It is to be hoped that our seedsmen and botanical gardens will in 



Silicic acid and quartz 73 *oo 

Peroxide of iron 10*00 

Alumina 3*20 

Lime ....... V : 4-93 

Magnesia . 0*90 

Potash 073 

Soda 0*97 

Sulphuric acid trace 

Carbonic acid 

Water i*oo 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
January, 1901. J 



Drug Culture. 



*5 



time become reliable sources of supply. For indigenous plants the 
wild plants themselves will furnish the seed required. 

The effects of cultivation upon medicinal plants, while of deep 
significance, are beyond the scope of this paper. The words of Dar- 
win should be kept in mind : " Changes of any kind in the condi- 
tions of life, even extremely slight changes, often suffice to cause 
variability." Changes of food, climate, changes of any of the con- 
ditions of environment, have a modifying effect upon colors, propor- 
tions, details of structure, etc. 

Under cultivation, the growth of tubers, roots, stalks, leaves, etc., 
changes. Thus it may be expected that the plant functions from 
which arise the odorous, alkaloidal or other active principles will 
also vary between wild and cultivated plants. As to the nature and 
extent of the effects of cultivation upon the production of these me- 
dicinal principles, we have no tangible knowledge. My impression 
is that in our first attempts we shall do too much cultivation. 

The most virile drug plants that we know are for the most part 
wild. They live a savage life. Their vital force is the accumula- 
tion of ages of struggle in the winds and storms of the wilderness ; 
rooted in the black mold rich in the decay of countless preceding 
generations, a change from barbarism to civilization, from the for- 
est to the conservatory, must cause a marked reaction. 

Weeds are always stronger than the cultivated plant. Thus it 
seems to me that when we bring wild medicinal plants from another 
country to our own, we had best plant them out in the fields under 
as nearly as possible the same surroundings as were experienced in 
their habitat. In other words, let them grow as weeds. It may 
be that in this way we can utilize some of our fallow lands and waste 
ground. 

Every pharmacist can do his part to help along the cause of drug 
culture. The Michigan University, with a few acres, and Frederick 
T. Gordon, with a garden bed, have given us helpful examples. 

Every college of pharmacy should have a college farm. Through 
the aid of this farm and the college laboratory the question of soil, 
climate and fertilization, as well as other influences upon the plant 
constituents, can be studied. 

In England many country chemists, and on the Continent the 
rural Apotheker, give considerable attention to, and derive a profit- 
able income from, the cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants. 



1.6 



Syrup of Iodide of Iron. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1901. 



Some of these have achieved quite an enviable reputation for 
preparations made from plants of their own culture. 

Could not American pharmacists in the rural districts take up 
drug culture, and might it not be a notable feature to be able to 
advertise : " Rhubard, ipecac and jalap fresh from our own drug 
farm?" 

Pharmacists can invoke the assistance of agricultural experiment 
stations. Many of these institutions can and will carry out experi- 
ments and give reports which from a horticultural standpoint will 
be of value. 

Cultivation of good-sized plots in a variety of locations with 
records of soil, climate and results, while it may not prove im- 
mediately remunerative, will furnish a vast amount of information 
and interest. Wholesale druggists can materially assist by supply- 
ing seeds which are authentic and reliable. 

As an easy and instructive experiment for the beginner, I suggest 
the cultivation of certain alkaloidai plants which are indigenous 
(stramonium, hydrastis, etc.), with a view of obtaining records of 
assay of wild and cultivated drugs grown in the same locality. 

In a succeeding communication I shall bring together notes of 
methods followed in the cultivation of certain medicinal plants 
which have come under my observation. 



THE DISCOLORATION OF SYRUP OF IODIDE OF IRON. 
By F. W. Haussmann. 

The causes of the color change in syrup of ferrous iodide have 
frequently been investigated, and the published statements resulting 
from these researches cannot be regarded as conclusive. 

Chemical decomposition of the ferrous iodide, indicated by the 
liberation of iodine, or the formation of ferric compounds, furnish the 
basis upon which the majority of investigators agree. A considera- 
tion of the process of preparation, involving the several steps, 
especially the common mistake of the tyro to filter the iron solu- 
tion while yet brown, will readily explain the universal acceptance 
of such statements. 

It has, however, been observed by many pharmacists that the 
syrup, despite the efforts at preservation by following a number of 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1901. J 



Syrup of Iodide of Iron. 



contradictory suggestions, such as exposure to direct sunlight on 
one hand and entire exclusion of light on the other, gradually 
turns darker. 

The fact that application of the starch test gave negative evi- 
dence of the presence of free iodine indicated the necessity of 
another explanation. 

This was believed to be found by advancing the theory that a 
ferric compound is formed, and the statement that ferrous iodide 
changed to ferric iodide or oxyiodide was accepted as conclusive. 

This change probably takes place if an aqueous solution of 
ferrous iodide is evaporated with the view of obtaining the salt, 
but, based upon results obtained from the examination of a number 
of specimens of various age and shade of color, the writer ques- 
tions if this takes place in the syrup. 

In an examination of some fifteen discolored samples not one 
reacted for the presence of ferric compounds. 

This result practically excludes this theory, and the cause of dis- 
coloration must be sought elsewhere. 

Recently the action of free acids upon syrups has received atten- 
tion, and the changes produced thereby have been described. Con- 
siderable work still remains to be done in this direction, and the 
action of metallic salts, in particular those of an acid reaction, upon 
saccharine solutions demands exhaustive investigation* 

Regarding the reaction of ferrous iodide, the statements of the 
Pharmacopoeia are contradictory, the saccharated iodide being 
stated to have a slightly acid and the syrup a neutral reaction. 
Founded on the results of an investigation carried on for some time, 
the writer inclines to the belief that the action of the iron salt, with- 
out itself undergoing any chemical change, causes discoloration of 
the syrup. 

The amount of heat employed in preparing the syrup also has an 
important influence. 

The following reasons may serve to substantiate these assertions : 

Ferrous iodide is not the only iron salt which, with the influence 
of heat, causes darkening in syrup. 

A syrup of ferrous sulphate, containing 10 per cent, of the salt, 
prepared by dissolving sugar in an aqueous solution and heating to 
boiling, on standing from 4 to 6 months with exposure to light, 
turned from a light green to a brown color. 

Examination at the expiration of six months, with the view of 



IS 



Syrup of Iodide of Iron. 



J Am. Jour. Phariru 
t January, 1901. 



determining the possible formation of a ferric compound, gave a 
negative result. 

Identical results were obtained with a syrup containing 10 per 
cent, of ferrous chloride. 

The influence o( temperature is demonstrated by the fact that 
syrups prepared by dissolving the sugar in the iron solution at a 
temperature below the boiling point, possess greater stability than 
those heated to boiling. 

The addition of hypophosphorous or other acids exerts no influ- 
ence except to prevent the liberation of iodine. 

Several specimens of the syrup to which hypophosphorous acid 
was added, originally of a bright green color, have gradually turned 
brown. 

The premature addition of an acid may cause the syrup to rapidly 
change in color. 

In an instance, where this possibility was considered, the addition 
of hypophosphorous acid to a boiling bright green syrup was fol- 
lowed by an immediate change to dark brown. 

This points to the necessity of adding the acid only to the per- 
fectly cold syrup. 

This color change may also be noticed if a small quantity of the 
syrup, either with or without an addition of acid, be heated to boil- 
ing and the heat continued. Caramelization will be the consequence. 

Brief mention may be made of the restoration of discolored 
syrups of iodide of iron. 

Specimens containing free iodine may* be restored by the well- 
known practice of digestion with iron filings. 

Care in the regulation of heat must be observed, and addition of 
a sufficient amount of water to restore the original weight of the 
syrup should not be neglected. 

A syrup, in which the brown color is due to caramelization, is 
difficult of restoration. 

Animal charcoal will remove some of the brown color, but the 
writer has never been able to completely restore the original bright 
green color by this method. • § 

It may incidentally be mentioned, that if further investigations 
should prove this action of iron salts upon saccharine solutions to be 
true, the color change in elixirs containing scaled iron salts, which 
is the source of much annoyance to the pharmacist, is thereby ex- 
plained. 



A January P i 901 m } Pharmacists Apparatus Stand. 19. 

PHARMACISTS' APPARATUS STAND. 

By J. Percy Remington, B.S. 

A stand adapted for supporting all kinds of apparatus used in 
the daily work of the store and laboratory has been a desideratum 
for many years. 

The busy pharmacist has to perform every day many operations 
that require the use of apparatus of various size and shape. Per- 
colation, filtration, evaporation, distillation and testing all require 
the use of such vessels, and the problem of devising a stand for 
holding these firmly, and in the proper position, is one of far- 
reaching importance. 

How often has the pharmacist, harassed by a multitude of exact- 
ing duties and interruptions, started an operation, and after care- 
fully selecting the materials and setting up the apparatus, had the 
flimsy stand upon which he was depending break down and upset 
the vessel, thus losing time, patience, apparatus, results and possibly 
a suit of clothes. Or it may be that after several operations have 
been started and are under way an emergency arises and a sudden 
call forces the operator to start another filtration ; he finds that his 
single retort stand is crowded to its full capacity, and he looks 
despairingly at the limited counter space at his disposal, which he 
dare not encroach upon. 

The ordinary ring stand has been, so far, the only means of sup- 
plying support for the various pieces of apparatus in constant use 
by the pharmacist. For a long time it has been evident that a new 
device, which would satisfy all the various needs, is an actual neces- 
sity. These ring stands are constructed of a rod screwed into an 
iron base, the ring clamps being secured to the upright rod by 
thumbscrews. They are not made strong enough to stand the 
weight which is often put upon them, the number of positions in 
which the rings can be placed is very limited, and they do not vary 
sufficiently in size to be of equal value for the needs of all stores. 

The points which must be taken into consideration in devising; 
something which will fulfil all the requirements are : That the 
apparatus shall be sufficiently strong to support a heavy weight 
likely to be put upon it; that it may be so adjustable that the rings 
may be put in any position necessary ; that it may be compact 
enough to occupy very little space (and this to be the least valu- 



^^uary, P i9oi m '} Pharmacists Apparatus Stand. 21 

able) ; that it may be so constructed that it may be made of any 
dimensions to fit the space available ; and that it may be enlarged 
or diminished in size, to suit the needs of the business. 

The stand which is here described is the result of an effort to 
supply all these requirements. It is constructed of two upright 
tubes of heavy iron, secured firmly at the bottom by counter plates. 
Two parallel, horizontal, double tubes are arranged so as to slide 
up and down these upright tubes, and made secure by means of 
thumbscrews at each end. This completes the framework of the 
stand. The ring clamps, instead of being all in one piece, as in the 
ordinary stands, are made in two parts, the clamp composing one 
part, and the rings, with 1 2-inch shanks, the other part. The 
shanks of the rings are passed through two openings in the clamps, 
and are made secure by thumbscrews. The clamps are of two 
kinds, those which slide horizontally on the double tubes, and those 
which slide vertically on the upright tubes. The shafts of the 
rings are all of the same size, so that they can be used with either 
form of clamp, the rings varying in diameter from 3 inches to 
7 inches. 

All the thumbscrews are of brass, so as to prevent the possi- 
bility of rusting, and the castings are of malleable iron, so that the 
chance of breakage is very slight. The framework, being all 
composed of heavy iron tubing, is sufficiently strong and firm to 
uphold any weight which would be likely to be put upon it, and 
every part is constructed with a view to withstand hard usage. 

It will be readily seen that the adjustability of this apparatus 
stand is complete. It is possible to get any desired position of the 
rings in the three dimensions of space, upward or downward, right 
or left, backward or forward. 

The space which it occupies when not in use and the rings re- 
moved is very small. The frame stands on the counter 4 inches 
from the wall, thus taking up the room which is least valuable, and 
leaving all the front part of the counter available for other pur- 
poses. As the amount of space varies considerably in different 
stores, the advantage which this stand possesses in being made of 
iron tubing which can be cut in any length to suit the space avail- 
able, and the fact that it can be screwed to the counter or to the 
wall, or suspended from a shelf or the ceiling, will commend it to 
the practical and busy pharmacist. 



22 Assay of Belladonna Root, { A January St 1 ^ 

THE ASSAY OF BELLADONNA ROOT AND ITS SOLID 

EXTRACT. 

By Arthur Wayne Clark, B.S. 

Having occasion constantly to handle samples of large quantities 
of the root of Atropa Belladonna used in preparing solid extract for 
use in belladonna plasters, the writer has had some experience with 
about all the standard methods of assay, and while little that is new 
is herein described, yet the method of procedure is given in detail, 
believing this attention to minutia to be a necessity to success and 
lack of such information the chief difficulty in working out a 
rational method for one's own constant use. 

In favor of the method here described, it can be said that it is 
quite accurate, and yet can be carried out with a relatively short 
amount of time actually given to the work. 

The method of extraction used is hot extraction with a reflux 
condenser, and while this and the other parts of the process require 
about twelve consecutive hours for the completion of one assay, still 
the total time given to the work need not exceed three or four hours, 
and during the shaking-out process the work can be left for any 
length of time necessary; in fact the longer the better. Besides 
this, duplicate assays can readily be managed at the same time, 
thus effecting a considerable saving of labor. 

The objection is sometimes made to hot extraction of belladonna 
root, that there is a possibility of loss of alkaloid from the heat 
applied, but the writer could never see the force of this argument, 
for practically all the methods ever proposed finish by evaporating 
down the alkaloidal solution in chloroform or ether, thus applying 
the very heating process objected to above. 

The fact that the mixed menstruum boils at 65 C. would seem 
also to make it impossible that there should be any loss from this 
source. 

The advantages of hot reflux extraction are that it can be carried 
out much more quickly than a cold percolation, is more economical 
of menstruum, an important factor where a large number of assays 
is constantly being performed for commercial purposes, and it re- 
quires no attention whatever after the heat is once regulated, pro- 
vided, of course, there is sufficient water-bath capacity to run for 
the required time. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1901. J 



Assay of Belladonna Root. 



23 



More important than all these considerations is the fact that, on 
account of the concentrated character of the menstruum used, there 
is very little inert resinous matter carried through, and consequently 
the shaking-out part of the assay is free from this serious complica- 
tion, always present in assaying an ordinary extract. Presumably, 
because of this feature, emulsification of the alkaline solution is 
quite infrequent instead of being the rule, as in assaying an extract. 

METHOD OF PROCEDURE. 

Weigh out in a tared beaker about 20 grammes of the root 
ground moderately fine. It is not necessary to weigh closer than 
the third decimal place in grammes, as an error of -00 1 gramme 
here is not appreciable in the percentage result. Pour the weighed 
contents of the beaker carefully into a clean, smooth porcelain dish, 
of 1 8 or 20 centimetres diameter, tapping the beaker to shake out 
as much of the root as possible. 

The menstruum used is that advised by Dunstan and Ranson, and 
is manipulated as follows : Mix up 6o c.c. or 70 c.c. of equal parts 
by volume of absolute alcohol and chloroform, and take about one- 
quarter of the mixture to moisten the root in the porcelain dish. 
Pour this portion of the alcohol-chloroform mixture first, into the 
tared beaker, whirling it around to collect the fine particles of root 
which adhered to the glass, then pour it into the dish and mix up 
well with a clean spatula until the root is evenly moistened. 

Now take the inside glass cup of the reflux extractor, which 
should be about I inch in diameter and 3 inches deep, put in the 
bottom an absorbent cotton plug moistened with the alcohol-chloro- 
form mixture and, holding the cup over the dish so as to catch in 
the latter any that falls, carefully transfer with a spatula a little root 
at a time into the cup, packing it in gently with a large, smoothly- 
rounded glass rod, finally shaking off any particles of root adhering 
to the rod and spatula. 

Prepare a small wad of absorbent cotton for the top of the 
packed root, moisten it with some of the mixture and use one side 
of it as a mop to take up the last particles of the moistened root 
from the porcelain dish, spatula and rod. 

Now place this cotton on top of the root packed in the glass cup, 
putting the side downwards that was used as a mop. 

On top of the whole place sufficient clean lead shot to cover it 
and to hold it down. 



24 



Assay of Belladonna Root. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1901. 



Now set up the reflux condenser, add the rest of the 60 c.c. or 70 
c.c. alcohol-chloroform and heat on a water- bath, extracting for seven 
hours. Presuming the rate of percolation to be 60 or 70 drops per 
minute, there will pass through the 20 grammes root about 1,500 c.c. 
of the hot menstruum or about seventy-five times its weight, a much 
larger proportion than is ever used in a slow cold extraction. 

The above-described method of moistening and packing (the granu- 
lated root) is sufficiently accurate if reasonable care is exercised in 
carrying it out. 

The percolate containing the alkaloid is now transferred to a sep- 
aratory funnel and the alkaloid dissolved out by shaking with 20 c.c. 
dilute H 2 S0 4 (j£ per cent.). 

Sometimes the fluids seem to mix and there is no separation or 
line of demarcation. If this is the case, add 10 c.c. or 15 c.c. water, 
shake again and the chloroform layer will be precipitated on stand- 
ing about a minute, leaving eventually a clean-cut line between the 
liquids. 

Since the chloroform solution separates as a bottom stratum, it 
must be drawn off first into a clean beaker, after which the acid solu- 
tion is run out, well drained and put aside and the chloroform solu- 
tion returned to the separator. 

The chloroform solution is then shaken again with 15 c.c. dilute 
acid, separated in the same way and shaken again with 10 c.c. of the 
dilute acid. Quite frequently it will be found that the third shaking 
out will cause emulsification of the two liquids. If this happens it 
can be instantly remedied by adding 10 c.c. or 15 c.c. more of the 
original mixture of alcohol and chloroform in equal volumes and 
shaking up again after adding it. 

There is no use in carefully washing out the stem of the funnel, 
etc., between each of these operations, as the minute quantity of 
solution adhering to it is simply carried over and is again separated 
in a much diluted condition next time. 

There is usually a small quantity of flocculent precipitate and dirt 
collected at the line of separation in these acid extractions, and 
wherever such occurs to any appreciable extent, the dirt should be 
run out with the chloroform stratum, bringing the clean edge of the 
acid layer down to the bottom of the opening in the stop-cock. 
Sometimes a minute amount of the acid solution has to be allowed 
to go through with the dirt, but this again will be diluted and 



A j^uTy, P i9oi rm -} Assay of Belladonna Root. 25 

reseparated next time, so that the loss will not be appreciated if 
the operation is carried out with care. 

If in the third separation there is so much dirt present that there 
is danger of a very incomplete separation, then it is well to make a 
fourth extraction, using 10 c.c. acid again, but three extractions are 
usually amply sufficient. 

This procedure leaves the acid solutions clear of insoluble matter,, 
and thereby the alkaline extraction next carried out will be uncom- 
plicated by its presence. 

The three mixed acid solutions are now put into a clean separator, 
20 c.c. 10 per cent, ammonia and 20 c.c. chloroform added, the 
whole violently shaken for several minutes and then allowed to 
stand. 

The chloroform layer should fall down in five or ten minutes', 
leaving a clean-cut line between the two strata. The chloroform 
solution is then drawn off and set aside and the extraction repeated 
with 15 c.c. and again with 10 ex. chloroform. Twirling and rock- 
ing the separator will greatly assist the rapid separation of the two 
liquids and sometimes the separation takes place almost instantly. 

Sometimes an emulsion is formed and great difficulty is experi- 
enced in causing a separation, in which case an easy remedy is at 
hand in the very valuable suggestion of Moerk (Am. Jour. Phar., 
March, 1899), to put a few small flakes of stearic acid in the sepa- 
rator and shake up violently again. It is remarkable to witness the 
immediate separation of the two fluids, and as Moerk has proved 
that the stearic acid does not influence the result, this method has 
been used many times with great satisfaction, more especially, how- 
ever, in extract assays, as it is seldom needed in direct root assays 
made as above. 

In these alkaline extractions any sediment that collects at the 
line of separation should not be drawn off, but must be left in the 
upper aqueous stratum, and, after the third extraction, washed by 
adding a small amount of chloroform and running it out without 
shaking, but leaving the dirt behind, the chloroform being added to 
the rest. Care must be taken to draw off only the clear solution. 
This also rinses out the stem and should not be omitted. 

The chloroform solutions are now all filtered through absorbent 
cotton into an Ehrlenmeyer flask of about 300 c.c. capacity and 
evaporated on a water-bath to a brown varnish-like residue, finally 



26 Assay of Belladonna Root. { A ™klll^ml™ 

blowing air into the flask to remove all chloroform and to carry out 
any free ammonia which may be present. Now add about io c.c. 
chloroform, shake up and evaporate down again as before, to assist 
in driving off any ammonia. This residue is then titrated as directed 
later on. Ether should not be substituted here for chloroform, as 
the writer has found ether to be almost invariably acid, which being 
the case, it will ruin the result. 

The water-bath should be heated by steam, as any open flame 
nearby will decompose the chloroform vapors to hydrochloric acid, 
filling the room with its fumes and possibly neutralizing some of 
the alkaloid in the flask. The operation can, however, be carried 
out over a bath heated by a flame, if there is a good ventilation to 
remove the vapors, and the contents of the flask are kept boiling 
hard. 

In the shaking-out process the writer experienced considerable 
trouble with the spitting of the solutions from the mouth of the 
separator when the stopper was removed after shaking. The U.S.P. 
advises that the best way to control this in these separators is to 
shake the contents slightly before putting in the stopper, but this 
scheme was not at all successful in preventing the trouble, due 
probably to the warmth of the hand in shaking the very volatile 
contents of the separator. An easy solution of the difficulty, how- 
ever, was found in putting the stopper in tightly, shaking up as 
usual and allowing to separate without relieving the pressure, and 
then, when ready to draw off, opening the outlet cock slightly and 
allowing the pressure to exert itself in gently blowing out the lower 
stratum through its natural outlet. After a few cubic centimetres 
have been expelled the pressure will have expended itself, the cock 
can be closed and the stopper removed without harm, after which 
the solution can be run off as usual. 

As to the method of titrating the alkaloidal residue from the 
three mixed chloroform solutions, the writer finds that the best way 
is to dissolve the brown residue in about 5 c.c. neutral alcohol in 
the cold, then add about 100 c.c. distilled water and three drops of 
1 per cent, alcoholic haematoxylin solution. This is then titrated 

at once with twentieth normal hydrochloric acid HQ J to a 

pure yellow color, the neutral point being indicated by the absence 
of any trace of red. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1901. J 



Assay of Belladonna Root. 



2 7 



With a little practice on alkaline solutions this point can usually 
be read to a drop, but it is well to note the neutral point and then 

N 

run over it and titrate back with — alkali to the first indication of 

20 

any tint, thus confirming the former reading. The number of cubic 

N 

centimetres acid used multiplied by '0145, the — . factor for atropine, 

20 

gives the weight of alkaloid present in the 20 grammes root. 

It seems to have been the practice among some chemists to dis- 
solve the alkaloidal residue in a measured excess of the standard 
acid and titrate back with alkali, but solution in alcohol is very 
much easier and quicker and also gives more accurate results, for 
the writer has found that the acid dissolves the thick gummy resi- 
due very slowly and leaves a quantity of flocculent insoluble matter 
floating in the solution, rendering a close color-observation practi- 
cally impossible. By dissolving in alcohol this does not take place 
until an excess of the acid has been added and by that time the 
operation is finished. 

The accuracy of this method compared to the direct acid solution 
was tested by taking a chloroform solution from an assay and divid- 
ing it in half, each half being evaporated down in a separate flask, 
N 

one dissolved in HC1 and the other in alcohol. The results were 

20 

exactly alike, except that the correct neutral point was much more 
easily seen in the alcohol solution. The presence of the small 
amount of alcohol, therefore, has no influence on the result and its 
use is very beneficial both in regard to time and accuracy. 

For some reason which has not been ascertained, the alkaloidal 
solution colored with hematoxylin will sometimes turn a greenish 
or purplish color as the acid is added to it, but this apparently does 
not influence the result, as the point of disappearance of the color is 
as clearly defined as though the color were a clean red, the final 
yellow being the same as usual. 

ASSAY OF THE SOLID EXTRACT. 

The best method of procedure in assaying the solid extract has 
proved to be as follows : 

Weigh out in a tared beaker 4 or 5 grammes extract and with a 
glass rod rub it up smooth with 10 c.c. or 15 c.c.-J^ per cent. H 2 S0 4 , 



28 



Assay of Belladonna Root. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( January, 1901. 



pouring the mixture into a separator. Rinse out the beaker several 
times in the same way with smaller quantities of the dilute acid, 
transferring each portion to the separator. Now wash the acid 
mixture in the separator by shaking with 20 c.c. and again with 1 5 c.c. 
chloroform, running the chloroform out as waste. Take care to draw 
off only the clear solution. Next rinse this waste chloroform by 
shaking very gently in another separator with 10 c.c. dilute sul- 
phuric acid, throwing away the chloroform and returning the acid 
to the rest of the acid washings in the first separator. 

Neutralize the acid solution in the separator by adding 20 c.c. IO 
per cent, ammonia and extract the alkaloid by shaking with 20 c.c, 
15 c.c. and 10 c.c. chloroform exactly as in the root assay. There 
will be a very considerable quantity of brown flocculent material 
collected at the line of separation, floating in the chloroform and 
extending down through it so that sometimes only very little clear 
chloroform solution can be drawn off at first. As nothing must be 
removed but this clear solution, it will often require as much as an 
hour to complete each separation, although it can be done more 
quickly with some samples. The use of stearic acid is usually neces- 
sary in these separations, for in many cases emulsification is so com- 
plete that the liquids would never separate without its aid. 

When separation begins the only way to work is to draw off the 
first clear part, bringing the floating material down to the top of the 
hole in the stop-cock; then by rocking, twirling and tapping, fol- 
lowed by several minutes' standing, the floating material will draw 
up or float to the top of the chloroform, packing together or solidi- 
fying so to speak, and leaving some more of the clear chloroform to 
be drawn off as before. 

The same procedure is repeated generally five or six times with 
each separation until the bulk of the flocculent sediment is reduced 
in size as much as possible, after which the next portion of chloro- 
form is added to the separator, shaken up and separated little by 
little in the same way. 

After the third separation is done add about 10 c.c. chloroform 
and draw it off without shaking, adding it to the rest as before, this 
being done to dilute the small amount of alkaloid solution remain- 
ing in the separator, so that the loss will be inappreciable. 

Shaking out the extract in this way consumes considerably more 
time than is the case with the assay of the root direct, due to the 



Al janw>fi9oi m '} Note 011 Benzoinated Lard. 29 

presence of resinous matter and other inert materials. It can, how- 
ever, be accomplished with extreme accuracy if the operator will 
work patiently with the alkaline extractions as directed. 

These chloroform solutions of the alkaloid are now mixed, evapor- 
ated down and titrated exactly as described above in the assay of 
the root. 

J. Ellwood Lee Company Laboratory. 



NOTE ON BENZOINATED LARD. 
By Me^vin W. Bamford. 

Having recently had considerable trouble with benzoinated lard 
made from commercial lard because of the impurities in it, the 
writer visited a pork-packing establishment in order to obtain some 
information on the subject, and while there secured a quantity of 
what is known to the trade as " Pure Leaf Lard," which really is 
the leaf fat as it is obtained from the hog. 

From this fat there was made a quantity of lard by the process 
recommended by Professor Redwood, and adopted by the British 
Pharmacopoeia. After removing as much of the membrane and 
tissue as possible, the fat is simply heated at a temperature not 
exceeding 150 F., and as the lard separates from the membrane, it 
is strained through flannel into another vessel. It will be noticed 
that there is no water used in the process, the advantage being 
that the lard thus made contains absolutely no water. 

This lard was then benzoinated by the United States Pharmaco- 
pceial process, and the resultant product was found to be perfectly 
sweet and smooth, and to have an agreeable odor of vanilla. 

The actual cost of the preparation, making an allowance of 10 
per cent, for waste and 20 per cent, for labor, is about 12*4 cents a 
pound. There are several makes of benzoinated lard on the market 
which are fully as good as this product; but the cost of these is 
from 20 to 25 cents a pound, so that the saving should be sufficient 
inducement to the pharmacist to make it himself. In addition to 
this* he will have the satisfaction of knowing that he has an abso- 
lutely pure preparation. 



30 Note on Warburg s Tincture. { A jiiSSfyJwof. 111 " 

NOTE ON WARBURG'S TINCTURE. 1 

By Ferdinand A. Sieker. 

The first and second editions of the National Formulary state 
that "each fluid ounce contains 10 grains of quinine sulfate." 

The first edition of the National Formulary directs 1,280 grains 
of quinine sulfate in 8 pints of tincture, which is equivalent to 
10 grains of quinine sulfate in each fluid ounce. 

The second edition of this work directs 100 grammes (1,543-2 
grains) of quinine sulfate in 5,000 c.c. (169-07 fluid ounces), which is 
equivalent to 9-131 grains of quinine sulfate in I fluid ounce, and 
not 10 grains as is intended. 

The original formula for Warburg's tincture directed 10 ounces 
(Troy) of " quinia" for the amount of tincture resulting from 500 
fluid ounces of proof spirit. If the yield is regarded as 480 fluid 
ounces, then 1 fluid ounce contains 10 grains of "quinia." There- 
fore, 10 grains in I fluid ounce may be regarded as correct. 

The amount of quinine sulfate in my formula (Amer. Jour. 
Pharm., Vol. 72, p. 573) is based on the quantity directed by the 
second edition of the National Formulary, which is not quite cor- 
rect. My formula should therefore be corrected as follows : 

Use 219 grammes of quinine sulfate instead of 200 grammes, 
and 24 grammes of sulfuric acid instead of 22 grammes. 

The formula for the modified tincture (Amer. Jour. Pharm., Vol. 
72, p. 575) should therefore read: Use 73 grammes of each, cin- 
chonine sulfate, cinchonidine sulfate and chinoidine pure, instead of 
66-66 grammes. 

The quantities of fibrous vegetable drugs, etc., given in my for- 
mula are also somewhat larger than directed by the National For- 
mulary. The quantities are computed according to the original 
formula published in England, where in compounding the Troy 
ounce is used for solids and the fluid ounce for liquids. 

Laboratory of Lehn & Fink, New York. 



1 Refer to Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1900, Vol. 72, pp. 571 to 575. 



Am. 




' m -} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 



FORMULA FOR ELIXIR OF HEROIN AND TERPIN 

HYDRATE. 1 
By T. B. McCuntock. 



Powder the terpin hydrate and dissolve it in the glycerin by the 
careful application of heat. Dissolve the heroin in 2 fluid ounces 
of the alcohol, adding to the solution the spirit of bitter almond and 
the compound spirit of orange. When the solution of terpin hy- 
drate has cooled, mix the two solutions and then add the syrup of 
wild cherry and sufficient alcohol to make I pint of the finished 
elixir. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 



This is a silver white alloy composed of aluminum and magne- 
sium. It is not affected by air and water, and even withstands the 
oxygen acids to a great extent, but is attacked by alkalies. The 
specific gravity ranges from 2 to 2-2 at 15 C. It can be rolled into 
sheets and drawn into wire. The reflective power is very high, 
and it does not absorb the ultra-violet. These properties, together 
with its low density and high rigidity, make it a very superior ma- 
terial for specula. — Brit. Jour. Phot., 1900, 47, 2090. 



The recently opened up mining district near Iterbira, Brazil, is 
producing a large quantity of very pure black oxide of manganese. 
This ore is apparently the remains of a manganiferous limestone 
from which the limestone has been removed. It is a hard metallic- 
looking ore, interstratified with about 20 per cent, of the hydrated 
manganese, which seems to contain the greater amount of the im- 



Heroin 

Terpin hydrate 

Spirit of bitter almond (5 per cent.) 
Compound spirit of orange .... 

Syrup of wild cherry 

Glycerin . : 

Alcohol, q. s 



3 dr., 12 gr. 

10 m. 
15 m. 

. 2 fl. oz. 

11 fl. oz. 
1 O. 



MAGNALIUM. 



L. F. Kebler. 



MANGANESE DIOXIDE IN BRAZIL. 



J The above formula was received from the author and was recommended as 
having proven quite satisfactory in the hands of some of the physicians of his 
acquaintance. — Ed. 



32 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { A j^aryfigoi. 111 ' 

purities. The dried (ioo° C.) material from a cargo will assay from 
50 to 55 per cent, of metallic manganese. The moisture varies from 
10 to 20 per cent. The quality seems to be the same deeper down 
in the mine. It is estimated that the amount of ore in sight on one 
property is 2,000,000 tons. The ore outcrops on hills; can be 
mined without motive power, and run directly into railway bins, 
without picking, by means of shoots. — H. K. Scott, Iron and Steel 
Inst., spring meeting, 1 900. L. F. K. 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALA AMALGAM. 

The oldest known natural silver amalgam is found at Sala, 
Sweden. Two distinct varieties have been analyzed, correspond- 
ing to the formula Ag 2 Hg 3 and Ag 5 Hg 6 . The gold amalgams of 
Columbia and California correspond to the formula Au 2 Hg 3 . 
— H. Sjogren, from Chem. Ztg. Rep., 1900, 24, 151. L. F. K. 

THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME OF GERMINATED BARLEY. 

Whether germinated barley contains a proteolytic enzyme or not 
is a much mooted question. Eminent investigators have arrived at 
different results. The workers below, being dissatisfied with the 
present state of affairs, determined to remove the darkness if possi- 
ble. A 10 per cent, solution of gelatine was treated with the sub- 
stance under examination. The material was rendered antiseptic 
by means of thymol and the mixture kept in an incubator at 20° 
to 40 C. The gelatine solution was cooled from time to time to 
5° C. and examined for the first appearance of liquefaction at this 
temperature. It was found that an enzyme capable of liquefying 
gelatine is certainly present in malt. The enzyme may be extracted 
by very dilute acetic acid or digestion with water at any tempera- 
ture below 32 C. It is almost, if not quite, destroyed by mashing 
at 70 C. 

The presence of acetic acid favors its growth, but liquefaction 
of gelatine is much more rapid if the extract is slightly alkaline. 
The enzyme appears to be of a trypsin nature. Only traces of the 
enzyme occur in the ungerminated barley, but the increase is marked 
when germination begins and continues until the seedling be- 
comes green. — W. Windisch and B. Schellhorn, Woch. fur Brau., 
1900, 23, 334. L. F. K. 



A "janua?yfi9oi m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 33 

THE PRODUCTION OF CRYSTALS OF MERCURIC AND MERCUROUS IODIDE 

IN THE WET WAY. 

By adding ethyl or methyl iodide (preferably the latter) to an 
aqueous solution of mercuric acetate or mercurous nitrate, then 
shaking and allowing the mixture to stand in the cold, there are 
slowly formed crystals of mercuric or mercurous iodide. The 
former are bright red transparent plates and the latter are bright 
yellow needles.— F. Bodroux, Co nip. rend., 130, 1622. 

L. F. K. 

CERIC SULPHATES. 

Two eerie sulphates exist, the one yellow in color and the other 
red. The former is of simple constitution, the latter of a complica- 
ted structure. By dissolving cerium hydroxide in concentrated 
sulphuric acid and evaporating the solution, then recrystallizing 
from water, the yellow sulphate is always obtained in the first crys- 
tals and the reddish-brown sulphate then generally comes down 
afterwards as large crystals. Careful analysis shows the yellow sul- 
phate to have the formula Ce(S0 4 ) 2 ,4H 2 and that the red salt is 
Ce 2 (S0 4 ) 3 ,2Ce(S0 4 ) 2 ,2H 2 0. 

In the red salt the metal exists in both the trivalent and tetrava- 
lent forms in equal amounts. The yellow compound dissolves to a 
cleat yellow solution in water, but the red salt is at once decomposed 
by water into insoluble basic compounds.— -W. Muthmann and L. 
Stutzel, Ber. d. Chem. GeseL, 33, 1763. L. F. K. 

LITHIUM PEROXIDE. 

On mixing hydrogen peroxide (what strength ?) with a 5 or 6 per 
cent, solution of lithium hydroxide, then adding an equal volume of 
absolute alcohol and allowing the whole to stand, beautiful colorless 
crystals are deposited, having the following formula : Li 2 2 .H 2 2 .- 
3H 2 0. When placed into a vacuum with phosphorus pentoxide, 
these crystals gradually lose water and leave practically nothing 
but anhydrous lithium peroxide, Li 2 2 . — de Forcrand, Comp. rend. y 
130, 1465. L. F. K. 

TO PREVENT THE INTOXICATING EFFECT OF ALCOHOL. 

L. Meyer, Eng. Pat. No. 6453, Apr. 6, 1900. 
This patent covers a preparation consisting of burnt powdered 
coffee bean and olive oil (neither of which is new), to be taken 



34 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { A j^ar r yfi9oi. m ' 

either directly or in the form of capsules, pills (?), lozenges (?), 
etc. L. F. K. 

GLYCERO-SODIUM BORATE. 

This compound of the Russian Pharmacopoeia has been shown to 
be a mixture of the tri- and tetra-glycero-sodium borate and not a 
true chemical compound. A less hygroscopic preparation can be 
produced as follows: Mix 120 grammes glycerin (sp. gr. 1-255) with 
IOO grammes of borax and heat until the glassy mass becomes 
thready. It is then partially cooled and rolled into sticks. This 
compound is tetra-glycero-sodium borate of the formula (C 3 H 5 ) 4 - 
(H 2 B0 3 ) 2 (HNaB0 3 ) 2 (OH) 6 0, is readily soluble in alcohol and water 
and melts at 153 to 154 C— E. Schazki, Chem. Ztg. Rep,, 1900, 
24, 148. L. F. K. 

CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS SUGAR. 

The presence of crystals, acting as nuclei, is conducive to the 
crystallization of amorphous sugar. Alkali salts, which to a cer- 
tain extent prevent the formation of invert sugar, induce crystal, 
lization, while the other organic salts do not exert this influence. 
Light assists crystallization, but invert sugar retards it, and the 
retardation is proportional to the amount of invert sugar present. — 
F. G. Wiechmann, Bull. I' Assoc. des Chim. de Sucr. et de Dist, 1900, 
17, 745. L. F. K. 

THE PREPARATION OF ETHYL AND METHYL ALCOHOLS FROM THE COR- 
RESPONDING HYDROCARBONS. 

A German patent has been taken out for the production of the 
above alcohols by the direct union of the corresponding hydrocar- 
bons and oxygen. These gases are mixed with a quantity of 
oxygen or air insufficient for complete combustion and the mixture 
passed through a tube containing a red-hot catalytic mass. If plat- 
inum is employed as the catalytic agent, oxidation proceeds too far, 
and the result is fatty acids only. The less energetic catalytic 
agents, such as asbestos, pumice stone, the various forms of copper 
or certain mixtures of the above, are the most suitable. — From 
y. Soc. Chem. Ind., 19, 684. L. F. K. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1901. J 



Editorial, 
EDITORIAL. 1 



55 



THE SPECIALIST AND THE PHARMACOPOEIA. 

In the Pharmaceutical Journal for May, 1900, p. 523, Mr. E. M, 
Holmes comments upon and takes exception to some of the state- 
ments in an editorial note on " Vegetable Drugs in the U.S.P.," 
which appeared in the American Journal of Pharmacy, May, 1900, 
p. 236, and which was reprinted in the Pharm. Jour., June 23, 1900, 
p. 669. 

It may be well to state at the outset that the editor lays no claim 
to being considered a specialist, or an authority or critic on botanical 
nomenclature, or the subject of the origin of foreign drugs ; and any 
statements which he may have made must, of necessity, have been 
based upon the authority of some one else. 

In a previous editorial note (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1900, p. 138) 
the writer sanctioned the view of an American botanist 2 (Proc. A, 
Ph. A., 1898, p. 242) that Engler and Prantl's " Pflanzenfamilien " 
should replace Bentham and Hooker's " Genera Plantarum " as our 
authority. It so happens that the statements to which Mr. Holmes 
takes exceptions are for the most part those which have received 
the sanction of the aforesaid authority, viz., Engler and Prantl, and 
which have been prepared by the numerous experts in systematic 
botany who have contributed to this monumental work. I pre- 
sent herewith the language used by these experts in their 
descriptions of certain of the drugs considered by me, as also the 
exact references, and a careful comparison with the editorial note 
referred to will show the origin of the information therein presented. 
The exact references were not given previously, as it was considered 
sufficient to merely mention the names of the experts who had con- 
tributed this information. 



1 The substance of this editorial has already appeared in the Pharm. Jour,, 
July 21, 1900, p. 58, in a signed article. Since that time Mr. Holmes has 
written another article in reply for Pharm. Jour. y 1900, p. 443. 

2 After carefully comparing the merits of Bentham and Hooker's "Genera 
Plantarum " with Engler and Prantl's " Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien," the 
author says : "In view of the considerations above set forth, the writer has no 
hesitation in urging upon the Pharmacopoeia Committee that they sustain 
their progressive record by adopting the authority of the modern work " [viz. : 
the work of Engler and Prantl.— H. K.]. 



36 



Editorial. 



( Am. Jour. Pharrru 
\ January, 1901. 



MYRRH. 

In the consideration of myrrh, H. Engler (in E. and P., III. Theil, 
4. Abth., Bog. 16-18, p. 255) says: 

" C. abyssinica (Berg), Engl., liefert wie durch Deflers und Pro- 
fessor Schweinfurth festgestellt ist, die echte Myrrhe, Myrrha 
oder Gummi Myrrhae. C. Schimperi (Berg), Engl., enthalt reichlich 
Balsam und wiirde gute Myrrhe liefern konnen ; es ist auch nicht 
unwahrscheinlich, dass ein Teil der arabischen Myrrhe von dieser 
Art abstammt." 

COPAIBA. 

P. Taubert, in the consideration of the genus Copaiba in E. P., III. 
Theil, 3. Abth., Bog. 8-10, p. 131^ says: " Die Mehrzahl der ameri- 
kanischen Arten liefern den als Copaiba, Balsam bekannten Harz- 
saft : besonders geschatztist derjenige von C. officinalis y Jacq. ; ebenso 
wertwollen Balsam liefern C. guyanensis (Desf.), O. Ktze., und C. ntul- 
tizuga (Hayne), O. Ktze., C. confer Hflora (Benth.), O. Ktze., C. coriacea 
(Mart.), O. Ktze., C. Langsdorffii (Desf.), O. Ktze., und C.oblongifolia, 
Mart. (O. Ktze.)." 

TAMARIND. 

After describing 7. indica y L., as yielding Pulpa Tamarindi conda, 
P. Taubert says (in /did., p. 140): "Auch aus Westindien und Ecuador 
wird Tamarindenmuss, als amerikanische Tamarinden, bezeichnet, 
ausgefiihrt und in England bevorzugt. Dasselbe stammt von 
7. indica, L., var occidentalism Gartn." 

BALSAM OF TOLU. 

The same author (Ibid., p. 191) says: "Auch 7. peruifera (L. 
fil.), Baill., in der nordbstlichen Halfte Sudamerikas heimisch, liefert 
geringe Mengen eines festen aromatischen, den Tolubalsam ahnlichen 
Harzes." 

SUMBUL. 

The correction made by Mr. Holmes in his comment on this drug 
is apparently warranted, as there seems no question but that 
Indian sumbul is yielded by Ferula sumbul (Kffm.), Hook, fil., the 
roots of which are said to resemble those of F. Narthex, Boiss., 
the Bombay sumbul being the product of Dorema Amntoniacum. 
(See E. P., III. Theil, 8. Abth., Bog. 13-17, p. 232; and Pharma- 
cographia, p. 312.) 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. \ 
January, 1901. J 



Editorial. 



37 



AMMONIAC. 

In the consideration of Ammoniac, O. Drude (in E. and P., III. 
Theil, 8. Abth., Bog. 13-17, p. 233) says: " Seit dem Jahre 1825 
weiss man das seit Dioscorides also Ammoniacum bekannte Gum- 
miharz der Gatt. Dorema entstammt, und zwar haupsachlich der 
einen, mit grosser Verbreitung von Persien bis tief in die Balchasch- 
Alakulwiiste begabten Art, von welcher verschiedene Varietaten 
existieren; diese ist Dorema Ammoniacum, D. Don. Gleichfalls 
liefern Ammoniak gummi D. aucheri, Boiss., und D. aureum, Stcks," 

STORAX. 

F. Niedenzu, in the consideration of the genus Liquidambar (E. 
and P., III. Teil, 2. Abth., a., Bog. 7-9, p. 124), says : "Alle Artenfer 
Liquidambar (und Altnigia) liefern Storax. Am meisten geschatzt 
ist der von L. otientalis stammende, officinelle ' Storax liquidus.' Im 
amerikanischen, dort gleichfalls officinellen Storax wies Miller 
Storacih, zimmtsaurephenylpropylester und storesin nach ; als 
" (Southern) sweet gum " ist das Balsamharz von L. styraciflua ein 
bejiebtes Kaumiltel in Centralamerika und den siidatlantischen 
Unionsstaaten." 

IPECACUANHA. 

In the editorial note upon Ipecacuanha no attempt was made to 
consider the nomenclature of the subject, as this had already been 
done by another writer (see Proc. A. Ph. A., 1898, p. 243). It is 
apparent that in citing the present U.S.P. name a typographical 
error occurred. The authority for Cephaelis Ipecacuanha is (Brotero) 
A. Richard. The other point that Mr. Holmes takes exception to 
is a matter of opinion. But the results of experiments which will 
throw more light upon this subject, we have reason to believe, will 
be forthcoming during the next year. 

SARSAPARILLA. 

In the consideration of the genus Smilax, A. Engler (in E. and 
P., II. Teil, 5. Abth., Bog. 4-6, p. 90) says: " Da in den Handel 
nur diese und nicht die dazu gehorigen Stengel und B. gebracht 
werden, so ist schwer zu sagen, zu welchen Arten die einzelnen, 
anatomisch recht gut unterscheidbaren Handelssorten gehoren. 
Doch wird S. medica, Schlecht. et Cham., als Stammpflanze der 



33 



Editorial. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm» 
\ January, 1901. 



Oitmexikanischen oder Veracruz-Sarsaparille. S. officinalis, H. B. 
K., als die der von Jamaika verschifften Sarsaparille, S. papyracea t 
Duham.,in Guiana und Brasilien als Stammpflanze der Para-Sarsa- 
parille angesehen ; sicher ist mir die Zugehbrigkeit der Veracruz- 
Sarsaparille zu S. medica" 

RHUBARB. 

U. Dammer, after considering the systematic features of the 
genus Rheum and the historical facts pertaining to rhubarb (E. and 
P., III. Teil, i. Abth., Bog. 1-3, p. 22), says: 

" Zu unterscheiden ist zwischen Kron 1 - u. Canton 2 -Rhabarber. 
Erstere stammt, wie durch Przewalski unzvveifelhaft festgestellt 
wurde, von Rheum palmatum tanguticum (s. "Gartenflora," 1875, p. 3, 
und 1882, p. 166), letztere von Rheum officinale, Baill. Vielleicht 
geben aber auch andere Rheum-Avten echte Rhabarber-sorten. So 
wurde lange zeit Rheum australe, Don, im Himalaya als echte 
Rhabarber betrachtet und wahrscheinlich liefern auch einzelne in 
Centralasien wachsende Arten, wie R. leucorrhizon, Pall f> und die 
klein- urd dickblattrigen Formen von R. rhaponticum, L., des Wes- 
etnes Chinas echte Rhabarber, d. h., Wurzeln, die mehr wonder- 
iger die gleichen Eigenschaften haben." 

Not only were the results of these authorities considered, but 
also the investigations of others, as is seen, particularly, in the 
paragraphs relating to Myrrh, 3 Balsam of Tolu 4 and Storax. 5 

It is not a question, however, as to which of these experts is 
right, as this cannot be definitely settled at the present time; but 
what shall be the attitude of the Pharmacopoeia in regard to the 
results of the labors of the different experts ? The writer said, in 
the editorial note referred to, that " the question of the origin of 



1 Moskowitsche, russische oder Kronrhabarber (Radix Rhei moscowitici s. 
optimi). 

2 Chinesische, ostindische oder Canton-Rhabarber. 

8 Myrrh. — E. M. Holmes in Pharm. Jour., 1899, p. 295. 

*In the National Dispensatory, p. 321, is the statement that "Professor 
Baillon regards the tree yielding Peru Balsam as identical with this [the tree 
yielding Tolu Balsam. — H. K.], and the difference of the two products as due 
to the manner in which they are extracted." 

5 Under Iyiquidambar, the National Dispensatory (p. 946) contains the state- 
ment that : "It will be observed that sweet gum agrees in composition with 
Storax, which, in addition, contains water mechanically mixed with it." 



Am. Jour. Pharm,\ 
January. 1901. J 



Editorial. 



39 



drugs is in some cases still obscure, and in other cases greater freedom 
should be given in the selection of commercial varieties." Why 
should the U.S.P. say that Rheum is " the root of Rheum officinale, 
Ba'illon, and not recognize with the B.P. and other authorities that 
the commercial rhubarb is likely to be the product of a number of 
species of Rheum ? " Why should the B.P. say that Jamaica sarsa- 
parilla is yielded by Smilax ornata, Hook f., when experts seem to 
recognize that the origin of all the sarsaparillas, except the E. 
Mexican or Vera Cruz root, is open to question ? Why should not 
the pharmacopoeial authorities recognize that in some cases more 
than one species may yield the commercial drugs and take cogni- 
zance of all the results of acknowledged experts ? 

Instead of limiting the number of species, when questions of 
doubt exist as to that number, the Pharmacopoeia should append to 
its definition of such drugs a clause that " probably or possibly 
other species also yield the drug ;" such as, for instance, in the case 
of Myrrh, Copaiba, etc., as the B.P. has done. 

If there is any difference in the Myrrh, Copaiba or other drug 
frorn different species and sources, this can be provided for under 
descriptions, tests, etc. 

Surely no objection can be raised to this attitude on the question, 
as it represents the actual conditions, and one which is not only in 
accord with, and worthy of pharmacopoeial authority, but which 
will create additional confidence in the work as being nearer the 
truth. 

Another point touched upon in the editorial note is one that Mr. 
Holmes does not ir'er to, but which is also of importance from the 
practical consideration of definitions in the Pharmacopoeia. The 
U.S.P. defines Belladonnse Folia as « the leaves of Atropa Belladonna, 
Linne," and describes under this drug only the leaves. The B.P. 
defines Belladonnse Folia as " the fresh leaves and branches of 
Atropa Belladonna, Linn., collected when the plant is in flower," and 
describes the stems, leaves and flowers. The commercial drug con- 
tains generally not only stems, leaves and flowers, but also fruits, 
and the Pharmacopoeia would do well to limit the amount oi these 
different parts of the plant, as at times the drug is made up almost 
entirely of stems and some leaves, few if any flowers being present, 
while at other times there is an abundance of flowers and immature 
fruits. 



40 



Editorial. 



J Am. Joar. Pharra. 
(. January, 1901. 



Investigators of drugs too frequently do not seem to recognize 
that other parts of the plant yielding the drug, as well as parts of 
entirely different plants, are present in the commercial drugs- — not 
necessarily as adulterants, but because the price of labor does not 
warrant evidently a careful garbling. 

Not long ago a series of experiments were carried on by one of 
the students of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy on Crocus 
{Amer. Jour. Pkarm., 1900, p. 119), and it was shown that none of the 
commercial drug was more than 90 per cent, pure {i. e., contained 
only 90 per cent, stigmas) and that the commercial article ranged 
in purity from 46 to 90 per cent. (*. e. y contained 46 to 90 per cent, 
of stigmas). A reviewer, in commenting upon these results, said 
that he presumed they referred to powdered saffron, as the crude 
drug examined by him had been exceptionally pure. This com- 
ment shows still further the liability to err on this subject and how 
frequently even those who handle drugs continually are deceived as 
to their actual quality and value. 

It is to be regretted that the Pharmacopoeia gives sanction to the 
deception by presenting a standard which it is impossible to attain in 
many instances. In view, then, of this condition of affairs I still 
maintain that " there are a number of groups of drugs to which 
rather stringent definitions, descriptions and limits of admixture may 
be applied, as in seeds, fruits, roots, barks and flowers. In other 
cases, the difficulty of giving specific definitions is very clear, as for 
example, in the case of leaves and herbs, rhizomes and plant exu- 
dations. To say that certain drugs consist ' chiefly ' of certain parts 
covers the ground a little better, e.g., Crocus, chiefly of stigmas; 
Chondrus, chiefly of Chondrus crispus, etc. It would be better, 
however, if the amount of actual drug present in the commercial 
product could be given." 

CONCLUSION. 

Every botanist appreciates the difficulties connected with the no- 
menclature question and there should be some one guide that we can 
in the main follow. In the United States at least, the work of 
Engler and Prantl is becoming to a certain extent recognized as the 
authority on this question. 

This is true also in regard to the origin of drugs, but neverthe- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1901. J 



Reviews. 



41 



less, every expert investigator should be given credit for his 
work, and where differences of opinion hold the Pharmacopoeia should 
be more general in its definitions and define the drugs to which these 
■differences apply as being obtained from " probably other species " 
and as " consisting chiefly of" certain plant parts. Furthermore, in 
the description of properties and tests the limit of impurity or admix- 
ture could be defined ; or, in other words, definitions and descrip- 
tions, as well as tests, should be based upon the article in the market. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A Handbook of Industrial Organic Chemistry adapted for 
the use of manufacturers, chemists and all interested in the utiliza- 
tion of organic materials in the industrial arts. By Samuel P. 
Sadtler. Third revised and enlarged edition. Philadelphia : J. B. 
Lippincott Company. 

The first edition of this work was published in 1891 and the sec- 
ond in 1895. At the time of the publishing of the first edition there 
was no concise work in the English language treating of applied 
organic chemistry, and the book was a welcome addition to works 
on chemical technology. Since that time the value of the work has 
been shown by the necessity for two revisions and the translation of 
the book into German. 

The contents of the book consist of a concise treatment of fourteen 
different classes of industries, including the following particulars of 
each : (a) Raw Materials ; (b) Processes of Treatment ; (c) Products ; 
(d) Analytical Tests and Methods ; (e) Bibliography and Statistics. 
The classes of industries treated of are the following : (1) Petroleum 
and Mineral Oil Industry ; (2) Industry of the Fats and Fatty Oils ; 
{3) Industry of the Essential Oils and resins; (4) The Cane Sugar 
Industry ; (5) The Industries of Starch and its Alteration Products ; 
(6) Fermentation Industries, including : (a) Nature and Varieties of 
Fermentation ; (6) Malt Liquors and the Industries Connected There- 
with ; (c) The Manufacture of Wine ; (d) Manufacture of Distilled 
Liquors or Ardent Spirits; (e) Bread-Making ; (/) The Manufac- 
ture of Vinegar ; (7) Milk Industries ; (8) Vegetable Textile Fi- 
bres, including : (a) Paper-making; (J?) Guncotton, Pyroxyline, 
Collodion and Celluloid ; (9) Textile Fibres of Animal Origin ; (10) 



* 



a ? RfiDi finis / Am - Jour. Pharncu 

4^ reviews. ( January, 1901. 

Animal Tissues and Their Products, including : (a) Leather Indus- 
try; (£) Glue and Gelatine Manufacture; (u) Industries based up- 
on Destructive Distillation, including : (a) Destructive Distillation 
of Wood; (6) Destructive Distillation of Coal; (12) The Artificial 
Coloring Matters; (13) Natural Dye Colors ; (14) Bleaching, Dye- 
ing and Textile Printing. In the appendix are given : (#) The 
Metric System ; (£) Tables for Determination of Temperature ; (r) 
Specific Gravity Tables ; (d) Alcohol Tables ; (e) Physical and Chemi- 
cal Constants of Fixed Oils and Fats. 

It will be seen that this handbook is not only a technology, but 
also an analytical industrial organic chemistry. The manner of 
treatment of the industries considered is clear, concise and from the 
point of view of one having a large amount of practical experience. 
There are 126 illustrations and 16 diagrams showing outlines of 
processes employed in the different industries. The book is not 
only valuable from the standpoint of the manufacturer and chemist, 
but is equally valuable as a text-book for universities and schools of 
technology where industrial organic chemistry is being taught. 

The present revised edition has been brought up to date by the 
incorporation of the results of progress in the different industries 
during the past five years. Some of the chapters, in fact, as those on 
the natural and artificial dye colors, have been largely rewritten. 
The progress in the applied sciences is so remarkable that books 
become antiquated in a comparatively few years. O.i the other 
hand, there is so much being published in regard to methods which 
at first seem plausible, but which in a few years may be found to be 
wholly erroneous or impracticable. It is therefore necessary, in order 
for books to be safe, that revisions be not too frequent. On the other 
hand, if they are to be up-to-date revisions they must not be delayed 
too long. The experience of the past 10 years indicates that in not only 
the conception of this handbook, but in its revisions, the author has 
been singularly fortunate, and the third edition, which has been 
thoroughly revised and brought up to date, is to be recommended. 

Students' Edition, a Practical Treatise of Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics, with special reference to the clinical application 
of drugs. By John V. Shoemaker. Fifth edition. Thoroughly 
revised. 6^ x 9^ inches. Pages vii-770. Extra cloth, $4 net 
sheep, $4.75 net. F. A. Davis Company, publishers, 1914-16 
Cherry Street, Philadelphia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. i 
January, 1901. J 



Reviews. 



43 



The author's experience has led him to change the scope of the 
fifth edition of his Materia Medica and Therapeutics, and he has 
decided to divide the work into two independent issues : (a) the 
students' edition, which has been just issued ; (b) and the physi- 
cians' edition. In the students' edition the drugs are limited to 
those of the Pharmacopoeias of the United States and Great Britain. 
The physicians' edition, it is presumed, will be much more compre- 
hensive. 

The present students', edition is a valuable work on the clinical 
application of drugs. One of the most fortunate things in the book 
is the author's preface concerning the use of the metric system of 
weights and measures. The author says : " It is, no doubt, destined 
eventually to supersede the older system so long employed in 
English-speaking countries. The metric system has the important 
advantage of establishing a uniformity of notation throughout the 
civilized world. In order to facilitate its universal adoption, it is 
desirable that the student should be trained in its use from the be- 
ginning of his professional course." The book is divided into two 
parts, Part I treating of (a) General Considerations Concerning Reme- 
dies and Systems of Treatment ; (b) Pharmacology and the Pharmaco- 
poeia ; (c) Materia Medica ; (d) Pharmacy ; (e) Prescription Writing 
and Formulae ; (/) Poisons and Antidotes ; (jr) General Therapeu- 
tics and Classification of Remedies. In Part II are given the phar- 
macology, physiological action and therapy of drugs of the U.S.P. 
and B.P. The work is in reality one treating primarily of the 
clinical application of remedial agents. The author unfortunately 
does not make clear the distinction between medicines and drugs, 
and uses the term pharmacology as meaning the description and 
physical properties of drugs. The book has incorporated into it 
the results of the more recent clinical investigations, contains nu- 
merous formulae and much valuable information concerning the clini- 
cal application of remedial agents. 

General Vegetable Pharmacography. By Albert Schneider. 
Chicago : Chicago Medical Book Company. 

This book of 1 36 pages is designed to serve as a supplement to 
any of the existing text-books on vegetable pharmacography, and 
treats of the following subjects : 

(1) General Discussion of the Senses. 



44 



Revieivs. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I January, 1901. 



(2) Special Discussion of the Senses with Reference to the Ex- 
amination of Vegetable Drugs. 

(3) Causes Modifying the Characteristics of Drugs. 

(4) The Histology of Vegetable Drugs. 

The book will no doubt prove of value to students who are 
engaged in a study of vegetable drugs. 

A Text-Book of Chemistry. By Samuel P. Sadtler and Virgil 
Coblentz. Being the third revised and enlarged edition of Sadtler 
and Trimble's Chemistry. In two volumes. Philadelphia: J. B. 
Lippincott Company. 

The appearance of another revised and enlarged edition of this 
well-known chemistry in two years speaks for the value of this 
book. The new edition is characterized by an enlargement of the 
part dealing in elementary physics, electrolysis and electro-metal- 
lurgy and the periodic system. In the chapters on physics over 
fifty new illustrations alone have been added. In thus developing 
the part on elementary physics, the authors have shown excellent 
judgment. The student in pharmacy and the applied sciences can- 
not have too much of the fundamental training in physics — indeed, 
a physical laboratory is to-day almost to be considered essential to 
the proper understanding of natural phenomena and the application 
of such knowledge in the construction of apparatus for use in the 
arts and sciences. No man can be a successful manufacturer who 
is not familiar, both theoretically and practically, with the general 
and special properties of matter and energy, and who is not well ac- 
quainted with the nature and application of heat, light and electricity. 
Probably the most fertile of all the departments of physics is that 
relating to electricity. The applications of electricity are seen on 
every hand. In chemistry it is applied to electro-chemical analysis, 
electrotyping, electroplating, electric refining of metals, electrolysis 
of alkali chloride, electrolytic preparation of hypochlorites, chlor- 
ates, caustic alkalies, metallic arsenic and antimony, ozone, white 
lead, the carbides, phosphorus, iodoform, chloral, chloroform, nitro- 
compounds, saccharine, organic colors, etc. The present edition 
contains a concise treatment of the processes involved in the above- 
enumerated applications. 

The new edition, which has been enlarged and thoroughly re- 
vised, contains all of the valuable features of the earlier editions, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1901. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



45 



and it is highly probable that there is no chemistry published in 
the English language for the use of medical and pharmaceutical 
students that treats so concisely, thoroughly and accurately of the 
departments of physics and chemistry and their application in 
medicine and the arts. 



MINUTES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The third of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, for 1900-1901, was held on Tuesday, 
December 18, 1900. James T. Shinn,a well-known member of the 
College, presided. The meeting was an exceptionally valuable one 
owing to the number of practical matters that were discussed. Dr. 
Henry Leffmann spoke on the subject of high and low explosives, 
exhibiting samples of the powders used in modern warfare ; also 
giving a few practical demonstrations of the mode of action of 
explosives. His address was in part as follows : 

" Various mixtures of a more or less explosive character were 
used in ancient times. Greek fire is believed to have been a mix- 
ture of bituminous matters, nitre and sulphur. This would burn 
under water and was used with great destructive effect before the 
invention of firearms. Cannon were used over five hundred years 
ago. It is stated that the cannon used at the siege of Constanti- 
nople in 1453 was fired only about eight times a day. 

"The increase in the size of cannon in modern times has neces- 
sitated increase in the size of the grains of powder, because a very 
fine grain powder would be too powerful. I have here specimens 
of the large hexagonal grains of ordinary black powder, also the 
brown powder, the latter containing a charcoal of lighter color. 
These specimens are intended for the large cannon. Here are cubi- 
cal grains about the size of common dice intended for rapid-fire 
guns, also spherical grains about y 2 inch in diameter. Another 
interesting class is that in which sodium nitrate is substituted for 
potassium nitrate. Contrary to what I have always been taught, 
this powder is not appreciably deliquescent. The use of the 
sodium compound is, of course, for the sake of economy. These 
powders are used for mild blastings, such as getting out coal. Here 
is a sample of Dupont's CCC grade, the grains of which are nearly 
as large as peach-kernels. 



4 6 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1901. 



" Modern high explosives are essentially nitro-compounds,forms of 
nitrocellulose or nitroglycerin. The solubility of nitrocellulose in 
volatile solvents permits of forming it into any shape or mixing it 
with any substance. Some of the common smokeless powders are 
similar to celluloid. The formulae are often secret, but nitrocellulose 
is the foundation ingredient. Here is one of the ribbon forms. 
Cordite is in cylindrical sticks. Here are short, thick cylinders of 
the Maxim-Schupphaus type, perforated as you see with longitudi- 
nal openings to permit the free rush of flame through the mass. 
Several sizes of these are on the table, the largest about 3 inches 
long by T inch in diameter, the smallest I inch long by less than a 
half inch in diameter. When burning in the open air these smoke- 
less explosives do not show much energy, although there is evidently 
1 large gas disengagement with little smoke and very little solid 
residue. In connection with this experiment it is interesting to 
note the effect of heating ammonium dichromate, in which an active 
internal combustion occurs, but the fact that one product, chromic 
oxide, is solid, greatly diminishes the energy of the combustible, 
though the action is analogous to that which occurs in guncotton." 

J. Percy Remington exhibited and described " A Pharmacist's 
Apparatus Stand " (seepage 19). The chairman, Mr. Shinn, com- 
mended the apparatus as having certain very admirable features, 
and said that when he was actively engaged in the drug business he 
had constructed a stand for use in a closet in which the space in a 
vertical direction was utilized. 

F. W. Haussmann read a paper on " The Discoloration of Syrup 
of Iodide of Iron," and exhibited numerous specimens. (See page 
1 6.) Dr. Leffmann, in commenting on the paper, said that possibly 
the metallic salt caused an inversion of the sugar with consequent 
discoloration of the syrup, as has been shown in a paper recently by 
Dr. J. H. Long, of Northwestern University. In reply to a question 
by Mr. Shinn, as to the use of glycerin in preserving the syrup, Mr. 
Haussmann said that the question of chemical action arose when 
this substance is used, as glycerin, being glyceryl hydrate when acted 
upon by iodine or its compounds, possibly forms allyl compounds 
as allyl iodide. Mr. Joseph W. England exhibited a specimen from 
the Museum of the College, which had been made by Professor Procter 
(this Journal, 1868, p. 108), January 15, 1865, using glycerin, and 
which was not discolored. He also stated that in making the syrup 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
January, 1901. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



47 



care should be taken that the grease should ba removed from the iron, 
and that he had found iron card teeth preferable to iron raspings; 
also that it was necessary to heat the solution to ensure the end 
reaction. 

Mr. Shinn remarked that he used to put a coil of iron wire in the 
bottles containing the syrup to ensure the iron being kept in the 
ferrous state. 

Melvin W. Bamford read a paper on " Benzoinated Lard," and 
exhibited some specimens. (See page 29.) Mr. Wiegand said that 
he found it best to expose as great a surface as possible to the finely 
powdered benzoin at as low a temperature as possible, and then 
strain the product through canton flannel. Professor Lowe referred 
to Mr. Beringer's remarks made at a previous meeting (see Vol.72, 
p. 559), and also to the method of making benzoinated lard which 
was employed by Mr. Webb. The principle was the same as that 
referred to by Mr. Wiegand, in that alternate layers of powdered 
benzoin and lard were digested at a temperature just sufficient to 
melt the lard. Mr. Shinn remarked that he used to dissolve the 
benzoin in alcohol and then digest this with the melted lard until 
the alcohol evaporated, after which the powder was allowed to 
settle, and when cool the upper part was removed. Mr. Haussmann 
said that, in his experience, the benzoin in either an alcoholic or 
ethereal solution was likely to become shredded, particularly in an 
ointment consisting of lard and wax. 

Mr. Bamford said that there was one point to which he desired 
to call particular attention, that in making leaf lard from the fatty 
tissues no water was employed, this being the process proposed 
by Professor Redwood and adopted by the British Pharmacopoeia. 
The usual custom by manufacturers of lard is to wash the lard with 
water, and some of it is then removed by heat. 

In discussing the subject, Professor Kraemer remarked that he 
was heartily glad that Mr. Bamford had taken up this subject, as it 
demonstrated what could be done if pharmacists' really desired to 
secure good materials wherewith to make pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions. It has been supposed that a good leaf lard was very difficult 
to obtain, and it would appear that the method of making the lard 
from the animal tissues was an expensive process, whereas Mr. 
Bamford showed that it was an economical one. 

Mr. Kebler read a paper on " The Testing of Essential Oils," 



4« 



Pharmaceutical Association. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm, 
( January, 1901. 



which was a joint paper by himself and Dr. Pancoast. (Seepage i.) 
Mr. England referred to a commercial specimen of oil of sandal- 
wood, which was found to contain 90 parts of sandalwood oil, 7 
parts of alcohol and 3 parts of chloroform. This oil had the same 
specific gravity as the U.S.P. required, and also answered the tests 
for solubility. Professor Lowe referred to the fact of the enormous 
quantity of cloves which is distilled in this country and also to the fact 
that one large manufacturing house, in order to ensure the purity of 
oil of sandalwood, imports the sandalwood for distillation. He also 
referred to the fact of oil of rose being adulterated with oil of gin- 
ger-grass, and finally stated that he did not see any great harm, 
therapeutically, in the substitution of oil of birch for oil of winter- 
green, as the oil of birch contained nearly all methyl salicylate and 
the oil of wintergreen 90 per cent. Mr. Kebler further remarked 
that kerosene is often used to adulterate essential oils, the low 
boiling kerosene being employed to adulterate the oils having low 
boiling points and the high fraction kerosene with those having a 
high boiling point. H. K. 

AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The next meeting of the Association will be held at St. Louis, 
September 16-21, 190 1. 

The Section on Practical Pharmacy and Dispensing announces the 
following : 

Through the generosity of Dr. Enno Sander, Ex-President of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, the Practical Pharmacy and 
Dispensing Section is enabled to offer a Cash Prize of Fifty Dollars 
for the most worthy paper or report presented to it, upon the follow- 
ing conditions: (1) All competitors must be members of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, and actively engaged in the 
retail drug business — principals and assistants equally acceptable 
— and shall not be connected with the teaching department of any 
school or college of pharmacy. (2) The subject discussed or re- 
ported upon shall be within the scope of pharmaceutical manipula- 
tions, dispensing or the actual doings of a retail drug store. 
(3) All competing papers or reports must be in the hands of 
the Secretary of the Section, F. W. E.Stedem, Corner Broad Street 
and Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa., on or before July I, 1901, 
and must be marked "For competition." 



* CLASSES * 



OF THE 



Philadelphia College or Pharmacy, 

Eightieth Annual Session, 1900=1901. 



FIRST YEAR CLASS LIST. 



Name. Place. 

Adams, John Howard, Reading, 

Albert, Howard, Freeland, 

Allen, Robert Wallin, Philadelphia, 

Ames,< Arthur Garfield, Vineland, 

Anthony, Herbert Spencer, • Reading, 

Armstrong, Joseph Massey, Church -Hill, 

Atkinson, Mary Elizabeth, Altoona, 

Baas, Charles Wesley, Scranton, 

Baker, Victor Louis, Bridesburg, Phila 

Bachman, Harry Stanley, Philadelphia, 

Babbitt, Theodore Perley, Brattleboro, 

Bailey, Clarence Matthews, Zanesville, 

Banta, Edwin, Jr., Lansdowne, 

Berry, Lawrence Frank, Charlestown, 

Bibby, David Boone, Catawissa, 
Billetdoux, Chester Augustus, N. Adams, 



Billups, James Sykes, 
Bonta, Clarence LaRue, 
Boyd, Guy Stephen, 
Brunhouse, Harry Franklin, 
Buchert, Charles Frederick, 
Burkholder, Lloyd Amadore, 
Burt, Arthur Henry, 
Chambers, Francis J., 
Coleman, William Fogg, 
Cooney, William Francis, 
Cooper, Clyde, 
Corn well, Joseph Clark, 



Columbus, 
Hanover, 
York, 
York, 

Philadelphia, 
Shippensburg, 
Elmira, 
Atlantic City, 
Nicetown, Phila. 
Florence, 
Lancaster, 
New London, 



Cossaboom, Herbert Solomon, Bridgeton, 



Crossley, Samuel Wallace, 
Currinder, Alva, 
Curtis, Frank Duezze, 
D'Alemberte, Herbert Harry, 
Dana, Clyde, 
Daub, Charles Melvin, 
Davis, Howard Sherman, 
Davis, John Hall, 
Davis, Thomas Carroll, 
Decker, Harry Francis, 
Desher, Edward Winert, 
Dilks, John, 

Donnelly, William Michael, 



Corpus Christi, 
Wilmington, 
San Jose, 
Pensacola, 
Caledonia, 
Norristown, 
Reading, 
Lansdowne, 
Thorndale, 
Johnstown, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Salem, 



State. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 
, Pa. 

Pa. 

Vt. 

Ohio. 

Pa. 

W. Va 
Pa. 
Mass. 
Miss. 
Ind. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. Y. 
N.J. 
, Pa. 
Mass. 
Pa. 
Conn. 
N. J. 
Tex. 
Del. 
Cal. 
Fla. 
Ohio. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N 



Preceptor. 
W. Scott Adams. 
M. E. Grover. 
Funk & Groft. 
Bidwell & Co. 
P. A. Dietrich, P.D. 
Dr. R. L. Lindsay. 
Dr. G. W. Wood. 
S. L. Foulke. 
Wm. Morrett. 
Samuel Evans, Jr. 
Geo. E. Greene. 
Bailey Drug Co. 
Harry M. Davis. 
Robert T. Berry. 

George A. Hastings. 
Freeman & Petty j ohm 
A. B. Morse. 
Dale & Co. 
F. Brunhouse. 
John B. Reynolds. 
Fleming & Fleming. 
J. P. Kelly. 
E. S. Reed's Sons. 
Mahlow Kratz. 

H. M. Snyder. 
Moon's Pharmacy. 
Wm. Clarence Berger* 
Andrew Blair & Co. 
N. B. Danforth. 



Ernest W. Pettersom 
C. E. Kelly. 
Bunting & Yeakle. 
Smith, Kline & French Co. 
Harry M. Davis. 
G. N. Thompson. 
Chas. Griffith. 



J- 



Harmon Dilks, 
C. A. Eckels. 



Jr. 



50 



Catalogue of the Class. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1901. 



Name. 
Dubbs, Carbon P., 
Ebert, James Monroe, 
Eccles, Ityron Jackson, 
Edwards, Lawrence, 
Kichold, Bernard Herbert, 
Eldridge, Roy Kerr, 
Everham, H. Valentine, Jr. 
Eyster, Geo. William, 
Fox, Miss Jamella, 
Fox, Morris Wayne, 
Fralinger, John Joseph, 
French, Leroy Brown, 
Frantz, Geo. Adam, 
Gable, Edmund James, 
Galbraith, Wm. H., Jr 
Galer, Fread. Joseph, 
Gamer, Albert Chas. C, 
Garvey, Joseph Peter, 
Geiger, Fredk. Luther, 
Geisking, John Leroy, 
Ger=on, Dora Goldie, 
Glaspell, Wm. English, 
Gould, Lewis Elms, 
Gladfelter, Wilford Stanley, 
Griggs, Alfred, 
Guier, Luis Javier, 
Guthrie, Ira Culpepper, 
Harbold, John Tilden, 
Harbaugh, Duncan James, 
Harkness, Edw. Gehring, 
Harmening, Fredk. H., 
Harris, James Nixon, 
Hayn, Herman Ernest, 
Hecker, Andrew Ned, 
Hemmersbach, Henry Wm., 
Herflicker, Walter Esterley 



Place. State. 
Pittsburg, Pa. 
Gordon, Pa. 
DeLand, Fla. 
Track ville, Pa. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Cold water, Mich. 
Ambler, Pa. 
York, Pa. 
Tamaqua, Pa. 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Houlton, Me. 
Lebanon, Pa. 
Reading, Pa. 
Germantown, Phila., Pa. 
Philadelphia, 
Tamoca, 
Philadelphia, 
Pillow, 
Harrisburg, 
Muscow, 
Bridgeton, 
Presque Isle, 
Seven Valley, 
Sandwich, 
Cartago, 
Temple, 
York, 
Haverford, 
Carlisle, 
Defiance, 
Mill ville, 
Springfield, 
Carlisle, 
Philadelphia, 
Reading, 



Hetherington, Jas. Norton C, Philadelphia, 



Hoerner, Guy Hoover, 
Hoey, Alexander, 
Holcombe, John Heisler, 
Holstein, Geo. Leon, 
Hoover, Robert Adams, 
Howard, Carrie Elizabeth, 
Johnson, Edw. Thomas, 
Johnson, Chauncey Nicholas, 
Jones, Edw. DeMaur, 
Jones, Clarence, 
Jones, Virginia Violetta, 
Keener, James Blaine, 
Keller, Martin Luther, 
Kempte, Floyd Budd, 
King, Grant Wagner, 
Kisner, Geo. Williamson, 
Klein, Frank Bengler, 
Koons, Chas. Eyster, 
Leaman, John Benjamin, 
Lebo, Chas. Spears, 
Lee, Robert Edward, 
Light, Chas. iVugustin, 
Linde, Flenry Mohre, 



Mechanicsburg 
Philadelphia, 
Bridgeton, 
Lebanon, 
Du Bois, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Uniontown, 
Philadelphia, 
Doe Run, 
Wilkesbarre, 
Middletown, 
Steelton, 
Mt. Holly, 
Lafayette, 
Belmar, 
Henderson, 
Harrisburg, 
Strasburg, 
Lebanon, 
Carlisle, 
Lebanon, 
Philadelphia, 



Pa. 
Wash. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 

Russia. 
N. J. 
Maine. 
Pa ; 
England. 
Costa Rica. 
Texas. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Ohio. 
N.J. 
Mass. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Ind. 
N.J 
Ky. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 



Preceptor. 

J. E. Gregory. 
Geo. W. Fisher. 
Dr. David Taggart. 
Mobile Drug Co. 



W. E. Boose. 
N. A. Porter. 
M. M. Buss. 
Dr. T. H. McFarland. 
O. F. French. 
Pretzel's Pharmacy. 
Harry J. Schad. 
W. H. Galbraith. 
H. G. Kalmbach. 
Dr. W. H. Kellogg. 
J. Francis Hauck. 
E. E. Wilson & Co. 
J. Wilson Hoffa. 



Chas. 
S. W. 



F. Dare & Son. 
Boone & Co. 



I. E. McNair. 
Guillero Guier. 
W. E. Willis. 
R. W. Zeigler. 
W. L. Harbaugh. 
Dr. B. F. Emrick. 
N. G. Wcodward. 
M. L. Branin. 
J. H. Manning. 
John E. Sipe. 
E. W. Hermann. 
Wm. P. M. Zeigler. 
Thos. Hetherington. 
C. A. Eckels. 
Edw. C. Stout. 
David H. Holcombe. 
Geo. W. Schools. 
Mr. A. P. Holland. 
Carrie E. Howard. 
Wm. B. Lentz. 
H. S. Clark. 

W. R. Sharp. 

John W. Renalt. 
W. K. Martz. 
Elmer D. Prickett, M.D. 
Wm. A. Musson. 
Bloomfield Hulich. 
W. S. Johnson & Son. 
E. Z. Gross. 
J. M. Tronsfield, Jr. 
Chas. H. Blouch. 
J. E. Seebold. 
John F. Loehle 
Robert McNiel. 



Ana. Jour. PhariD. 1 
January, 1901. f 



Catalogue of the Class. 



5i 



Name. Place. 

Lisser, Joseph North, Haddonfield, 

Lord, Geo. Washington, Jr., Haddonfield, 

Loyer, Marcus Brownson, Philadelphia, 

McGuire, Jos. Francis, Mahanoy City 

McHale, Chas. Joseph, Shenandoah, 

Mader, James Wilson, Shenandoah, 

Malloy, Westley General, Philadelphia, 

Markle, Howard Overholt, New Haven, 
Marvin, Joseph, 

Mayers, James Curtis, Piney Creek, 

Mayerson, Frances Rose, Philadelphia, 

Mershon, Ray, Baston, 

Michael, Horace, Lebanon, 
Monroe, Frank D. Montague, Logan, 

Montgomery, John Hinks, Bucksport, 

Moore, Augustine Curtis, Portsmouth, 

Morgan, Harold Bertram, Philadelphia, 

Moyer, Lewis Nathan, Reading, 

Musson, Katharine Johanna, Philadelphia, 

Neiler, Wm. Mackie, Philadelphia, 

Newman, Marguerite May, Ontario, 

Newhard, Jas. Gillespie B., Fernwood, 

Newton, Clyde Burdick, Findlay, 

Pitts, Milton Warren, Lynn, 

Plaster, John Edgar, Charlotte, 

Prosser, Elmer Oscar, Hellertown, 

Prowell, Tolbert, Steelton, 

Raker, Edward Heller, Pillow, 

Reburn, Albert Randolph, Oxford, 

Reading, Augustus R. , Lambertville, 

Reed, James Garfield, Taffin, 

Roth, Emil Krieger, Johnstown, 

Rothwell, Eugene, Willow Grove, 

Rubin, Dora, Oremburg, 

Schmidt, Otto Waldemar, Canton, 

Sniffer, Daisy Rhodes, Hudson, 

Shillito, Chas. Emmert, Waynesboro, 

Shrenk, Murray Hamilton, Harrisburg, 

Shull, David Frank, Jr., Philadelphia, 

Shulte, Frank Xavier, Philadelphia, 

Smith, Clarence, Philadelphia, 

Smith, Frank G. D., Grand Forks, 

Smith, Henry Addison, Binghampton, 

Smith, Jacob Schall, York, 

Snyder, David Stahl, Somerset, 

Sognis, Michael James, Trenton, 

Stallsmith, Walter Edward, Parsons, 

Still, Israel Thomas, Boston, 

Stimmel, Irvin Sigfried, Kutztown, 

Stine, W. Earl, Williamsport, 

Stolz, David, Syracuse, 

Strayer, Francis Williard, York, 

Stuck, Williard Stearns, Miffinburg, 

Stump, Frank Arthur, Harrisburg, 

Sutliff, Jacob, Bloomingdale, 
Taggart, Alexander H. Supplee, Norristown, 



Tripmaker, Walter Wm. , 
Tuohy , James Louis, 
Van Dyke, James P., 
Walmsley, Chas. Edward, 
Welsh, Ralph Lignori, 



Philadelphia, 
Woodstown, 
Sunbury, 
Philadelphia, 
Altoona, 



State. Preceptor. 

N. J. Frank P. Rogers. 
N.J. 

Pa. Chas. A. Eckels, Ph.G. 

Pa. Thos. E. McGuire. 

Pa. Paul W. Houck. 

Pa. J. B. Moore. 

Pa. Addington LaDow. 

Pa. T. J. Connell, P.D. 

Germany. 

Md. C. Carroll Meyer. 

Pa. M. Peissakovitch. 

Pa. Edward K. Cope. 

Pa. Charles A. Boger. 

O. F. W. E. Stedem. 

Me. Richard B. Stover. 

Va. C. J. Brownley. 

Pa. Frank E- Morgan. 

Pa. E. M. Boring. 

Pa. Wm. A. Musson. 

Pa. Wm. A. Whitten. 

Ore. Snyder & Newman. 

Pa. Chas. E. Keeler. 

O. Newton Bros. 
Mass. 

N. C. Woodall & Sheppard. 

Pa. Cyrus Jacoby. 

Pa. Dr. W. R. Prowell. 

Pa. John W. Raker. 

Pa. Miss Millie Baker. 

N. J. Geo. M. Shamalia. 

O. D. S. Fergerson. 

Pa. Kredel & Farrel. 

Pa. Robert S. Doake. 

Russia. Dr. Joffe. 

O. Henry Mueller, M.D. 

Pa. Bert B. Shiffer. 

Pa. Mentzer & Clugston. 

Pa. W. R. Laird. 

Pa. D. F. Shull & Co. 

Pa. Dr. Emil Jungmann. 

Pa. G. Y. Wood. 

N. D. 

N. Y. C. W. Knape. 

Pa. Wm. Smith & Co. 

Pa. G. W. Benford. 

N. J. Mary M. Tidd. 

Pa. Henry H. James. 

Mass. H. C. Blair. 

Pa. N. F. Weisner. 

Pa. R. P. Blackburn. 

N. Y. Geo. E. Thorpe. 

Pa. Wm. Smith & Co. 

Pa. J. H. Sterner. 

Pa. J. W. Cotterel. 

Pa. E. F. Swartz. 

Pa. G. C. Taggart. 

Pa. E. H. Fienhold. 

N. J. Geo. M. Andrews. 

Pa. James Van Dyke. 

Pa. \quila Hock, Ph.G. 

Pa. R. E. Welsh. 



52 



Catalogue of the Class. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1901. 



Name. 
Wilson, Harry William, 
Wolford, Walter James, 
Wolf, Wm. Aloysius, 



Place. State. 
Wappinger's Falls, N. 



Allen, 
Reading, 



Woodside, Jno. Montgomery, Danville, 



Young, Samuel, 
Zimmerman, Chas. Sumner, 



Philadelphia, 
York, 



Tex. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 



Preceptor. 
Geo. H. Howarth. 
J. P. Harding. 
F. X. Wolf. 
W. J. Pechin. 
L. C. Funk. 
W. L. Smyser. 



SECOND YEAR CLASS LIST. 



Name. 
Ackerman, Wm. Brown, 
Allen, Edwin Cullom, 
Alston, Wm. Algeron, 
Anderson, L. C, 
Ashmead, Virden P., 
Bacon, Vela, 
Baer, Herbert Oscar, 
Baker, Daniel, 
Beegle, David Blmer, 
Bair, Edward Elmer, 
Bell, Herman Alonzo, 
Berberich, Joseph Herman, 
Binder, Arthur Henry, 
Blew, Robert Sinclair, 
Blough, Elijah Robert, 
Bornemann, John Alexander 
Boyer, Walter Ernest, 
Brown, Horsey P., 
Brown, Joel Daniel, 
Bryant, James Robeson, 
Caden, Alice Beatrice, 
Catlin, Jos. Albert, 
Clemmer, John Krupp, 
Craven, Alfred Young, 
Crawford, Thos. Foster, 
Croft, Clarence, 
Crothers, Anthony Brooks, 
Dickinson, Ralph Brinton, 
Dix, Robert Youngs G., 
Douglass, John Xavier, 
Downs, Wm. Joseph, 
Dufford, J. Albert, 
Eckels, Nathaniel Ort, 
Evans, Thomas John, 
Eves, Charles Scott, 
Evrard, John Joseph, 
Faust, Peter Wenner, 
Fetterolf. Clarence F. G., 
Filman, Walter Theodore, 
Fitch, James Clarence, 
Fleischer, Wm. Paul, 
Fox, Irvin Berry, 
Fox, Joseph Peter, 
Fried, Percy, 
Gage, Luther Hendrick, 
Gearhart, Malcolm Zieber, 
Gehringer, Edwin Franklin, 
Geron, Yeatman, 
Gettel, John Ralph E., 



Place. 



State. 



E. Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Haygood, S. C. 

Reading, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Freehold, N. J. 

Wheeling, W. Ya. 

Bellevinon, Pa. 

Bedford, Pa. 

York, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Stein, Germany. 

Titusville, Pa. 

Bridgeton, N. J. 

Holsopple, Pa. 

W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Danville, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Lexington, Ky. 

Church Hill, Md. 

Lansdale, Pa. 

Bridgeport, Pa. 

Camden, N. J. 

Chambersburg, Pa. 

Zion, Md. 

Parkesburg, Pa. 

Moorestown, X. J. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Coaldale, Pa. 

West Sunbury, Pa. 

Shippensburg, Pa. 

Plymouth, Pa. 

Millville, Pa. 

Bethlehem, Pa. 

Claussville, Pa. 

Ashland, Pa. 

Warwick, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lebanon, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Luraysville, Pa. 

Reading, Pa. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Huntsville, Ala. J 

Shippensburg, Pa. 



Preceptor. 
Geo. L. Cainan. 
Dr. O. E. Henritzy. 
J. B. Cook. 
H. H. Kline. 
Anna S. Ashmead. 
Bacon & Pittinger. 
W. S. Dickson. 

Heckerman Drug Co. 
John S. Weakley. 
Theodore Campbell. 
James Moffet, Jr. 
F. W. Renting." 
P. W. Shull. 
A. D. Yoder, M.D. 
Dr. W. H. Hickman. 

F. Ross Horner. 
Z. James Belt. 

W. H. Umstead. 
Mc Adams & Morford. 
Jos. J. Kellv. 
C. J. Biddle. 
Harrv Lee Randall. 
C. B." McLaughlin. 

C. L. Giger & Co. 
J. L. Crothers. 
Charles Leedon. 

G. H.Wilkinson. 

D. J. Reese. 
John H. Bailev. 
J. T. Miller. 
W. G. Xebig. 
Geo. J. Durbin. 
Charles S. Eby. 
Geo. D. Kressler. 

H. L. Kiper. 
H. C. Stiles. 
H. L. Klopps. 
Dr. P. Fitch. 

Dr. Frank E. Johnson. 
J. L. Lemberger & Co. 
Peter P. Fox, Sr. 
Frank P. Semmel. 
W. D. Johnson. 
S. S. Stevens. 
O. B. J. Haines. 
. D. Humphrey & Son. 
J. C. Altick & Co. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. \ 
January, 1901. j 



Catalogue of the Class. 



33 



Name. Place. 
Goodman, Edith Morton, 
Goring, Myatt Edward, 
Grove, Harry Ross, 
Handwork, Francis C, 
Hanington, Bertram John, 

Hawkins, Louis J., Coatesville, 

Hayes, John Gilbert, St. Clair, 

Heffelfinger, Wm. Edward, Reading, 

Hendrickson, Raymond, San Francisco, 

Hertzler, Norman Eberley, Philadelphia, 

Hertzler, Oliver Henry, " Lancaster, 

Hilliard, Bayard, Vincenttown, 

Hibbs, Wm, Buckman, Newtown, 

Hougendobler, Harry Smaltz, Columbia, 



Irwin, John Henry, 
Jago, Harry W. Garfield, 
Jefferis, Charles Albert, 
Jones, Howard Harlan, 
Kane, Augustin Francis, 
Kellar, William Albert, 
Kirk, Frank H., 
Knabb,' Daniel Milton, 
Knauss, Howard James, 
Koller, Charles Joseph, 
Kyle, Christian B., 
Lebegern, Barton, 
Lescure, Anna Rosalie, 
Lewis, Herbert Williard, 
Lide, Leighton Elba, 
McGarrah, Wm. Henry, Jr. 
McGregor, Albert Dell, 



McLaughlin, Harry Aloysius, Philadelphia, 



Marcus, Simon, 
Margolin, Mrs. Fannie B. 
Martin, Charles Edward, 
Martin, Frederick Adam, 
Martin, John M., 
Matlack, Walter Ball, 
Meals, Ira Dale, 
Meredith. Wilbur Curtis, 
Metzler, Oscar Leroy, 
Miller, Roy L., 
Myers, Luther M., 
Noble, Harry Carty, 
Oberly, John S., 
O'Hanlon, Joseph Thornley, 
Parker, James Heber, 
Phillips, Elliott Earl, 
Quinn, Vincent De Paul, 
Ramsaur, David Wilfong, 
Raum, Harry Angle, 
Reeve, Alfred Warfield, 
Reice, Isaac Stephen, 
Rhodes, Geo. Washington, 
Robinson, David Crogman, 
Robinson, Thomas Holmes, Jr 
Roeder, Morris Albert, 
Roessler, Harry L., 
Rudolph, Harold Clarence, 
Schiesser, Harry William, 
Scott, Walter Edward, 



State. 
Denver, Col. 
Wappinger Falls, N. Y. 
Alexandria, Pa. 
Birdsboro, Pa. 
New Brunswick, Canada. 

Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Cal. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. Y. 
Col. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Mass. 
Miss. 
Pa. 
111. 
Pa. 
Pa. 

Russia. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Ala. 
N.J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Fla. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Del. 
Pa. 
Va. 



Philadelphia, 
Millville, 
Philadelphia, 
Norristown, 
Brooklyn, 
Denver, 
Curwensville, 
Limekiln, 
Allentown, 
Altoona, 
Middletown, 
Columbia, 
Philadelphia, 
Springfield, 
Columbus, 
Scranton, 
Maywood, 



Philadelphia 
Jico, 

Columbia, 
Atlantic City, 
Birmingham, 
Bridgeton, 
Harrisburg, 
Coatesville, 
Harrisonville, 
Philadelphia, 
Carlisle, 
Manayunk, Phila. 
Bethlehem, 
Pennington, 
Reading, 
Philadelphia, 
Lansford, 
Palatka, 
Shippensburg, 
Elmer, 
Bloomsburg, 
Newark, 
Philadelphia, 
, Bealeton, 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pottsville, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pomeroy, Pa. 



Preceptor. 
Dr. Susan Hayhurst. 
George Howarth. 
Russell T. Blackwood. 
R. Clark. 

Mr. Yeaby, Manager. 
W. S. Young. 
I. Cohen. 
J. H. Stein. 
W. H. Gano. 
Fred. Brown Co. 
C. A. Heinitsh. 
F. F. Hilliard. 
Walter R. Elliott. 
L. H. Hirst. 
Alex. Wilson. 
R. L. Haus. 
Funk & Groff. 
Atwood Yeakle. 

F. F. Drueding. 
Dr. Ballantine. 
Shinn & Baer. 
W. H. Reeser. 
Dr. R. C. Peters. 
C. G. Neeley. 
Chas. E. Bauer. 
Eberly Brothers. 
Dr. John B. Chapin. 
Harry P. Elsey. 
Mayo & Weaver. 

T. D. MacPhee. 

G. M. Beringer. 
N. Richardson. 
W. A. Shannon. 

H. J. Hackett. 
W. L. Bucher. 
J. V. Townsend. 
W. R. Gunn. 
Geo. Y. Wood. 

C. T. George, Ph.D. 
R. H. Lackey. 
J. A. Fergusson. 

G. B. Evans. 
Howard M. Levering. 
Walter Crawford. 

G. W. Scarborough. 
J. H. Stein. 

W. P. Bender. 
J. A. Quinn. 
Ackerman & Stewart. 
Fleming & Fleming. 
Jos. M. Garrison, Jr. 
Moyer Brothers. 
Dr. J. B. Butler. 

H. M. Minton, Ph.G. 
L. F. Ringer. 

Dr. A. A. G. Stark. 
Harry A. Smith. 
John P. Frey. 

Jas. Grier Long. 



54 



Catalogue of the Class. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1901. 



Name. 
Seal, John Horace, 
Seeley, Chester Belting, 
Shaw, Saml. Frederick, 
Shaw, Wm., 
Slobig, Charles Henry, 
Smith, Harry Wm., 
Smith, Karl Walter, 
Smith, Wm. David Harris, 
Soken, Joseph Louis, 
Strauss, Robert Franklin, 
Stuver, Henry Wm. , 
Swineford, Ernest Clarence, 
Swartz, Wm. L., 
Thomas, George Carroll, 
Toulson, Jno. Milbourn, 
Trost, Wm. Christian, 
Tyler, Ephraim Shaw, 
Ulrich, Ralph Thomas, 
Waldenberger, William, 
Walther, Phillip, 
Weidemann, George Buzby, 
Weigester, Wilson, 
Welch, William Herbert, 
Williams, Morrison Patton, 
Wilson, Oscar Herman, 
Winkler, Max Edwin, 
Winstanley, John, 
Wisegarver, Oscar Kline, 
Wollaston. Byron Parker, 
Woodill, Robt. Franklin, 
Worthington, Warren W. 
Ziegler, Chas. Norman, 
Ziegler, Wm. Lodge, 



Place. State. 

Swarthmore, Pa. 

Bridgeton, N. J. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Reading, Pa. 

Pottstown, Pa. 

Marietta, Pa. 

Jonesboro, Tenn. 

Zitsmir, Russia. 

Womelsdorf, Pa. 

Fort Collins, Col. 

Miffinburg, Pa. 

Carlisle, Pa. 

Lima, Pa. 

Chestertown, Md. 

Ashland, Pa.. 

Bridgeton, N. J. 

Manheim, Pa. 

Manayunk, Pa. 

Meadville, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Troy, Pa. 
Frankford, Phila., Pa. 

Charlotte, N. C. 

Frankford, Phila., Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

German town, Phila., Pa. 

Quarryville, Pa. 

Wayne, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gettysburg, Pa. 

Steelton, Pa. 



Preceptor. 
A. R. Morton, M.D. 

G. H. Whipple & Son. 
Geo. B. Evans. 

R. J. Williams. 
E. S. Beshore. 
R. W. Cuthbert. 

E. B. Jones. 
Geo. Seldes. 

F. T. Landis. 
A. W. Scott. 

T. B. Brubaker, M.D. 
Geo. W. Sipe. 
W. P. Wingender. 
M. A. Toulson. 

A. Schoenenbergh. 
W. A. Rumsey. 
Dr. E. E. Gibble. 
Louis Waldenbergei 
V. W. Eiler. 

Dr. C. A. Weidemann. 
Carpenter & Pierce. 
M. J. Wilson, M.D. 
Shinn & Baer. 
R. J. Siegfried. 
O. C. Winkler. 

B. A. Wissler. 

T. M. Rohrer, M.D. 

H. C. Hadley. 
Chas. E. Keeler. 
Chas. H. Clark. 
Lewis Genois. 
W. L. Ziegler. 



THIRD YEAR CLASS LIST. 



Name. 
Anstock, Arthur David, 
Alden, Harley Roscoe, 
Barnett, Eldredge Ewing, 
Bell, Robert Nevens, 
Bender, Arthur Clarence, 
Benner, Fredk. James, 
Boesch, Theodore Karl, 
Boltz, Paul Kline, 
Bosler, Harry Ellis, 
Boy sen, Theophilus H., Jr., 
Branin, Manlif Lewis, 
Brenner, Frederic A., 
Buckman, William Watson, 
Cather, Frank L., 
Collins, Lane Verlenden, 
Cone, Earl Hobart, 
Converse. Howard R., 
Davis, William Brown, 
Doan, Chester Clayton, 
Dunn, Edwin Alfred, 
Eckels, Paul, 



Place. State. 



Mahanoy City, 

Auburn, 

Cape May City, 

Kearney, 

Shenandoah, 

Bethlehem, 

York, 

Lebanon, 

Olean, 

Egg Harbor, 

Millville, 

Kylertown, 

Newtown, 

Chester, 

Gloucester, 

Batavia, 

Picture Rocks, 

Kingston, 

Coatesville, 

Meadville, 

Decatur, 



Pa. 
Me. 
N. J. 
Neb. 
Iowa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. Y. 
N. J. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
N. Y. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
111. 



Preceptor. 

E. M. Piatt. 
Dr. A. T. Pollard. 
D. C. Guthrie. 
S. A. D. Henline. 

D. Ford Barr. 
Paul Kempsmith. 
A. H. Lafean & Bro. 

E. K. Boltz. 
J. C. Welch. 

Dr. T. H. Boysen. 
C. B. McLaughlin. 
Lawson C. Funk. 
Harry Cox. 
L. J. Farley. 
John A. Frey. 
W.S.& J.J. Patterson. 
Moyer Brothers. 
W. H. Breisch. 
W. E. Lee. 
P. H. Utech. 
C. A. Eccles. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1901. J 



Catalogue of the Class, 



55 



Name. 
Eddy, Roswell Martin, 
Eppler, George Theodore, 
Fegley, Florence Augusta, 
Fegley, John Stauffer, 
Fischer, Adolph Gustav, 
Fisher, George Galvin, 
Fleming, Samuel Clarkson, 
French, Rolland Hall, 
Garber, Elmer Franklin W., 
Gleim, Harry Charles, 
Goodyear, Harry Jacob, 
Graham, Willard Rice, 
Harbord, Kittie Walker, 
Harris, Wm. K. Garfield, 
Hassinger, Samuel Reed, 
Haydock, Mabelle, 
Headings, Prestie Milroy, 
Highfield, Herbert Monroe, 
Hoffert, Charles Edward, 
Hoffman, Ira Calvin, 
Houston, Franklin Paxson, 
Hubler, Guy Garfield, 
Jetton, James Stuart, 
Klopp, Edward Jonathan, 
Knerr, Charles George, 
Kraus, Otto Louis, 
Lacy, Burdet Seldon, 
Leib, Wilbur John, 
Leiby, Howard Edward, 
Levering, John H., 
Lewis, Fielding Otis, 
Liebert, Louis Williams, 
Luebert, Fred'k George, 
Luddy, James D. 



Place. 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Allentown, 
Allentown, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Salem, 
Mt. Joy, 
Hazleton, 
Cornwall, 
Philadelphia, 
Salem, 
Altoona, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Reedsville, 
Zanesville, 
Lancaster, 
Scalp Level, 
Philadelphia, 
Gordon, 
Dyer, 
Reading, 
Allentown, 
New Haven, 
Philadelphia, 
York, 
Ashfield, 
Norristown, 
Hebbardsville, 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Chestnut Hill, Phila. 



State. Preceptor, 

Pa. H. C. Eddy. 

Pa. E. E. Wilson. 

Pa. Fegley Bros. 

Pa. Fegley Bros. 

Pa. Albert Oetinger. 

Pa. E. K. Fisher. 

Pa. J. C. Perry. 

Ohio. Bolger & French. 

Pa. Howard Smoker. 

Pa. McNair & Hoagland. 

Pa. L. Lemberger & Co. 
Pa. Smith, Kline & French Co. 



McChntock, Geo. Washington, Key West, 



McClurg, Benjamin Hoffer, 
McDermott, Rob't Joseph, 
McFadden, Warren Lester, 
MacPhee, John James, 
Mauger, Harry Filman, 
Metcalfe, Hiram Kennedy, 
Michels, Victor Clyde, 
Murphey, Edwin Mason, 
Musser, Guy Musselman, 
Nauss, George Hill, 
Penrose, Thomas William, 
Picking, Jacob Sylvester, Jr. 
Pittinger, Charles A., 
Pflieger, Adam William, 
Pollins, Harry George L., 
Post, Arthur Edward, 
Raser, Wm. Heyl, 
Reynolds, Clarence Hyatt, 
Rhoads, Luther K. , 
Rinker, William, 
Roberts, Geo. William, 
Rogers, Walter Clyde, 
Ryan, Thomas A., 
St. Jacques, Gaston, 
Saul, Irvin Ellsworth, 
Schmerker, Adolph Alex. B. 



Elizabethtown, 
Trenton, 
Williamsport, 
Glasgow, 
Pottstown, 
Greencastle, 
Albion, 
Macon, 
Witmer, 
Steelton, 
Philadelphia, 
Somerset, 
Freehold, 
York, 

Greensburg, 
Towanda, 
Reading, 
Reynoldsville, 
Reading, 
Hellertown, 
Philadelphia, 
West Chester, 
Susquehanna, 
St. Hyacinthe, 
Windsor Castle 
Allentown, 



Ore. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Ohio. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Tenn 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Conn. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Ky. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Fla. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 

Nova Scotia. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
111. 
Miss. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 

Canada 
Pa. 
Pa. 



Danl. J. Fry. 
A. F, Shimberg. 
S. E. R. Hassinger. 
Susanna G. Haydock. 
J. C. Perry. 
Bailey Drug Co. 
Chas. E. Keller. 
H. B. Heffley. 
R. T. Young. 
J. E. Gregory. 
Hayes & Griggsby. 
H. C. Blair. 
G. W. Shoemaker & Co. 
Otto Kraus. 
Harry Cox. 
John P. Frey. 
F. G. Mumma. 
Eugene Fillman. 
R. M. McFarland. 
Dr. Thos. H. Price. 

E. F. G. Mickley. 

F. P. Streeper. 
H. C. Blair. 
Alfred H. Bolton. 

A. S. Wickhaoi. 
Duble & Cornell. 
F. D. MacPhee. 
J. D. Seiberling. 
Sands Drug Co. 

B. F. Michels. 
T. S. Murphey. 
R. W. Cuthbert, Ph.G. 
W. K. Martz. 
F. W. E. Stedem. 
Dr. F. C. Kress. 
Edward G. Bacon. 
A. L. Ziegler. 
S. P. Brown. 
F. E. Post. 
John B. Raser. 
S. Reynolds, M.D. 

C. H. Randenbush. 
F. E. Jacobson. 
Dr. J. L. Sands. 
Frank P. Rogers. 
Dr. W. S. Mitchell. 
Dr. E. St. Jacques. 
Jesse W. Pechin. 
J. L. Crothers. 



56 



Catalogue of the Class. 



( Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
I January, 1901. 



Name. 

Schneider, Bmil Sebastian, 
Schoolev, Joseph Griggs, 
Scott, Henry William, 
Shafer, Clarence Eugene, 
Shannon, Byron Guest, 
Shaver, David Oscar, 
Sheffer, William Waiter, 
Shenkle, Albert Philip, 
Shields, Percy Way, 
Skillman, Lionel Gilliland, 
Slocum, Chas. Eben, 
Spears, Edward Gibson, 
Steever, Wm. Forsaith, 
Stoudt, Irwin Sylvester, 
Stout, Benjamin Franklin, 
Strathie, Alex. John, 
Texter, Charles Henry, 
Tingle, John Beard, 
Urffer, Samuel, 
Van Gilder, Levi, 
Walker, Joseph Franklin, 
Watson, Herbert James, 
Wolfer, William Conrad, 
Wolfinger, John Philip, 
Ziegler, C. Harry, 



Place. 



State. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

Montgomery, Pa. 
Waynesburg, Pa. 
Altoona, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Altoona, Pa. 

Dillsburg, Pa. 

Phcenixville, Pa. 

West Chester, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ouray, Col. 
Reading, Pa. 

Millersburg, Pa. 

Obold, Pa. 

Quakertown, Pa. 

Sussex, England. 

Perkasie, Pa. 

Dayton, Ohio. 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Petersburg, X. J. 

Bridgeport, Pa. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reading, Pa. 

York, Pa. 



Preceptor. 
Philip Goll. 
T. W. Strank. 
Dr. Brock. 
H. L. Stiles. 
A. C. Schoneld. 
F. L. Akers. 
Lawson C. Funk. 
M. R. Shenkle. 
W. W. Bowman. 
Shoemaker & Busch. 
C. C. Stratton. 
Harry H. Kline. 
C. E. Steever. 
Wm. Proctor, Jr., Co. 
N. S. Steltzer. 
Wm. J. Jenks. 
Harry Neamand. 
E. M. Boring. 
H. W. Sheets. 
George J. Pechin. 

H. K. Watson. 
Edward C. Stout. 
H. J. Schad. 
Nelson B. Fry. 



SPECIAL STUDENTS. 



Name. 
Andrews, W. C, 
Boss, A. C, 
Capwell, H. M., 
Carter, F. P., 
Cavanaugh, F. A., 
Cone, Earl Hobart, 
Cooney, Wm. Francis, 
Crawford, W. H., Jr., 
Dubbs, Carbon P., 
Ehman, J. W., 
Everham, Harry V., 
French, Rolland Hall, 
Gagan, George, 
Hoffman, N. B., 
Jaeger, W. C, 
Kane, J. K., 
Lord, Geo. W., Jr., 
McMahon. Joseph Alphonsus 
Michels, V. C, 
Pitts, M. W., 
Roberts, John Austin, 
Staley, F. W., 
Stolz, Louis, 
Suess, Ignatz, 
Smith, F. D. G., Ph.G., 
Thompson, Samuel, 
Walker, J. T., 
Whitaker, W. E. , 
Winters, O. E., 



Place. State. Department. 

Woodstown, X. J. Chemistry. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chemistry. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chemistry. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chemistry. 

Ashbourne, Pa. Chemistry. 

Batavia, N. Y. Chemistry. 

Florence, Mass. Chemistry. 

Ashbourne, Pa. Chemistry. 

Pittsburg, Pa. Chemistry. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chemistry. 

Ambler, Pa. Chemistry. 

Salem, Ohio. Chemistry. 

Wilmington, Del. Chemistry. 

Fairview, Pa. Chemistry. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Chemistry. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Chemistry. 

Haddonfield, X. J. Chemistry. 

Lock Haven, Pa. Chemistry. 

Albion, 111. Chemistry. 

Lynn, Mass. Chemistry. 

Wilmington, Del. Chemistry. 

Middletown, Pa. Chemistry. 

Syracuse, N. Y. Chemistry. 

Gr. Meseritch, Austria. Chemistry. 

Grand Fords, X. D. Chemistry, 

Germantown, Phila., Pa. Chemistry. 

Bridgeport, Pa. Chemistry . 

Frankford, Pa. Chemistry. 

Germantown, Phila., Pa. Chemistry. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, igoi. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF IPECACUANHA. 
By Dr. B. H. Paul and A. J. Cowni/by. 

Ipecacuanha is probably, next to opium and cinchona bark, one of 
the most important drugs in the official materia medica. Its chemi- 
cal history, however, has been for a long time very imperfect, and 
although some of its medicinal effects have been ascribed to the 
presence of an alkaloid, there has been hitherto considerable doubt 
whether that was always the case. In prosecuting an inquiry as to 
the amount and nature of the alkaloid in ipecacuanha to which the 
name emetine has been given, reference was, of course, made to the 
observations of previous experimenters. Instead, however, of deriv- 
ing much assistance from the statements of their results, we found 
that they led to considerable uncertainty resp'ecting the chemical 
identity of the alkaloid described as emetine. 

The investigation of ipecacuanha from a chemical point of view 
was first undertaken by Pelletier, 1 shortly after Sertlirner's discovery 
6f morphine. Pelletier showed that the medicinal properties of the 
drug were due to a " proximate principle or matiere vomitive," to 
which he gave the name of Emetine, from efieco to vomit. A for- 
mula for its preparation was introduced into the French Codex in 
1 8 1 8. 2 The product so obtained — amounting to 1 6 per cent, of the 
drug — was little more than a concentrated alcoholic extract. It had 
the form of transparent scales of a reddish-brown color, acid 
reaction and bitter taste, was very deliquescent, soluble in all propor- 



1 A?males de Chim. et de Pkys., IV, 172, and Joicrn, de Pharm., », III, 145 ; 
IV, 322, 1817. 

2 Codex Med., 1818, 179. 

(57) 



5S 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1901. , 



tions in water or alcohol, but insoluble in ether. The aqueous solu- 
tion gave a green color with ferric salts and copious flocculent pre- 
cipitates on the addition of basic lead acetate or infusion of nutgalls. 
It was, in fact, a pharmaceutical preparation rather than a distinct 
chemical substance, and was essentially a compound of the basic con- 
stituents of ipecacuanha with a substance somewhat analogous to 
tannin. 

Subsequently Pelletier succeeded, in conjunction with Magendie, 
in obtaining a product of distinctly basic character, which was sub- 
mitted to analysis by Dumas 1 and its composition was represented 
as corresponding with the formula C 15 H 24 N0 4 . 

Found. Calculated. 



C 64-57 64-24 

H 777 8-39 

N 4"3o 4*9 6 

O 22-95 22"6l 



99*59 100*20 

This base was described as a white pulverulent substance some- 
what yellowish and becoming colored on exposure, but not deli- 
quescent. It melted about 50 C, was very slightly soluble in cold 
water, freely soluble in alcohol and insoluble in ether. 

It had a marked alkaline reaction and neutralized acids, but ap- 
parently did not form crystallizable salts, though "acid solutions some- 
times showed signs of crystals." An aqueous solution was not pre- 
cipitated by basic lead acetate. It was, therefore, very different 
from the emetine of the French Codex, and Magendie found it to be 
three times as effective medicinally. 

Various methods of preparing emetine were subsequently sug- 
gested by Calloud, Merck, Reich and Leprat, but none of them 
furnished a perfectly pure and chemically individual substance. 
The examination of the alkaloid obtained from the official Brazilian 
ipecacuanha by Reich 2 is chiefly noticeable for the results of the ele- 
mentary analysis leading to the formula C 20 H 30 N 2 O 5 : 



Found. Calculated. 

C 63-114 63-49 

H 7*99i 7*93 

N . 6*109 7-40 

O • r 22786 2I'l8 



ICO' lOO* 



x Ann. de Chim. Phys. y 2, XXIV, 180. 
2 i863. Archiv der Pharm., 2, 113, 193. 



Am. Jour. Pbarru.) 
February, 1901. J 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



The ipecacuanha then employed for medicinal purposes in France 
was probably the officially recognized drug imported from Brazil, 
under the name of Rio ipecacuanha, the product of a plant belonging 
to the genus Cephaelis, and growing in the province of Mato Grosso, 
situated in the basin of the river Paraguay. 1 The Codex of 1758 
enumerated three kinds of the official drug 2 — ipecacuanha fusca, 
ipecacuanha cineriia and ipecacuanha candidior — which would 
probably correspond with the three varieties, brown, gray and 
white, mentioned by Pelletier in his memoir as being the kinds 
most used. 3 The botanical source of these varieties is uncertain, for 
Pelletier's statement that the brown ipecacuanha examined by him 
was the product of Psyclwtria emetica was subsequently corrected by 
Guibourt. 4 In addition to the varieties attributed to the genus 
Cephaelis, two other kinds of ipecacuanha appear to have been official 
at that time, the " striated " 5 and " undulated." 6 Other kinds of 
ipecacuanha were imported from Para and Bahia, under names taken 
from the provinces of Brazil whence they were collected. Some of 
them no doubt were derived from plants of the genus Cephaelis and 
others from species of Ionidium, etc. 

The gradually increasing scarcity and high price of the Brazilian 
drug, as well as the success attending the importation of cinchona 
bark from New Granada, subsequently led to the introduction of a 
drug from that part of South America, under the name of Cartha- 
gena ipecacuanha, obtained from a plant growing in great abund- 
ance on the banks of the Magdalena River, and considered by Gui- 
bourt to be a different and botanically undetermined species of 
' Cephaelis J In 1869 Lefort directed attention to this drug, 8 point- 
ing out that, although differing in appearance from Brazilian ipe- 
cacuanha, it might be equally useful medicinally, and could, in that 
case, be recognized officially as a valuable supplement to the Bra- 
zilian drug. But before its use in pharmacy could be adopted, 

1 See Weddell, Ann. des Sciences Naturelles, II, 193. 
2 Codex Med., 1758, p. 63. 
*Jdurn. de Pharm., Ill, 148. 

4 Guibourt, " Histoire abrege des Drogues Simples." Second edition. I, 298. 

5 Described by Guibourt as Radix Psychotricc. Ibid., p. 301. 

6 Referred by Guibourt to a species of Richardsonia. Ibid., p. 302. 
7 "Histoire Naturelle des Drogues Simples," III, 82, 1850. 
8 Carthagena ipecacuanha was imported into France in boxes or casks by way 
of Havre, while the Brazilian drug was imported in serons by way of Bordeaux. 



6o 



C lie mis try of Ipecacuanha. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1901. 



better knowledge was requisite as to its components, and of its 
actual behavior to the official drug as a therapeutic agent. Lefort, 1 
in order to solve that problem, and with the view of definitely settling 
the question whether the ipecacuanha of New Granada could be sub- 
stituted for the official drug, made a comparative examination of the 
two kinds by determining the amount of alkaloid contained in 
them. 

Lefort had recourse to the method suggested by the observations of 
Pelletier and Dumas that the alkaloid of ipecacuanha formed with 
tannin a compound characterized by its very sparing solubility in 
water. The powdered drug was extracted by strong and weak 
alcohol successively; the alcoholic liquor evaporated to a syrup and 
the residue mixed with a large quantity of water. Tannin in slight 
excess was then added to the filtered liquid and the precipitate so 
produced well washed, dried and weighed. In that way Lefort 
arrived at the conclusion that the ipecacuanha of New Granada con- 
tained rather less alkaloid than that of Brazil, the relative amounts 
ot tannate obtained being 1-34 and 1-44 percent. Another method 
adopted for comparing the two kinds of ipecacuanha as to their con- 
tents in alkaloid was based on the sparing solubility of the nitrate 
of the base in water. The results thus obtained were very similar, 
so far as the amount of alkaloid was concerned ; but Lefort too 
readily assumed the chemical identity of the basic constituents of 
the two different kinds of ipecacuanha. In a subsequent memoir, 
published during the same year, Lefort gave the results of a more 
particular study of the properties and composition of the 
alkaloid obtained from ipecacuanha. 2 The method then adopted 
for its extraction consisted in treating the syrupy residue of an 
alcoholic extract with caustic potash and chloroform. A product 
was obtained from the chloroform solution consisting chiefly of a 
base mixed with a resinous substance. These were separated by 
treatment with a very dilute acid, and, by adding to the clear solu- 
tion just enough ammonia, the base was precipitated almost free 
from the resinous substance, the last portion of which was removed 
by digesting the washed and dried precipitate with ether. The 
base thus obtained was a very light powder of a white or gray 



x Journ. de Pharm. et de Chimie, 4, IX, 167. 
"-Journ. de Pharm. et de Chimie, 4, IX, 241. 



-FebWyTiwif 1 '} Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 61 

color, according to the degree of purity, almost inodorous and of 
bitter taste. It melted at yo° C. and on exposure acquired a brownish 
color, but did not deliquesce. It was sparingly soluble in cold 
water — I : 1,000 — readily soluble in alcohol and in chloroform, but 
very slightly soluble in ether, and it was uncrystallizable. That 
base was readily dissolved by caustic potash or soda and the solu- 
tions rapidly absorbed oxygen from the atmosphere. It was less 
freely soluble in ammonia, and when mixed with lime or magnesia 
it became yellow on exposure to air. It was readily dissolved by 
most acids, neutralizing them and forming soluble uncrystallizable 
salts ; with nitric acid it formed a very slightly soluble salt and this 
was considered to be the most distinctive characteristic of the base. 
Potassium iodide and alcoholic solution of iodine gave precipitates 
which were very sparingly soluble in water. Mercuric chloride and 
potassium mercuric iodide gave white precipitates insoluble in water 
and soluble in alcohol. The platinochloride was soluble in water, 
but only sparingly soluble in alcohol, whilst ammonium molybdate 
and basic lead acetate both gave precipitates. Lefort did not analyze 
the base so obtained ; but with the aid of the analytical data 
given by Pelletier and Dumas he endeavored to ascertain its 
molecular weight from the saturating capacity and the composition 
of its salts by determining the amounts of combined acids in the 
neutral sulphate and hydrochloride. On that basis, and assuming 
the alkaloid to be identical with the substance analyzed by Dumas, 
it was inferred that its formula was C^H^NX^. 

Calculated. Found. 

C 64-28 64-57 

H ■ 7-86 • 777 

N 5 '00 4-30 

O 22-85 22-95 

99'99 99"59 

The subject was next taken up by Glenard, 1 who applied the 
method of treatment with lime and ether for extraction of the alka- 
loid, obtaining it colorless and in relatively large amount, a result 
that was not consistent with the description of emetine then accep- 
ted. Glenard obtained the alkaloid by mixing a dry alcoholic ex- 
tract of ipecacuanha with an equal quantity ofMvater and one and 



1 "Recherches sur l'alcaloide de l'ipecacuanha," Ann. de Chim. et de Phvs., 
5, VIII, 233 



62 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



( Am. .Jour. I'harm. 
I February, 1901. 



one-half times its weight of lime, then percolating the mixture with 
hot ether in the proportion of I litre of ether to 100 grammes of the 
extract. That ethereal solution was then shaken with sufficient 
weak hydrochloric acid to form a salt and, after separating the 
ether, the base was precipitated from the aqueous solution by am- 
monia. By careful evaporation of an aqueous solution of the hydro- 
chloride the salt was obtained in a crystalline form. That result — 
contrary to the experience of Lefort and others, that all the salts of 
emetine were uncrystallizable — enabled Glenard, by repeated crys- 
tallization, to prepare a product of greater purity than had hitherto 
been obtained. Analysis of the purified base gave results very dif- 
ferent from those obtained by Dumas, as shown below: 



Glenard. Durnas. 

C 72-43 72-o8 64-57 

H 8-64 8-59 4-30 

N 5-28 5-42 777 

O . 13-65 13-91 22-95 



ioo- 100- 99-59 

Glenard's data leading to the formula C 15 H 2 ,N0 2 were further con- 
firmed by the analysis of the crystalline hydrochloride. 

Calculated for 
Found. C 15 Ho 2 NOo,HCl. 



C 63-00 63-26 

H 8-15 8-o8 

N 4-75 4-92 

O .11*64 11-24 

CI 12-46 12-47 



From these results Glenard was led to the conclusion that the 
substance analyzed by Dumas, as well as that subsequently obtained 
by Lefort, could not have been sufficiently purified. 

As a result of the question raised by Glenard as to the purity and 
individuality of the substance obtained by previous experimenters, 
a further paper was published by Lefort and Wurtz 1 in which they 
suggested a method of preparing emetine by mixing an aqueous 
solution of the alcoholic extract of ipecacuanha with a saturated 
solution of potassium nitrate. The washed precipitate of the nitrate 
which required ioo parts of water for solution was dissolved in hot 



^"Memoire sur la Preparation et la Composition de rEmetine," Ann. 
Chim. Pkys., 5, VIII, 277. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1901. J 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



63 



alcohol mixed with lime and, after evaporating off the alcohol, the 
dry residue was extracted with ether. The base was then further 
purified until almost colorless and it was then assumed to be abso- 
lutely pure. Analysis corresponded with the formula C 28 H 40 N 2 O 5 . 





1 


Found. 

2 




3 


Calculated. 






6979 


69-47 


69-01 


69-42 


H 




8-i 5 


8-i8 


8*14 


8-27 






5*15 


5-84 


5 49 


578 


O 




16-30 


16:51 


17*36 


16-53 



In further confirmation of that formula, an analysis of the nitrate 
showed that its composition was represented by the formula C 28 H 40 - 
NA.2NO3H. 

Whatever may have been the chemical character of the substances 
subjected to analysis for the purpose of the investigations already 
referred to, there can be little doubt that commercial emetine was 
impure and sometimes contaminated with a considerable amount of 
resin or of the constituent of ipecacuanha which to some extent re- 
sembles tannin. 

Podwyssotzki, 1 who pointed out that fact, proposed to remove the 
impurity by means of ferric chloride. The product thus obtained 
was snow white, it melted at 62°-6$° C, had a strongly alkaline 
reaction, was readily soluble in ether and very sparingly soluble in 
water. By the slow evaporation of an ether solution of the base 
partial crystallization occurred, but none of the salts were obtained 
in a crystalline form. The base was sparingly soluble in cold petro- 
leum spirit or benzine, but easily soluble when heated, separating 
again, on cooling, in white flocks. 

Some years after, the alkaloid of ipecacuanha was again submitted 
to investigation by Kunz, 2 who adopted a modified form of the 
method of preparation suggested by Podwyssotzki. Kunz's product 
was amorphous and colorless, but it rapidly became yellow on ex- 
posure. It was " by no means insoluble in caustic alkalies," very 
sparingly soluble in cold water, cold petroleum spirit or ether, but 

1 Pharm. Zeits.fur Russland, XIX, 1 ; Pharm. Journ., 3, X, 642. 

2 " Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Emetine," Archiv der Pharm., XXV, 461. 



6 4 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



f Am. Jour. Pharru. 
(. February, 1901. 



more freely by heating. By rapid evaporation of a concentrated 
ether solution of the base distinct acicular crystals were sometimes 
obtained. When free from moisture or adherent petroleum ether, 
it melted at 68°-74° C. 

The retention of minute traces of solvent was also considered to 
have been the cause of the differences between the analytical results 
of previous observers, and when that was provided against, analysis 
gave numbers leading to the formula C 30 H 40 NoO 5 . 

In none of the memoirs above referred to is there any statement 
as to the kind of ipecacuanha operated on, and it was probable that 
some of the discrepancies they present might be ascribed to differ- 
ences in the drug examined. The general probability that ipecacu- 
anha might contain more than one alkaloid was also recognized by 
Glenard as well as by Lefort and Wurtz, but in neither case was any 
definite conclusion arrived at on that point, so that the alkaloid ob- 
tainable from ipecacuanha has hitherto been always regarded as one 
substance, having distinct chemical individuality. 

On the contrary, we find that ipecacuanha resembles cinchona 
bark, a product of the same natural order, containing at least three 
alkaloids, and probably other alkaloids in small proportions. 

Of the three alkaloids which we have isolated, one is uncrystal- 
lizable, but capable of forming salts which are crystalliz xble, though 
for the most part very freely soluble. For this base we have re- 
tained the name emetine. The second alkaloid, named cephaeline, 
is crystallizable, less soluble in ether than emetine, but freely solu- 
ble in alcohol or chloroform; much more soluble than emetine in 
hot petroleum spirit, and readily soluble in solutions of caustic 
alkali. The third alkaloid, termed psychotrine, has been isolated in 
only small quantity, and exists in the drug in very small amount, 
relatively, to emetine and cephaeline. 

The failure of most previous observers to arrive at correct conclu- 
sions in regard to the ipecacuanha alkaloids presents some features 
of interest as showing how largely the results of such investigation 
may be influenced by accidental circumstances. 

Lefort's method of extraction with chloroform in the presence of 
caustic potash furnished a product consisting of an uncertain mix- 
ture of all the alkaloids, and, in the absence of any ascertained dis- 
tinction between them, their separation by Lefort was impossible. 
Therefore, the formula assigned to emetine by Lefort, on the basis of 



A Febru U aryTi9 a oi m '} Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 65 

Dumas' analysis, was necessarily inaccurate. The result arrived at by 
Lefort and Wurtz in their subsequent investigation was also defect- 
ive for the same reason, although the mixed alkaloids were then ob- 
tained in a condition of greater freedom from impurity by extracting 
the drug with ether in the presence of lime. 

Podwyssotzki's result obtained by employing ferric chloride to 
remove the tannin constituent was vitiated by using petroleum 
spirit for extraction. The product thus obtained was consequently 
an indefinite mixture of cephaeline and emetine from the action of 
the petroleum spirit on both the alkaloids, whilst probably the 
greater part of the emetine was not extracted at all. Kunz also 
used petroleum spirit and with a similar result, as is shown by the 
fact that the alkaloid obtained is described as (partially ?) soluble 
in caustic alkalies. The formula deduced from analysis by Kunz 
was therefore necessarily incorrect, as the material operated upon 
by him must have been a mixture. The experiments made by Kunz 
for ascertaining the constitution of emetine were also, for the same 
reason, fallacious, and therefore no importance can be assigned to 
the conclusions that were arrived at by him. The observations of 
Blunt, 1 that a so-called emetine of the molecular weight 508, as 
assigned to it by Kunz, requires one equivalent of a dibasic acid 
for neutralization, do not in any way advance the chemistry of the 
subject, inasmuch as Glenard had already shown that pure emetine 
assumed to have a combining weight of 248 is monobasic ; hence it 
naturally follows that if the base were assumed to have a combin- 
ing weight twice as great it would appear to be dibasic. Blunt, 
like Kunz, failed to obtain emetine hydrochloride in a crystalline 
form, for the simple reason that both chemists were dealing with 
a mixture of the two bases emetine and cephaeline. 

Glenard, however, was more fortunate in his investigation. That 
was due to the care taken in obtaining the alkaloid in the state of a 
crystalline neutral hydrochloride, after extraction, by treatment with 
lime and ether. As a consequence of adopting that method of 
treatment, the cephaeline was eliminated and emetine was isolated 
in a pure condition, as shown by the results of Glenard's analyses, 
which correspond very closely with our own. Indications of the 
existence of another alkaloid were observed by Glenard, but they 
were not followed up by him. 



X T. P. Blunt, Pharm. Journ., 3, XX, 809. 



66 Pharmacy Legislation. { ^iryffgoi." ' 

Glenard's observations have received, however, very little notice, 
and in most chemical books the formula assigned to emetine by 
Kunz has been adopted as the most satisfactory. That view, how- 
ever, must now be abandoned, since the results of our investigations 
show that the substance to which Kunz refers could not have been 
a definite substance. 

( To be continued.) 



PRACTICAL POLITICS APPLIED TO PHARMACY 
LEGISLATION. 

By J. H. Beai,, Scio, O. 
THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY THE GODMOTHER OF 
PHARMACY LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

It is especially fitting that the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
should take an active # part in the discussion and advocacy of phar- 
macy legislation, since this institution may properly be regarded as 
the godmother of practically all the existing pharmacy laws in the 
United States. Our present laws are largely built upon the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association model of 1869, which was mainly 
prepared by a member of the faculty of this institution, and was 
discussed and approved by the College before it was presented to 
the Association. This model is often referred to as if it were a 
mere copy of the English statute of 1868, but aside from the fact 
that, like the English law, it sought to restrict the practice of 
pharmacy to registered persons, it was built upon wholly original 
lines, and proposed an entirely different form of machinery for 
carrying the law into effect. 

THE AWAKENING OF PHARMACY. 

It must be evident to every observer of pharmaceutical affairs 
that we are in the midst of an extraordinary movement that 
promises to place the practice of pharmacy upon an entirely differ- 
ent footing from that which it has hitherto occupied. 

After a long lethargy, the pharmacists of the United States are 
apparently just awakening to the fact that collectively they are 
capable of exerting a tremendous force in securing for themselves 
a position in the social and economic scale more befitting the ser- 
vice they render society than they have enjoyed in the past. 



Am. Jour. Pharro.\ 
February, 1901. J 



Pharmacy Legislation. 



6 7 



Everywhere there are signs of activity among the pharmaceutical 
fraternity, new associations are forming, and old ones are becoming 
more active. Renewed interest is being taken in pressing for State 
and National legislation tending to relieve pharmacy from unduly 
burdensome taxation, and in movements tending to secure fairer 
and more profitable trade relations between the manufacturing and 
jobbing interests on the one hand and the dispensing and retail 
interests on the other. 

THE INCREASING ACTIVITY IN PHARMACY LEGISLATION. 

One of <the most important features of this awakening of the phar- 
maceutical body politic is the gradual evolution, through the joint 
efforts of the courts and legislatures, of a rational system of phar- 
maceutical jurisprudence ; one which shall protect the public inter- 
est withoat imposing upon the natural and constitutional rights of 
the pharmacist, and which shall secure to the latter the opportunity 
of exercising his calling with the hope of reasonable profit, without 
infringing upon the rights of the public. 

To secure this devoutly wished-for consummation, pharmacists 
must be active, not passive, factors. Plato says " that the punish- 
ment which the wise suffer who refuse to take part in the govern- 
ment is to live under the government of worse men." The penalty 
imposed upon pharmacists if they fail to take a proper interest in 
the enactment of pharmacy legislation is that they must live under 
laws enacted by men much less competent than themselves to pre- 
pare such legislation. 

THE OBSTACLES TO PHARMACY LEGISLATION MAINLY FROM 
PHARMACISTS. 

While we have heard much concerning the opposition of legisla- 
tors to the enactment of appropriate pharmacy laws, it is the writer's 
opinion, based upon actual experience in advocating measures before 
the General Assembly, that the prime difficulty in the way of phar- 
macy legislation is the active or passive opposition of pharmacists 
themselves. 

This opposition is of three kinds: 

(1) The opposition of those who, without knowing why, stupidly 
imagine that the law will in some way interfere with their business, 
or who, being conscious of their own unfitness, or that they are 



68 



Pharmacy Legislation. 



f Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
I February. 1901. 



conducting their business in an immoral or improper manner, are 
opposed to any measures which might possibly interfere with 
them. 

(2) The opposition, or what amounts to such, of those pharma- 
cists who insist upon extreme or radical provisions which, if inserted 
in the measure, would most likely secure its defeat before the 
assembly, or, if it should chance to be enacted, would endanger it 
in the courts because of its interference with constitutional pro- 
visions. The overcoming of this species of opposition, for such it 
is in effect, is especially difficult from the fact that it comes from 
those who claim to be friends of the pharmacy law and therefore 
entitled to especial consideration. 

(3) The third obstacle is found in the great mass of druggists 
who are poorly informed as to the nature of the legislation which 
should be sought, or are indifferent to the whole subjects These, 
when asked, generally profess to be in favor of pharmacy legisla- 
tion, but limit their efforts in this respect to criticising the measures 
prepared by others, and count themselves liberal supporters of a 
bill if they do not openly oppose it. 

Thus it appears that those who advocate the reform of the phar- 
macy laws must first overcome the opposition of those members of 
their own profession who are totally opposed to such legislation, 
must defeat the mischievous efforts of those who are in favor of 
radical and impractical provisions, must be able to carry with them 
the dead weight of the great number who are entirely indifferent, 
and then must still have left, sufficient energy to beat down the 
opposition from the extra-pharmaceutical forces which are naturally 
expected to array themselves against such reforms. 

A PLAN OF CAMPAIGN FOR THE ENACTMENT OF A PHARMACY LAW. 

It has been the writer's fortune, or misfortune, to have been en- 
gaged in advocating or opposing pharmacy legislation at every 
session of the legislature of his own State for the past eight or ten 
years. This experience has convinced him that failure to procure 
the enactment of desirable pharmacy laws generally results from a 
lack of experience on the part of the persons who are delegated to 
look after the interests of the measure, or from a neglect to set 
about the work in the thoroughgoing and systematic manner which 
is indispensable to the successful passage of a bill through the 



A FebSyfSr-} Pharmacy Legislation. 69 

legislature when any opposition is manifested. Assuming that this 
assemblage is more interested in practical results than in literary 
composition, and at the risk of being prosy, the writer will attempt 
to formulate a simple plan of campaign which, in his opinion, should 
be followed by those who attempt to procure the enactment of a 
pharmacy law. 

LEGISLATION SHOULD BE UNDER CONTROL OF THE STATE ASSOCIATION. 

Without stopping to argue the point, it is taken for granted that 
the State pharmaceutical association should assume the initiative, 
and should have full control and direction of all legislation affecting 
pharmacy. This organization is properly regarded as representing 
the best elements of the profession *in the State, and as probably 
expressing in the measures prepared by it the consensus of opinion 
of the druggists of the commonwealth, and its representatives, if 
they proceed discreetly, will be accorded a degree of attention by 
legislatures and by legislative committees that individuals or local 
societies could not expect to receive. 

AROUSING THE INTEREST OF THE STATE ASSOCIATION. 

The first great effort should be to thoroughly enlist the State 
association in favor of the proposed measure. This can best be ac- 
complished by calling a special session for the express purpose of 
considering a draft of the law, at which session all other business 
should be tabooed. Preferably this meeting should be held just 
before or just after the opening of the State legislature, in order 
that the measure approved by the association may be put in in time 
to secure a good position on the calendar. 

The draft should be presented to the association by some one 
who has made a thorough study of its provisions, and is therefore 
qualified to answer the objections which will invariably be raised by 
those who have not studied it, and will naturally want to know 
why this or that provision has been inserted or omitted. Gener- 
ally the association's endorsement can be obtained with very little 
discussion, but as the prime object of the meeting is educational, 
the fullest possible debate should be encouraged. The draft should 
be read and discussed by sections, and every person present should 
be invited to participate, so that every member shall go home an 
advocate for the bill, and prepared to meet and answer the objec- 
tions which may be brought against it. 



JO Pilar mac y Legislation. { A F4br°uYrV!i9 a oi m * 

THE FORM OF LAW TO BE INTRODUCED. 

If an entirely new law is to be submitted to the general assem- 
bly, it should be modelled on the lines of the draft approved by the 
American Pharmaceutical Association at its meeting at Richmond 
in 1900, and whatever changes are made in this should be inserted 
by a competent attorney, who has been employed to give the mat- 
ter his careful attention. If this is not, done, the probability is that 
some inconsistency will be introduced which will ruin the chances 
of the measure before the legislature, or render it useless if passed. 
Many a good measure has failed of enactment because of the pres- 
ence of a single objectionable clause or phrase. 

AMENDMENTS. 

As amendments to a bill after it has entered upon its legislative 
course are almost always dangerous, and frequently fatal, it. should, 
before its introduction, be brought as nearly as possible into the 
shape in which it will have the best chance of passing. Those who 
insist upon the insertion of radical provisions, with the argument 
that if the legislature does not like them they can be stricken out, 
should have their attention called to the fact that the amendment 
of a bill while in the act of going through the legislature always 
means delay, and more often than not it means defeat. Bills in the 
legislature cannot be amended with the same readiness that they 
can in a debating society or in a pharmaceutical association. H Re- 
ferred back to committee for amendment " has been the epitaph of 
many a brave pharmacy bill which, if properly prepared in the first 
place, would have had bright prospects of enactment. All provisions 
likely to imperil the bill should be rigorously excluded, and if of 
sufficient importance may afterwards be introduced into the assem- 
bly as separate measures. 

THE COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION. 

The final work of the association will be the important one of 
selecting the Committee on Legislation, or the committee which is 
to look after the interests of the bill before the legislature. 

The task of this committee is one of labor and vexation, requir- 
ing rare tact and patience, eternal vigilance and unceasing industry. 
To such an extent does the success of the bill depend upon the per- 
sonnel of the legislative committee that it would not be far from the 



Am. Jour. Pharru. \ 
February, 1901. / 



Pharmacy Legislation. 



71 



truth to say that its fate is settled when this committee is selected. 
State associations have numerous offices wherein merely ornamental 
members may be safely lodged, but on its legislative committee it 
needs its most resourceful, most energetic and most earnest men. 

WORK UPON THE ABSENTEES AND NON-MEMBERS. 

Immediately following the adjournment of the State meeting a 
circular letter should be addressed to the druggists of the State, 
whether members of the association or not, stating briefly what 
has been done and asking their co-operation in securing the passage 
of the bill. The principal changes proposed in the law should be 
explained, and care should be taken to state that the interests of 
those already in business will not be affected deleteriously by its 
enactment. The circular should be conciliatory in tone, and calcu- 
lated to allay the opposition of those druggists who are always on 
the alert to discover evil in measures proposed by others than them- 
selves. 

SELECTING A SPONSOR FOR THE BILL. 

The next important step is the selection of the proper person to 
introduce the bill into the general assembly. This is a matter of 
vital importance, since a mistake in the selection of a champion may 
jeopardize or even defeat the measure. 

In fixing upon the proper person to introduce the bill the follow- 
ing considerations should be kept in mind : 

He should be a man of learning and ability, popular with his 
associates and preferably one who has had prior legislative expe- 
rience. 

He should be personally interested in the bill, a believer in its 
merits, and willing to devote time and energy toward securing its 
enactment. 

He should be a member of a strong delegation, i. e. y should be 
from some city or district which has a large representation in 
the general assembly. As a member can usually command the 
unanimous support of his own delegation, and as the influence of a 
large delegation is important, other delegations having measures to 
pass will be chary of opposing the pharmacy bill. 

The bill should be first introduced into that branch of the general 
assembly which it would have the most difficulty in passing if 



72 Pharmacy Legislation. { A ^SSS^mL' 

much opposition be manifested. This is recommended for the 
reason that -the opposition will not at first have had time to organ- 
ize their forces, and also because those who are opposed to legisla- 
tive measures generally make their greatest effort when the bill is 
put upon its final passage. If the bill is successful in this part of 
its course, it will have added prestige and the advantage of being 
in the house of its friends when the strongest assault is made upon 
it. 

WORK AFTER THE BILL IS INTRODUCED. 

The real work of the committee on legislation begins after the 
bill has been introduced into the general assembly. This work is 
to convert a majority of the members of both houses to the belief 
that the bill is a clean, honest measure, that its enactment will 
prove a public benefit, and that it is generally desired throughout 
the State by those who are in the practice of pharmacy. If this 
impression can be made upon the minds of a majority of the assem- 
blymen, success is assured. 

It must be remembered that not one member in ten will read 
the bill, unless he has been specially requested to do so by some 
interested constituent. Most of them will rely upon the statements 
of those who have the bill in charge for their information as to its 
contents and purpose. If the measure seems to be generally popu- 
lar with men in whom they have confidence, they will conclude 
that it is a meritorious one, and will give it their support. Other- 
wise they will either hold aloof from it or vote with the opposition. 

Among the most efficient means of favorably influencing the 
members of the legislature are the following : 

(1) Resolutions by local associations and the colleges. Every 
pharmaceutical association and every college and school of phar- 
macy in the State should meet and adopt resolutions in favor of 
the bill, and forward them to the delegation from the county or dis- 
trict in which the society or college is located. 

(2) Personal letters from prominent pharmacists in every part of 
the State to the members from their respective districts, soliciting 
their support. Nothing is so effective with a member of the as- 
sembly as a letter, or several of them, from one or more of his 
constituents. It matters but little what the form of the letter is, 
provided it expresses the fact that its writer is in favor of the 



A Febr°uar y T^r-} Pharmacy Legislation. 73 

measure and desires his representative and senator to support it. 
Even if the member has previously made up his mind to oppose 
the bill, he will oppose it less vigorously, or possibly not at all, if 
he receives a few letters from his constituents in its favor. 

To secure those letters is really the most difficult part of the work 
of the committee. 

The temptation is usually great to send out printed letters to the 
druggists throughout the State, requesting them to sign and for- 
ward the same to their members in the legislature. At the best, 
this plan is a waste of postage and white paper. Members of the 
legislature usually regard such methods as an attempt on the part 
of some person or committee to manufacture fictitious sentiment, 
and very justly consider that if their constituents do not have suffi- 
cient interest in the bill to compose a letter in its favor, they must 
care very little what becomes of it. The best way is for the com- 
mittee on legislation to make a direct appeal to prominent phar- 
macists throughout the State to write to their senators and repre- 
sentatives. If, say, fifty such men can be induced to write to their 
members in the assembly, and the endorsement of the local societies 
and colleges has been secured, the bill, if it is a good one, is almost 
sure to pass. 

Not only should retail pharmacists be appealed to to write such let- 
ters, but wholesalers, manufacturers, physicians, and in fact any good 
citizen who by virtue of his social or political position should have 
influence in the legislature. It is all the better if persons entirely 
disconnected with pharmacy can be induced to interest themselves, 
as this is justly regarded by the legislature as evidence of the fact 
that the measure is really of public interest, and not a merely selfish 
effort on the part of druggists to create a monopoly for themselves. 

CONCILIATING THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 

If the passage of a pharmacy bill through the general assembly 
is to be free from hard knocks the influence of the medical profes- 
sion must not be lost sight of. The members of the latter profession, 
by virtue of their greater activity in politics, have proportionately a 
much larger influence in moulding legislation than pharmacists, and 
there is probably not a legislature in the United States which does 
not contain from three or four to a dozen or more physicians. Out 
of courtesy to the profession, these are generally all placed on the 



74 



Pharmacy Legislation. 



{Am, Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1901. 



" Committee on Medical Colleges and Associations," to which com- 
mittee all bills in any way affecting the practice of medicine, dentis- 
try or pharmacy are usually referred. If this committee reports 
unanimously, or by a good majority, in favor of a pharmacy bill, it, 
is properly regarded as a very favorable beginning, while if it reports 
adversely, the bill has a very small chance of ever appearing on the 
statute books. 

This fact is argument enough for the conciliation of the medical 
members of the general assembly, and of their professional brethren 
outside, and is also a good reason why those visionary members ot 
the pharmaceutical craft who are always anxious to insert in the 
pharmacy law some clause to prevent the dispensing of medicines 
by physicians, except in emergency, and to leave the druggist the 
judge of the emergency, should be promptly headed off. When a 
bill of this character makes its appearance in the committee room it 
very properly goes into the bottom drawer of the chairman's desk 
and stays there until the end of the session, or if it gets back from 
the committee room, is usually in such a mutilated condition that 
its framers have to look the second time to recognize it. 

On the other hand, if the pharmacy bill leaves the business of the 
physician strictly alone, the medical committee is usually inclined 
to be friendly, and this friendliness can frequently be increased by 
promising the support of the pharmaceutical interest to any medical 
bills which may be pending. 

THE USE OF MONEY IN THE LEGISLATURE. 

According to popular repute a liberal use of money among the 
members of the general assembly is almost indispensable to success 
with any measure; but this is certainly a base and unjust slander 
upon a very honorable class of men. There is not a general assem- 
bly in the United States the majority of whose members are not 
trustworthy, patriotic citizens, earnestly desirous of enacting such 
measures as will be of benefit to the State. If they sometimes fail 
it is because they have misjudged the character of a measure and 
not because of corrupt principles. Doubtless there are members in 
every legislature who are ready to solicit and accept bribes for their 
votes and influence, but such men are in the minority. 

In the writer's opinion, the corrupt use of money in the legisla- 
ture is not only wholly unnecessary, but harmful. The men who will 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1901. / 



Pharmacy Legislation. 



75 



accept it are generally well understood by their fellow-members, 
and the honesty of a bill is at once open to suspicion when such 
men become active in its support. They really possess very little 
influence beyond the partners with whom they work. No greater 
mistake can be made by the promoters of a bill than to secure the 
championship of these men. If they are willing to vote for the bill, 
well and good, but their active support should not be solicited, as it 
is more likely to injure than to benefit. If any attempt is made to 
extort money it should be met by the statement that the committee, 
is without funds for this purpose. If one such demand is complied 
with, the recipient passes the word along to his brother pirates, and 
then each one will demand a share of the blood money, while if the 
impression is given out from the start that, the committee has no 
money to spend, they will be spared the annoyance of having to 
refuse corrupt solicitations. 

SUBSIDIZING THE NEWSPAPERS. 

Another place where money is frequently demanded is by the 
newspapers. In nearly every capital city there are one or more 
newspapers which directly or indirectly solicit money in exchange 
lor their support of bills before the legislature, and some of them 
will threaten opposition if their demands are not complied with. 
While this practice is little better than blackmail, it is usually justi- 
fied by the journals on the ground that the writing up of a measure 
occasions extra expense and that it is no more than fair that the 
advocates of the measure should bear some of the cost. As a rule 
it is not advisable to pay newspapers for their support, though 
there may be occasions where such a course would be justified by 
necessity, as when some other organ has come out in opposition 
and by misrepresentation or misstatement of facts is liable to create 
a wrong impression with the public. On the whole, unless the sub- 
ject is first brought into the public prints by the opposition, a news- 
paper discussion had better be avoided, as it may and generally 
does arouse antagonism without materially adding to the strength of 
the measure before the legislature. 

THE LEGITIMATE USE OF MONEY. 

While we have deprecated the use of money in the legislature 
or for subsidizing the press, there is, nevertheless, a legitimate place 



7 6 



Phar macy L egis I a tion . 



(Am. Jour. Pharaj. 
I February, 1901. 



for its use, since it is only under exceptional circumstances that a 
pharmacy bill can be passed without liberal expenditures lor post- 
age, circulars, attorney fees, typewriting, and the travelling and 
other expenses of the committee on legislation. The right sort of 
a committee is not liable to make any unnecessary expenditures, 
and should therefore be its own judge of what expenses are neces- 
sary. Its members must necessarily devote a large amount of time 
and effort to the work of the bill, and should not be expected to 
meet their own travelling and hotel bills, nor be hampered by lack 
of funds for correspondence and printing. After paying all of these 
the association will still be deeply in the debt of the committee for 
its sacrifice of time, patience and energy in behalf of a matter in 
which the whole profession is interested. 

DANGER OF OVERCONFIDENCE. 

A danger to be specially guarded against is overconfidence on 
the part of the committee. It will frequently happen that the 
opposition is so well concealed that it may appear as if the bill 
would pass by a nearly unanimous vote, but if the committee per- 
mits itself to be influenced by these appearances the chances are 
that it will awaken some morning and find that some sharp old 
campaigner has put the bill into a corner whence it cannot be 
extricated during the remainder of the session. The only safety 
lies in unremitting vigilance until the law is upon the statute books. 
Bills have failed, even after passing both branches of the legisla- 
ture, because of a failure of the proper officers to sign the record. 

RECAPITULATION. 

In the foregoing the writer has endeavored to give a homely and 
matter-of-fact statement of his opinion as to the best method of 
procuring the needed reforms in pharmacy legislation, which opinion 
is based upon actual experience in the advocacy of measures before 
committees of the general assembly. 

The conclusions to which we have arrived may be recapitulated as 
follows : 

The movement for pharmacy legislation should be made by the 
State pharmaceutical association, since this is the organization best 
calculated to reach and influence the druggists in all portions of the 
State, and is the one whose endorsement is most effective with the 
legislature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
February, 1901. J 



Pharmacy Legislation. 



77 



The campaign should be begun by a special meeting of the asso- 
ciation for the purpose of thoroughly discussing a draft of the pro- 
posed law, and unifying opinion upon its sections, electing the 
special committee which is to look after its interests, and to provide 
funds for necessary expenses. 

The bill should be along the lines suggested by the A. Ph. A. 
model, should be finally pronounced upon and put in shape by a 
competent attorney, and should not seek to secure special privileges 
to the pharmacist in opposition to the general public or to the rights 
of the physician. 

The draft should be put in the shape in which it can reasonably 
be expected to pass before it is introduced into the general assembly. 
Those who have extreme measures to advocate should be compelled 
to withhold them until the principal part of the law is enacted^ and 
then bring them in as new bills. 

The special advocacy of the bill before the general assembly 
should be in the hands of a committee on legislation, the members 
of which should be specially selected because of their fitness for the 
work. 

The bill should be introduced by a strong member of a strong 
delegation, because of the vote-getting influence of such delega- 
tions. 

The existence of the bill and the arguments in its favor should 
be brought to the attention of the members of the legislature indi- 
vidually by the committee on legislation. 

All the pharmaceutical colleges and local pharmaceutical associa- 
tions should meet and adopt special resolutions in favor of the bill, 
which should be communicated to the legislative delegations from 
their respective districts. 

As many as possible of the influential druggists in different parts 
of the State should be induced to write their senator or representa- 
tive endorsing the measure. 

If any demand is made for money in exchange for legislative 
influence the committee should reply that the measure is for the 
public good, and that no funds are available for such expenditures. 

Newspaper discussion of the bill should not be encouraged, 
unless the bill is first attacked through the public prints, when a 
suitable reply should be made. 

The committee should not permit itself to become overconfident 



78 



Adulterations in Drugs. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1901. 



as to success, and should never relax its efforts until the bill has re- 
ceived the signatures of the officers of the last house through which 
it passed. 

When a pharmacist produces a new formula he must expect the 
question, "What evidence have you that your formula will work ?" 
and the same question may properly be asked concerning the plan 
proposed by the present paper. The answer is that it has had a 
practical trial and has been eminently successful. For years the 
pharmacists of Ohio tried in the usual desultory fashion to procure 
an amendment of their pharmacy law, meeting with worse defeat 
at each succeeding session of the legislature. Three years ago a 
new attempt was made. The program which has just been out- 
lined was followed in detail, beginning with a special session of the 
State Association to consider the draft of the proposed law, and 
followed by constant and systematic work on the part of the com- 
mittee on legislation. Not a cent of money was spent in the legis- 
lature or with the newspapers, and although the measure was 
more bitterly fought than any of its predecessors, it passed both 
branches of the General Assembly without the change of so much 
as a punctuation point. 

From the experience gained in that and other contests, the writer 
is convinced that, given a good draft of a law, a good committee 
on legislation, and systematic work along the lines which have been 
indicated, a pharmacy law can be passed in any State in the Union, 
or at least that a failure to secure its enactment would be due to 
extraordinary and very unusual conditions. 



THE DETECTION OF ADULTERATIONS IN DRUGS BY 
MEANS OF THE X-RAYS. 

BY M. I. WlIvBERT. 

It is well known that different substances are more or less opaque 
to the X-rays. This opacity is apparently due to the difference in 
the atomic weight of the elements entering into the composition of 
the particular substance under observation. We consequently find 
that materials having a low atomic weight offer little or no resis- 
tance to these rays, while other articles, composed of elements of 
high atomic weight, are nearly, if not entirely, opaque. 

If we take, for example, equal parts by weight of lithium, sodium, 



Am. Jour. Pharrn.\ 
February, 1901. J 



Adulterations in Drugs. 



79 



calcium, iron, lead and bismuth carbonates, we will find that the 
first two are quite easily penetrated by these rays, the second two 
offer rather more resistance, while the last two are comparatively 
opaque. This bears out the statement made above that the trans- 
parency of a substance is closely related to its atomic weight and 
density. 

Vegetable substances, being composed chiefly of oxygen, carbon 
and hydrogen, with little or no earthy materials, or elements hav- 
ing a high atomic weight, would of course offer little or no resis- 
tance to the X-rays, consequently we have in these rays a ready 
means of detecting the wilful or malicious admixture of the various 
substances that would ordinarily be used as adulterants, such as 
clay, sand or gravel. 

This proposition, to use the X-rays as a means of detecting adul- 
terations of this kind, is not by any means original. Numerous sug- 
gestions have been made from time to time, and quite a number of 
articles have appeared, especially in France, detailing or describing 
the use of these rays for detecting adulterations in different drugs 
and foodstuffs. 

The class of drugs that are especially adapted to this examina- 
tion by means of the X-rays are those that are not so well adapted 
for examination by means of the microscope, or whose macroscopical 
appearance does not give much indication of their composition, 
namely, such drugs as have no organized cellular structure, like the 
inspissated juices, gums and resins. Drugs belonging to this class 
usually occur in irregular masses, and very often offer considerable 
difficulty to the estimation of their quality. 

As an illustration, we may call your attention to opium. Many 
and various are the substances that have been found in this drug, 
small stones and leaden bullets being the favorite articles • used to 
give additional weight to this well-known drug. As another illus- 
tration we may mention asafcetida. This drug, as it occurs in this 
market, is always more or less adulterated with sand or clay, so 
much so that it is almost impossible to obtain a supply of the drug 
that will meet the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. An exam- 
ination of some of the specimens in the College collection would 
indicate that this admixture of absorbent clay or sand to asafcetida 
has been practiced for a very long time, as all of the specimens ex- 
amined were evidently adulterated in the same way. One especially, 



8o 



Adulterations in Drttps. 

o 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1901. 



a sample of so-called stony asafoetida, was found to consist almost 
entirely of solid stone, with a small quantity of gum adhering to it. 

The required technique is simplicity itself. Having the necessary 
apparatus, all that is required is to look at the interference 
offered by the earthy materials as indicated on a fluorescent screen, 
or, if we should desire a permanent record of the examination, we 
simply replace the fluorescent screen with a photographic plate 
and give an exposure of from ten to twenty seconds. Subsequent 
development will show us at once whether or not any appreciable 
amount of foreign matter is present. By making a comparative ex- 
posure of a drug of known quality, we can estimate, roughly of 
course, the amount of adulteration, and at least say definitely 
whether or not it is better or worse than the sample, the com- 
position of which is known. Among the drugs that have been 
examined for foreign matter we have found that gum-arabic, gum- 
senegal and manna are comparatively free from admixtures of 
inorganic materials. Asafoetida, as mentioned above, is constantly 
and grossly adulterated. Myrrh is another drug that has a more 
or less constant admixture of adulterating materials, not necessarily 
clay or sand, however, as one sample of Turkey myrrh, from the 
College collection, was found to be a piece of bark coated on the 
outside with myrrh. Of the three specimens of guaiac that were 
examined, one was a specimen of purified guaiac from the College 
collection. This seems to be free from inorganic matter. The 
other two specimens have a slight amount of foreign material mixed 
with the resin. 

Several specimens of benzoin were examined ; of these, one had 
small masses of yellow clay mixed with the drug, and another con- 
sisted largely of bark and chips of wood. 

The commercial samples of aloes that were examined were all 
free lrom sand and dirt. Several old specimens, obtained from Pro- 
fessor Kraemer, were grossly adulterated. One specimen labelled 
Socotrine aloes was a flat cake and consisted largely of sand or clay 
that had been mixed with the melted gum. Another sample 
labelled caballine aloes also contained a large amount of inorganic 
material. 

Scammony, galbanum and gamboge all seem to contain a small 
amount of foreign material mixed with the natural exudation of the 
respective plants. 



A Feb J ™V P i9 a o r ^•} Remington Pharmaceutical Stills. 81 

In addition to their use in this connection, the X-rays would seem 
to offer an interesting field for application in the examination of 
coal, asphalt and other hydrocarbon compounds that have a more 
or less constant admixture of siliceous or earthy materials. In the 
case of these compounds they not only indicate the amount of ad- 
mixture, but also give us considerable information as to the nature 
of the admixture and the exact location of the same. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN THE REMINGTON PHARMACEU- 
TICAL STILLS. 

By J. Pkrcy Remington, B.S. 

Pharmaceutical stills have been in use for many years, some have 
had a short life, others have answered well the requirements of their 
time, and have then been superseded by those of more modern 
construction whose merits were at once recognized. 

The still which is the subject of this paper was first devised by 
Professor Joseph P. Remington in 1872 and subsequently improved 
and developed as described in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
1878, page 15, and 1879, page 225. These stills have had a large 
use and are to be found in many parts of the world. It was with a 
view of introducing some further improvements that the writer took 
the subject up, and now ventures to present the still with the latest 
improvements. 

The important factors in the construction of the still are that the 
vessel which holds the water to be distilled should present a large 
heating surface to the flame, that the passage from the still to the 
condenser should be small and direct so as to prevent any condensa- 
tion at that point, and that the condenser should offer as large a 
cold surface to the vapor, on entering, as possible. The material of 
which it is composed, its strength and durability of construction, 
the ease with which it may be taken apart and cleaned are also im- 
portant considerations. 

The idea of reversing the principle of the tubular boiler and apply- 
ing it to distillation as seen in the Remington condenser was a 
happy one. In a tubular boiler the flame circulates around the 
numerous tubes and evaporates the water. In this condenser the 
water circulates around the tubes and condenses the steam; thus the 
old block tin worm, which was very difficult to clean, has been 



82 Remington Pharmaceutical Stills. { A §vg}fi&£i5fiL' 

superseded by a condenser which may be thoroughly washed out 
by running a swab through the seven short tubes. 

The fact which has often been overlooked in considering the 
condensation of vapors is that a tube, either straight or spiral, 10 
leet long and of y 2 inch inside diameter, has not the same con- 
densing power as ten tubes, I foot long and y 2 inch inside diameter, 
although both have the same extent of surface. That containing 
the ten tubes would present an inlet for the vapor ten times as 




Improved Remington Still. 



large as that containing the one tube and would thus allow the 
vapor to pass into and condense in the tubes that much faster. In 
the ten short tubes the vapor is cooled suddenly by exposure to a 
large cold area. 

Another important point which must not be overlooked is that 
the two methods of distillation, by the alembic form and the retort 
form, are radically different in principle. In the alembic the con- 
densation takes place in the inside surface of the head, in the retort 



A Febr°u^yT59 a oi m '} Memorials to American Pharmacists. 83 

form all condensation should take place in the condenser and none 
whatever in the head, therefore the head should be small and near 
enough to the source of heat to get warm and thus prevent the 
loss due to distilled liquid dropping back into the still body. By 
having the outlet for the vapors at the side the condensation in the 
top of the Remington still is almost completely obviated. 

These stills have been used for nearly twenty-eight years, and so 
far very little chance for improvement has been discovered. In 
the improved still, which is here presented, a tight joint between 
the still top and body is made by tightening up the thumbscrews, 
which are hinged to the still body. When the still is to be put 
away, the unscrewing of these bolts quickly effects separation. 

As the condenser, when in use and full of water, is rather heavy, 
it was found advisable to encircle it with a clamp, which is capable 
of being adjusted and can be made secure at any point. 

These are the only improvements that have been made in this 
still since it was first used. The rapidity of action of this still 
seems remarkable and only serves to prove the principles upon 
which it is built to be correct. It will distil two gallons of diluted 
alcohol per hour, or one gallon of water per hour, using the heat of 
an ordinary gas stove. It is made of tinned copper throughout, so 
that there is no danger of rusting, and durability is secured. 

By means of the self-feeding attachment it can be run continu- 
ously, simply requiring to be looked at occasionally to see that the 
liquid is not getting too low. 



MEMORIALS TO AMERICAN PHARMACISTS. 1 
By Dr. Fr. Hoffmann. 

It has been proposed to take some appropriate action in com- 
memoration of the semi-centennial anniversary of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association at the occasion of its fiftieth annual 
meeting to be held in Pniladelphia in 1902. Among the several 
practical suggestions, there is, in the first place, the very proper one 
uf having elaborated and published an historical sketch of the asso- 
ciation, or perhaps, better, of American pharmacy and the rise and 



1 This communication, having been originally received by Albert E. Ebert, 
Chicago, from Dr. Hoffmann, is here presented by permission of the former. 



84 Memorials to American Pharmacists. {^ebKSy^iSS^ 

progress of the association, including biographical notes and por- 
traits of the principal pioneers and representatives of American 
pharmacy during the nineteenth century. Provided that the right 
man can be found to compile a worthy literary monument of this 
kind, such a work would be an appropriate, useful and enduring 
contribution to the literature of American pharmacy and a worthy 
credit to the association. 

Precedents of this kind, although less comprehensive and speci- 
fied, are the similar memoirs: " Historical Sketch of the Progress 
of Pharmacy in Great Britain," compiled by Jacob Bell and Theo- 
philus Redwood, published by the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain at the occasion of the Fifth International Pharmaceutical 
Congress, held in London in 1 88 1 ; "Festschrift zur Erinnerung an 
die 25 jahrige Stiftungsfeier des Schweizerischen Apotheker Vereins 
am 16 und 17 August, 1893;" and u Festschrift des Deutschen 
Apotheker Vereins zur Feier der 25 ten Jahresversammlung, 1896." 

The establishment of scholarships and fellowships has also been 
proposed. Such endowments, however, can be of real use and 
benefit in a country of so vast an extent and population only if they 
are based upon very considerable funds, else their usefulness will be 
too slight and limited to far too small a number of recipients. 

Another proposition seems to have been the erection of some 
public monument in memory of one or more of the foremost pio- 
neers of American pharmacy. Well-founded doubts, however, may 
be raised whether pharmacy and its past and present position 
among the professions and the modern factors of intellectual culture 
and technical and industrial progress entitles its representatives to 
be ranked among the great master minds of the exact and applied 
sciences and arts, as well as the glorious political and military 
heroes whose monuments adorn the historical arenas and cities of 
both the old and the new world. In cases where gifted men risen 
from the ranks of pharmacy, such as Scheele, Liebig and others, have 
been honored by posterity with public monuments, this has been 
done in recognition of their scientific discoveries or special accom- 
plishments only. Whether the recently erected monument of Pel- 
letier and Caventou reflects exclusively on their scientific merits or 
not less on national pride also, may be a matter of doubt. 

When monuments to American pharmacists are to be erected, 
they may more properly be placed in some museum or public hall 



A rebr°ua r rv > i9oi m '} Memorials to American Pharmacists. 85 

at the centres of education and erudition than on public squares or 
in parks. A proper Walhalla for the monuments of American 
pharmaceutical celebrities would be the hall of the pioneer school 
of American pharmacy, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and 
the busts of Procter and Squibb might be among the foremost ones 
to be erected. 

One of the most appropriate, useful and creditable memorials, 
however, may be the institution of a prize medal to be granted by 
the American Pharmaceutical Association in recognition of superior 
discoveries or literary accomplishments in the domains of theoreti- 
cal and applied pharmaceutical sciences and arts. By bearing the 
impress and names of eminent and distinguished men and per- 
petuating their memory, this form of commemoration has been in 
use since antiquity. More modern memorial medals of this kind 
are, among others, the Copley, Rumford, Davy, H anbury} Fliicki- 
ger 2 and Pasteur* medals, while others have been made for once 
only at special occasions in memory of eminent scientists and instruc- 
tors, as for instance the memorial medals of TrommsdorfP and 
Scheele. 5 

x The H anbury medal was instituted by voluntary contributions in 1879 in 
memory of the distinguished British pharmacognosy Daniel Hanbury, who 
died in 1875. Copies of the medal in gold are granted every three years for 
eminent services or discoveries in the domain of pharmacognosy. The grant 
is made by the Presidents of the Iyinnean Society, the Pharmaceutical Society 
and the Pharmaceutical Conference of Great Britain. 

2 The Fliickiger medal was established in 1893 in honor of the distinguished 
Swiss pharmacognost, Fr. A. Fliickiger, at the occasion of his retirement from 
the professorship at the University of Strassburg. It i,« granted for special 
merits in the domains of pharmaceutical and cognate sciences and arts. 

3 The Pasteur medal has recently been instituted as a premium for eminent 
work in bacteriological research. 

4 The Trommsdorjf medal has been coined for once only at the occasion of 
the fiftieth anniversary of the entrance into pharmacy of the famous pharma- 
ceutical educator, Joh. Barthalom. Trommsdorff, in Erfurt. The medal is of 
bronze, showing on the front a relief bust of Trommsdorff and on the reverse 
a symbolic figure of Prometheus and of two youths, representing chemistry and 
pharmacy, with this inscription : "Pax divina coquit succos morbisque mede- 
tur."— " Tessara amicorum, 1834." 

5 The Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences had a memorial medal coined in 
1790 in memory of its member Scheele ; it showed a relief portrait of Scheele 
and on the reverse a symbolic representation of the discovery of oxygen, and 
had this inscription : " Ingenio stat sine morte decus." — "Socio prematura 
morte erepto Regia Academia Scientiarum Stockholmiensis." 



86 



A Procter Memorial. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1801. 



The suggestion of establishing a Procter- Squibb memorial prize 
medal at the occasion of the semi-centennial anniversary of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, therefore, may be worthy of 
consideration. Such a medal may bear on one side the relief por- 
traits of Procter and Squibb and their names and dates of birth and 
death, and on the other the emblem of the association and a pro- 
per device. Both contemporaries, united in close friendship and 
fellowship, have been typical and eminent representatives in their 
special domains of application, of the prime and ideal aims and 
aspirations of the earlier stages of American pharmacy and the 
American Pharmaceutical Association. Their joint memory, there- 
fore, may be properly linked with the fortunes and the fame of the 
time-honored representative association of American pharmacy. 

The question may be left open whether such a prize medal may 
be conferred at stated intervals, or at any of the annual meetings of 
the association, and whether its bestowal shall be confined to 
Americans only. 

Berlin, December 8, 1900. 

A PROCTER MEMORIAL. 
By Wilbur L> Scovm,E. 
I have been invited to offer my views as to what may best serve 
as a memorial to Professor Procter. It is a subject which requires 
much thought, for it involves the dove-tailing of two factors. A 
suitable memorial is, to my mind, something which will of itself 
recall the man whom it memorizes, and which will appeal to those 
whom it aims to attract. It should not only recall or stand for 
the man, but it should represent his character and ideals in as at- 
tractive a manner as possible, so that his endeavors may receive in 



On the occasion of an academic anniversary in 1827 another medal was 
coined by the academy, showing on the front Scheele's bust and on the reverse 
a veiled figure of Isis, whose veil Hermes tries to disclose. 

When a monument was erected at the occasion of the one hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of Scheele's birth in 1892, the Swedish Apothecaries' 
Society had an aluminum medal made showing on one side a relief bust of 
the Scheele Monument, with this inscription: "Carolo Guilmo Scheele, 
pharmaceutae chemico grati cultores Ordo pharmaceutia Suecia." The reverse 
shows a relief picture of Scheele's house in Koeping and the inscription : 
" Domestici parietes ipsum non famam continuerunt." 



^etouarVT?^'} A Procter Memorial. 87 

it a fresh and continuous impulse along the lines which he strove to 
uphold. 

It is difficult to present an ideal in a way which will command at- 
tention. We do not have time to indulge much in sentiments in 
these days, and it is only the most vigorous and compelling en- 
deavors that succeed in stirring up a true sentiment. 

We are intensely utilitarian. The David Harum style of senti- 
ment is the popular style to-day. An apple maybe rotten through- 
out, but so it be gilded it is sought after. And so even the sound 
apple must be "gilded, or it is disregarded. It's the gilding that 
counts and is wanted. It will not do to forget that. But how to 
honor the ideal and still be utilitarian is the problem. It is not a 
worthy memorial to gild an unworthy remembrance. 

Sometimes it is wise to carry a thought or a tendency to an ex- 
treme in order to defeat it. There is sure to be a reaction. If we 
can put a utilitarian gilding on everything, the thoughtful ones will 
turn their attention to what is underneath, after a time. And so a 
memorial which best accedes to the demand lor the serviceable now 
may in the end prove the best stimulus toward a worthy and hon- 
orable ideal. 

•Jfr * * * -x- % * 

One of the greatest needs in pharmacy to-day is an established 
and authoritative research laboratory. I do not mean one which 
will delve in chemical relationships, reactions and syntheses. That 
is foundation work, all-important and creditable, but it is being done 
by the university investigators, and we can afford to leave it to 
them. But not all men are able to build soundly on a sound foun- 
dation. Not all can see the relationships of the seemingly abstract 
to the practical. There is room for a large work in the purely 
pharmaceutical applications of chemical facts. The pharmacists 
who most strongly feel the need of a sounder superstructure are 
not in a position to know and keep up with the increase in funda- 
mental facts. The few who are enabled to keep in touch with the 
more scientific progress lack a stimulus and oftentimes an opportu- 
nity to connect them with the common needs of to-day. There is 
a field for the bridging of the need and the foundation' fact. A 
laboratory in which the everyday problems of pharmacy would be 
worked out by competent minds and hands additional to what the 



88 



Correspondence. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ February, 1901. 



Committee ol Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia is doing would 
meet a want. 

-* * * * * . * * * 

It is the custom of our larger universities to honor the memory 
of their scientists by naming a laboratory after them. All of our 
leading universities thus have one or more chemical laboratories 
named after one who has proved his love lor chemical science by 
either making his influence felt in that line by his own attainments, 
or by buying an influence with an endowment. I do not know of 
any pharmaceutical laboratory thus honoring or honored. A Proc- 
ter laboratory seems to me as fitting and influential a memorial as 
anything that could be bestowed. 

By this I do not mean simply a room or building equipped and 
stocked and with Professor Procter's name over its doors. 

The real memorial would consist in the spirit and policy within 
the laboratory. It should have a definite policy, with provision for 
carrying that policy out. And all investigations should be pub- 
lished as contributions from the Procter Laboratory, wherein the 
real memorial would appear. It would be not a local but a national 
memorial. 

Whether the investigations should be carried on by post-gradu- 
ate students through scholarships or by a director and assistants is 
a matter of detail ; but a continuation of the work and aims of 
Professor Procter in this way would, it seems to me, be a fitting 
memorial. 

Boston, Mass., January 3, 1901 . 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PROCTER MEMORIAL. 

In response to a letter from the Editor of this Journal concern- 
ing the most appropriate way of memorializing the life and work of 
Prof. William Procter, Jr., the following are some of the replies 
which have been received : 

Dear Sir: — In no other way than by appropriate memorials can 
those who live and heir the good works of those who have gone 
honor their names and testify to the appreciation of their worth. 

And in this direction we who live to heir the works of the phar- 
macists who served us loyally and well can do no greater tribute 
than to testify to the works of Professor Procter. No more patient, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1901. J 



Correspondence. 



8 9 



self-sacrificing, modest name appears on our records. In a neat 
memorial to him we will honor ourselves and credit our calling. 
Let it be neatly, artistically and well done. 

John Uri Lloyd. 

Dear Sir : — Yours of December 18th was duly received. On the 
subject of a memorial to Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., I am afraid I have 
nothing new to add to your able editorial in the November number 
of the American Journal of Pharmacy. You bring out very clearly 
the comparative value of the different forms which such a memorial 
might take. 

My individual opinion would be in favor of No. 2, a scholarship 
or a fellowship. I should like to see the American Pharmaceutical 
Association take hold of the matter. The honor would be reflected 
upon itself. While his working field was Philadelphia, his memory 
is a priceless one to American pharmacy. 

It is not too early to canvass the matter, for we should be ready 
at the next annual meeting to give it specific form. 

J. M. Good. 

Dear Sir:— -As a memorial to the life and work of Professor Proc- 
ter it seems to me that the endowment of a Fellowship for graduate 
work in pharmacy would be of the greatest benefit to the interests 
for which he labored and of largest advantage to the pharmacists of 
the United States. If such a memorial should be placed in charge 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association it would be in all 
respects a national benefaction. 

Albert B. Prescott. 

Dear Sir: — I am in receipt of your favor of the 1 5th inst., referring 
to a memorial to Professor Procter. 

I would suggest a scholarship as a suitable form of memorial. 
When the matter is in more definite shape, we shall be pleased to 
have you call upon us for a contribution. 

S. W. Fairchild. 

Dear Sir: — I do not know what has been talked about in refer- 
ence to the memorial to Professor Procter, but in view of the proba- 
bility that a scholarship or any other form which would be centered 
in or connected with the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy would 
tend to sectionalize and narrow the scope of the movement, I think 
a bronze monument erected in a park or square in Philadelphia 
might be the most practical. 



9 o 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1901. 



For myself, I would like to have the memorial a part of the Col- 
lege in some way, but there are many pharmacists who think the 
whole country has a claim on the " Father of Pharmacy " and who 
would be more willing to contribute to its success as a public under- 
taking. 

You may put me down as one who will gladly do his share in a 
private capacity. 

Horatio N. Fraser. 

Dear Sir: — The proposal to memorialize the life and work of Wil- 
liam Procter, Jr., meets with my hearty approval. That this should 
be a feature of the fiftieth anniversary of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association is also most appropriate. The form of memorial 
is-not so easy to determine. 

(1) My first preference would be for a bronze statue. More than 
anything else I know, it memorializes the man. Continually and per- 
petually it says, " Ecce Homo !" All kinds of people see it — children, 
youths, men, women; pharmacists, present and prospective; la- 
borers, artisans, small traders, merchants and professional men ; the 
rich and the poor; the heedless and the thoughtful. To all it says : 
" Behold a man who elevated his calling: go you and do likewise." 

(2) My next preference would be for a fellowship. This should 
be granted each year to a graduate lor the purpose of providing 
him the means to prosecute or continue research in some pharma- 
ceutical subject. I can imagine some jealousies that might interfere 
with the raising of the necessary funds for this project, which all 
pharmacists would be asked to participate in, and there might be 
friction at times over the bestowal of the honor. If all trouble on 
these grounds could be avoided, this scheme would serve to revive 
the memory of the man whose name it would bear in a more pointed 
way than the other plan. 

Other methods of memorializing Professor Procter have suggested 
themselves to my mind, but these seem the most appropriate and 
feasible. 

W. M. Searby. 

Dear Sir: — Replying to yours of December 15th, I would say, 
let the memorial be something permanent — as a bust, a crayon 
oortrait, an oil painting — something that will be at once an 
object lesson to those who shall see it and show to them that the 



1 



A *SS5£3ff'} Cwttspondence. 91 

American Pharmaceutical Association appreciates the good work 
done for pharmacy by Prof. William Procter. 

S. A. D. Sheppard. 

Dear Sir: — Your question pertains to a subject to which I have 
devoted but little thought, so that I scarcely know what my own 
opinion would be. In a general way I think the best means of hon- 
oring a man is to provide for a continuation of the work in which he 
was most interested. Two ways of doing this readily suggest them- 
selves : 

One is to provide a scholarship which shall involve research in 
the particular subject, and another to provide for an annual medal 
or money reward for meritorious work in the same line. 

As between the two, I hardly know which I would prefer. The 
scholarship would probably be most productive in results, while the 
annual conferring of a medal would probably awaken a wider inter- 
est in the work of the person in whose name the medal was be- 
stowed, 

I am sure the services of Professor Procter merit some substantial 
memorial, and I trust you may be successful in your efforts in that 
behalf. J. H. Beal. 

Dear Sir : — In reply to your letter, I will say that in my opinion 
Professor Procter was the father of American pharmacy. I say 
American, for in many ways the practice of the art of pharmacy in 
this country is far in advance of Europe, while willing to admit the 
great success of the Germans in chemistry, and the dainty skill of 
the French ; but this is wandering. 

Professor Procter, while a modest citizen of Philadelphia, never- 
theless was a true American, and a tribute to his memory should be 
something that will last. I know his writings will last and be 
quoted from for many generations to come. But in my mind there 
should be a bronze statue, life-size, erected if possible in the Con- 
gressional Library building in Washington City. It being a fire- 
proof building, it might be considered a lasting tribute. 

Yours truly, 

Geo. W. Sloan. 

Dear Sir: — Your November editorial on the Procter memorial, 
as well as your letter of recent date, has been carefully read and all 
phases of the question have been given thoughtful consideration. 



92 Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
Februarv, 1901. 



A memorial in enduring bronze would be handsome, but would 
exert influence only in one community. A travelling fellowship 
would, of necessity, be of influence to individuals, for no matter how 
great a work would be ultimately performed by the fortunate recip- 
ients of the fellowship, the main object of the memorial — the tribute 
to the memory of the greatest of American pharmacists— would be 
obscure to public mind. 

Far better would it be to conform the memorial to the ideas ex- 
pressed by the A.Ph. A. Committee on U.S. P. Revision at the Balti- 
more meeting of 1898. Could we not erect a research laboratory 
for Pharmacopceial work, say, in the city of Washington, dedicated 
to the memory of our great pharmaceutical mentor ? 

An expensive undertaking, I grant you, but would it not be better 
to devote a large sum to a grand memorial than a smaller sum to 
an object of limited influence ? 

To establish a fellowship at the low rate of interest now prevail- 
ing, at least $15,000 would be needed. Why not double this 
amount and purchase and equip a building to be called the Procter 
Memorial Laboratory, which would be an object of as much local 
pride as would a bronze statue and an ever-present memorial of the 
great man to every pharmacist and physician in this broad land of 
ours? Let the running expenses be defrayed by the U.S.P. Com- 
mittee on Revision, supplemented by the donation of time — say a 
month each year — by leading investigators of this country, many 
of whom I am very sure would be willing to perform such service. 

Think what a glorious object-lesson in pharmaceutical progress 
such a memorial would be, especially if it could be operated in con- 
junction with the Lloyd Library. Such a combination would make 
America the centre of pharmaceutical thought. 

H. V. Arny. 

Dear Sir: — In regard to commemorating the life and work of 
Professor Procter I am inclined to favor the monumental form. 

A monument erected to perpetuate the memory of him who has 
unselfishly labored for the benefit of his fellow-man, whose life has 
been devoted to instructing the ignorant, in aiding the weak, in re- 
calling the erring and in raising the fallen, is an inspiration for good 
to all who look upon it. 

The tendency, however, is to erect monuments to keep alive the 
memory of man's passions. War is passion, not reason. To 



Am. Jour. Pharru, i 
February , 1901. J 



Correspondence. 



93 



exalt the conqueror and to remind the vanquished is an exhibition 
of pride and vanity, coupled with cruelty, teaching no useful les- 
son, and serving no generous purpose. 

Let us erect a monument to Professor Procter. To provide funds 
for the accomplishment of this purpose, contribution could be 
secured through the sale of a bronze medal fac-simile of the design 
of the monument on one side, a profile of the professor on the 
obverse. 

The admirable biographical sketch of Professor Procter prepared 
by Professor Remington and read before the Richmond meeting of 
the A.Ph.A. ought to be in the hands of every pharmacist in the 
country. The above suggestion, if carried out, would excite more 
general interest and popularize the project. 

J. F. Patton. 



Warburg's tincture. 
To the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Sir: — I notice in your December issue an article by Mr. F. A. 
Sieker on Warburg's Tincture. May I be allowed to point out that 
both his formula and that of the National Formulary are defective 
in that they do not contain, or make any mention of, one constitu- 
ent, which was in the formula published by Professor Maclean on 
behalf of Dr. Warburg in the Lancet, Vol. II, 1875, p. 716, and cop- 
ied into the Pharmaceutical Journal, November 20, 1875, P- 4 T 9> 
that is, "Confectio Damocratis ?" There should be the same quantity 
of this added as of rhubarb. Democrates' Confection is an obsolete 
preparation, which in the London Pharmacopoeia, 1746, contained 
forty-two ingredients, including the " bellies of scinks," etc. It is the 
old Mithridate, and is represented by Confectio Opii, B.P., 1885. 
But in leaving this out, the opium — "Opii Colati" — which, it is true, 
is only a small quantity, about one in 200 of the confection, has been 
omitted also in the American publications. I have been in the habit 
of adding four of the essential ingredients of this confection in mak- 
ing my preparation. These are, in addition to opium, black pepper, 
ginger and cinnamon. I append my working formula. There is 
also half the quantity of prepared chalk that there is of rhubarb in 
the original formula ; this is added to the ingredients, which are to 
be pressed, and, I assume, strained before the addition of the quinine 
sulphate, else it might decompose the salt, and interfere with the 



94 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm 
i February, 1901. 



solubility of the quinine alkaloid in the resultant tincture. Still, I 
would add it, as there is a reason given for its presence in the for- 
mula, that it corrects " the otherwise extremely acrid taste of the 
tincture.'' 

I have seen bottles of the tincture, that were prepared under the 
direction of the late Dr. Warburg, which were free from sediment, 
and must necessarily have been filtered at last. Mr. Sieker says the 
quantity of myrrh ordered in the National Formulary contains 
" about thirteen times as much myrrh as the original ; " this is incor- 
rect. The original formula, to which I have referred, did not con- 
tain "electuary of myrrh," but "myrrh elect," that is, "picked myrrh." 
The preparation, as used in England, I think is always prescribed 
with the aloes. What its merits are due to besides quinine, I can- 
not say, but I have known cases in which it produced a marvellous 
effect, far beyond that of an equivalent dose of quinine. The dose 
is i to 4 drachms, but in India it is given more heroically. There, 
Professor Maclean says : " The tincture is administered in the fol- 
lowing manner : ]/ 2 ounce (half of a bottle) is given alone without 
dilution, after the bowels have been evacuated by any convenient 
purgative, all drink being withheld ; in three hours the other half 
of the bottle is administered in the same way. Soon afterwards, 
particularly in hot climates, profuse, but seldom exhausting, perspi- 
ration is produced ; this has a strong aromatic odor, which I have 
often detected about the patient and his room on the following day. 
With this there is a rapid decline of temperature, immediate abate- 
ment of the frontal headache — in a word, complete defervescence, 
and it seldom happens that a second bottle is required. If so, the 
dose must be repeated as above. In very adynamic cases, if the 
sweating threatens to prove exhausting, nourishment in the shape 
of beef tea, with the addition of Liebig's extract, and some wine or 
brandy of good quality may be required." 



Dec. 17, 1900. 



Yours obediently, 

Wm. Martindale, F.L.S., F.C.S. 



TINCTURA ANTI-PERIODIC A— WARBURG'S TINCTURE. 



Grains 



Socotrine aloes, bruised 
Rhubarb, bruised . . . 
Angelica fruit, bruised . 
Elecampane root, bruised 
Saffron 



240 
So 
80 
40 
40 



'ebrXy^9oi m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 95 

Grains. 

Fennel, bruised 40 

Prepared chalk 4° 

Gentian, bruised ?o 

Zedoary root, bruised 20 

Cubebs, bruised • • • 20 

Myrrh, elect and bruised 20 

White agaric, powdered 20 

Opium, in powder 2^ 

Black pepper, bruised 4 

Cinnamon, bruised 8 

Ginger, bruised 8 

Proof spirit ( specific gravity 0*920) 1 pint (20 ounces) or q. s. 

Macerate for seven days, press and strain. 

Dissolve in the product : 

Grains. 

Quinine sulphate 175 

Camphor 20 

After three days filter and add sufficient proof spirit to make one pint. 

Dose : 1 to 4 drachms. W. M. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

SELENIFEROUS SULPHURIC ACID. 

Most of the acid furnished the University of Nancy was found to 
contain selenium, which is easily detected by warming on water- 
bath five or six drops of the suspected acid with a trace of codeine, 
when green-blue color is produced if selenium is present. — 
Schlagdenhauffen and Page, J, Ph. et Ch., 1900, 261. 

H. V. Arny. 

VOLUMETRIC ALKALOID ESTIMATIONS. 

O'Linde has published in Archiv der Pharmazie, 1900, 102 to 
135, an elaborate paper on the subject which is worthy of transla- 
tion in full, as its bibliography is strikingly complete. The original 
work is chiefly devoted to the indicators in the alkalimetric estima- 
tion and he places order of delicacy in aqueous solvent as follows : 
Luteol, pernambuco-wood tincture, haematoxylin, logwood tincture, 
tincture of cochineal, brasilin, azolitmin, tincture of litmus, phen- 
acetolin, phenolphtalein, rosolic acid, lacmoid, etc. He finds the 
delicacy is sometimes influenced by change in solvent and by other 
factors, the conclusions being : 

(1) That no more indicator should be employed than is abso- 
lutely necessary. 

(2) The quantity of liquid in which the alkaloid is dissolved 
should be as small as possible. 



g6 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { A Febr ua r r y P i™' 

(3) The temperature of titration should not exceed that of the 
atmosphere. 

(4) The most favorable condition of solution for titration with 
each of the several indicators is as follows : 

Tincture of pernambuco-wood, tincture logwood, haematoxylin, 
brasilin, azolitmin, tincture litmus, phenolphtalein and rosolic acid 
with water alone, chloroform and ether to be particularly avoided 
with last two ; fluorescein and gallein with water and ethereal layer 
containing the alkaloids ; luteol in water or alcohol, chloroform and 
ether being avoided. Tincture of curcuma and poirroir blue have 
been suggested as indicators, but both are worthless. H. V. A. 

ESTIMATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS IN URINE. 

This estimation is difficult, for evaporation, even on water-bath, 
causes decomposition of urea, and erroneous results in conse- 
quence; and evaporation in vacuo is convenient only to expert 
chemists; hence calculations based on the density of the urine have 
been employed, the best known being the method of Haeser, who 
multiplies the two figures representing hundredths and thousandths 
of specific gravity by a constant coefficient 2-33, the product being 
grammes of solids in a litre of urine. Thus, specific gravity 1-020 
would show: 20 x 2-33 equals 46-6 grammes solids to litre. 

J. Amann {Schw. WochscJi. f.Cli. und Ph., 1900, p. 141), on study 
of the subject with an artificial urine of known strength, finds that 
the coefficient is not constant ; that the line representing relation of 
density is not straight, but a hyperbola. He therefore devised a 
table which he claims is reliable ; unfortunately, however, based on 
amount of total solids of invariable composition, viz.: Urea, 60 
per cent.; salt, 36 per cent.; extractive (sugar), 4 per cent. Were 
the proportion of inverted sugar greater than that above, different 
results might be obtained, and likewise the presence of albumen 
may affect result, hence extended work is highly desirable. Amann's 
table in abbreviated form is as follows : 

Specific gravity . roio 1*015 1-020 1-025 i'03o 1-035 1*040 

Total solids, grammes in litre . 20-3 30'S 41-6 55-5 70*3 83-4 95*2 

Lastly he gives an equation for estimation of total solids in urine of 
any specific gravity, namely, total solids = 6-4 -f- 1-02 P -f 0037P 2 ; 
" P " representing difference between specific gravity of the urine 
and that of water, expressed in units. H. V. A. 



Am. Jour. Pharoi.'l 
February, J901. J 



Editorial. 



97 



EDITORIAL. 

THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL OF THE A.PH.A. 

There is a marked difference in the duration of the germinating 
and life periods of different animals and plants, and the same may 
be said of the projects and undertakings of men. Hardly was this 
nation entailed in the conflict with Spain than rich men gave munifi- 
cently to provide for the exigencies of war. The nation to a man 
willingly contributed to the war taxes. Not always, however, do 
appeals to men meet with such ready responses. This applies more 
especially to appeals made for the establishment of memorials per- 
petuating the lives and names of the learned and the great. The 
merits of those who are truly distinguished appeal for the most part 
to special classes, and it generally devolves upon a few who have 
a particular regard and affection for them and their work to execute 
the tasks in hand. 

Last May the Huxley memorial statue Was unveiled in the Muse- 
um of Natural History, South Kensington, London. It required over 
four years (since November 27, 1895) f° r the committee to collect 
£3,380 for this purpose. Almost all memorials which are of real, 
lasting consequence require time for decision in regard to the most 
fitting character of the memorial, and also for the devising of ways and 
means for collecting funds for such purposes. Nearly two years have 
elapsed since Albert E. Ebert suggested to the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association (see Proc, 1899, p. 115) that something be 
done by that Association to revive the memory of Professor Wil- 
liam Procter, Jr. We believe that Mr. Ebert had put forth this 
suggestion quietly for a number of years to various members of 
the Association, and no doubt to almost all of the members it has 
at first seemed as though the project were a great way off and that 
at the proper time the right thing would be done. 

At the semi-centennial of the Association something will no doubt 
be done by the members that will be worthy of her history and 
her influence in promoting the welfare of pharmacy and medicine. 
It will be an unusual opportunity for stimulating the growth of the 
Association and for extending her influence in the professions and 
among the people. In order to facilitate the discussion of the 
various aspects of this celebration at the next meeting of the Asso- 
ciation, the Editor of this Journal has sought expressions of opin- 



98 



Reviews. 



/Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
I February, 1901. 



ion from some of its leading members in regard to one phase of the 
celebration, viz., the proposed memorial to Professor Procter, and 
some of the letters received in reply will be found in another part of 
this Journal. Of course there are many who feel a diffidence about 
placing themselves on record in regard to this matter. It should be 
said, however, in regard to all expressions of this kind, that every 
one should feel that there is no inconsistency in changing one's 
opinions after other expressions have been put forth, and no man need 
feel that he is bound to adhere to what he has said on this subject 
if he is satisfied that the project of another is more feasible and 
more suitable. For, as Emerson says : " If you would be a man, 
speak what you think to-day as hard as cannon balls, and to-mor- 
row speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it 
contradict everything you said to-day." It is the principle that 
needs to be established first and this is what the replies of those who 
have contributed in the correspondence referred to accentuate. In- 
deed, not only is it shown that the Procter Memorial is desired, but 
that it can be readily accomplished, as the letters of Samuel W. 
Fairchild and Horatio N. Fraser indicate. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Greshoff's Fishpoisons. Part II. Batavia: G. Kolf. 1900. Large 
8vo, 253 pages. 

It will be of interest to the readers of the announcement of the 
first part of this valuable addition to phytochemical literature (which 
appeared in the Bull, of Ph. and in Sc. Amer., 1894) to know that its 
untiring author 1 published recently (September, 1900) Part IL 

It is a still more complete summary of reports on poisonous 
plants than Part I was already. It gives a review of what is said 
in half a dozen modern languages on fishpoisons strictiori sensa ; 
is completed by incorporating plants containing more or less known 
active principles ; interspersed with the author's own good opinion 
and manifold experience in this field, adding some of his own analy- 
ses, to sharpen our appetite for the luxurious intellectual food he 
sets before us. 

x Y)r. M. Greshoff, of late attached to the Government Botanical Garden at 
Buitenzorg, is at present chemical director of the Kolonial Museum, Harlem, 
Holland. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1901. J 



Reviezvs. 



99 



It is somewhat after Dragendorff's " Heilpflanzen der verschie- 
denen Volker und Zeiten," Stuttgart, Enke, 1898, while the owners 
of Dr. Fred Hoffmann's list of popular names of household remedies, 
chiefly of the vegetable kingdom ("Pharmac. Rundschau"), will find an 
extension to that list in Greshoft's book. 

The author is mindful of the fact that the use of fishpoisons is not 
confined to such races as we are pleased to call savages, and 
produces, to illustrate this, a Dutch newspaper article, dated Octo- 
ber, 1898, wherein we are told that fishermen in our large rivers 
are making such good use of a fishpoison to ply their trade as the 
most lazy "black" could not improve upon. Heaps of dead fishes 
sometimes of 50 kilogrammes bulk (weight), accumulate on the bor- 
ders, killed by little pill (used as a lure) made from bread, powdered 
seeds of Cocculus indicus and whiskey, of which bait the fishes are 
very fond. 

The whole book breathes a spirit of stirring individual research 
such as emanated from " Die Pflanzenstoffe" of both Husemanns in 
its time. 

I noted an omission on page 20, which I might be allowed to 
supply. 

Baillon, " Histoire des Plantes," had stated the crushed leaves 
of different Viola species exhale an odor of hydrocyanic acid. Dr. 
Greshoff did not find HCN, but detected an odor of methyl sali- 
cylate (the well-known popular wintergreen-oil odor). From a 
special investigation on fresh plants in blossom, he concluded the 
absence of free salicylic acid. 

Turning to " Viola tricolor," Inaugural Diss., von Henry 
Kraemer, aus Chicago (our editor !), we read that "Manderlin" 
worked this problem out in Dragendorff's laboratory, in the year 
1 88 1. Mandelin's process of isolating salicylic acid from Viola 
tricolor (the whole plant) excludes^he said, the formation of sali- 
cylic acid. It must be present, in the plant, free, uncombined. He 
found it in the roots of other Viola species, too, in weighable quan- 
tities — 0-14 per cent, in the plant above the earth, 0*05 per cent, 
in the root. Those results have been verified by Griffith and Con- 
rad (1884). There must be an enzyme present in the plant 
which splits up a certain compound, since the methyl salicylate odor 
is not to be mistaken, and agreed upon by all writers, exclud- 
ing the wrong information from Baillon. The latest authority on 



IOO 



Revieivs. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1901. 



"Ferments," Reynolds Green, Cambridge, 1899, is silent on Viola 

and its methyl salicylate. 

A few quotations may be made from Greshoff's book : 

Anemone nemorosa, a violent poison when fresh ; harmless when 

dry. 

Clematis flammida, very poisonous, green ; dry, a good fodder. 

Clematis caripensis, " blistering leaf." 

Delphinium vestitum, " leaves poisonous to goats." 

Anonaceez; very little is known and investigated about the poi- 
sonous alkaloids from this family. 

Corydalis racemosa ; a single leaf will kill a man. 

Camellia Japonica., L., C. Sasangua, Thunb. The seeds are 
poisonous. 

Linum usitatissimum ; its glucoside yield HCN ; the wash- water in 
flax-works is therefore poisonous to fishes. 

Ruta graveolens, abortivum and anthelminticum. 

Ilex aquifolium; two or three berries work as an emetic. Twenty 
are fatal. 

Sapindus cmarginatus. It seems very strange that bees, insects 
possessing such a wonderful instinct, should drink the nectar of 
these poisonous flowers and get killed in this way. 

Centanrea scabiosa, 
Carduus nutans, 

Scabiosa succisa, all benumb bees. 

Coriaria Nepalensis ; leaves act as a powerful poison; seeds pro- 
duce symptoms like tetanus. 

Cytisine determinations.* * * C. Laburnum; seed contains r8 per 
cent. Ulex Europ. ; seed contains I per cent. Sophora secundi- 
flora; seed contains 3-5 per cent. Sophora tomentosa, L.; seed 
contains 21 per cent. Baptisia australis, R. Br.; seed contains r6 
per cent. 

Swains ona galegifolia, R. Br. One of the most dreaded plants 
by stockowners. * * * Some Swainsoneas are excellent fodder 
plants, while others produce (the) mysteriously fatal effects. Chemi- 
cal analysis has failed to isolate a toxic principle. * * * 

Pachyrizus tuberosus, Spr. The beans, when ripe, are poisonous. 
The tubers, too, contain a poisonous " resin (?)." This resin is an 
active fishpoison. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.'l 
February, 1901. J 



Reviews. 



IOI 



Piscidia erythrina} "The Indians have a tree wherewith they 
take their fish for their present use, being near their habitations 
* * * and so they take as many as they please. This is a provi- 
dence of God to those barbarous people, being a nature help for 
present food and sustenance." 

Leucozna giauca, B. Horses (and asses) lose the hair of their 
manes and tails by eating the leaves. This fact is well known in 
the Bermuda Islands. Reviewer assayed some time ago a small 
quantity of the 1 leaves, but did not detect any alkaloidal or gluco- 
sidal active principle therein. I suppose the plant acts only when 
M fresh." 

Eucalyptus microtheca, used by the aborigines of Australia to 
poison fish, by throwing fresh-cut boughs in the river. The Cucur- 
bitas from the Canaries and East Indian Islands are often used 
u in full sea" to intoxicate fish. " The whole yellow pumpkin is 
poisonous." This reads queer to Americans, on whose table a 
pumpkin pie is considered a delicacy. The pumpkin mentioned 
here is an Abobora amarella. The Dutch terminology of Kalbas 
and pumpkin is somewhat mixed ; but that is a fault of the lan- 
guage, not of the author. * * * The seeds of most Cucurbitacese 
contain some active principle, a tsenifugum, an emeticum, an abor- 
tivum. 

With the addition that Greshoff gives a few interesting items on 
some remarkable cryptogames (Cumarine in Polypodium scandess, 
Lindsaea cultrata and others ; an abortivum in Lycopodium Seleg.), 
I leave further judgment of the book to the readers. 

Leidz, Holland ; State University, J. B. Nagelvoort. 

November 9, 1900. 

Air, Water and Food from a Sanitary Standpoint. By Ellen 
H. Richards and Alpheus G. Woodman, Instructors in Sanitary 
Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 8vo. Cloth. 
iv-226 pp. $2. New York : John Wiley & Sons. 

The three essentials for human life are air, water and food. The 
consideration of these essentials in their relation to the needs of 
daily existence is the province of sanitary science, engineering and 
municipal finance. The authors in the work before us have taken 
up the consideration of the subject from the standpoint of the sani- 



1 Compare "Proximate Analysis of the Bark of Piscidia, Er.," by H. Berbe- 
rich. Amer. Jour, of Pharm., September, 1898, p. 425. 



102 



Reviews, 



f Am. Jour. Pharru, 
I February, 1901. 



tary chemist, and it will do much to equip the chemist for his work 
and to call his attention to the importance of the work not only 
from an analytical standpoint, but further in directing the attention 
of the students as well as the public before whom he may lecture 
to chemical subjects. Every one ought to be familiar with the 
facts of the sanitary science of air, water and food. 

"The human body, in order to carry on all its functions to the 
best advantage, must be placed under the best conditions and must 
be supplied with clean air, safe water, and good food, and must be 
able to appropriate them to its use. The day is not far distant 
when a city will be held as responsible for the purity of the air in 
its schoolhouses, the cleanliness of the water in its reservoirs, and 
the reliability of the food sold in its markets as it now is for the 
condition of its streets and bridges. Nor will the years be many 
before educational institutions will be held as responsible for the 
condition of the bodies as of the minds of the pupils." 

The book treats of the following: Air: composition, impuri- 
ties, relation to human life ; the problems of ventilation ; methods 
of examination of air; Water: source, properties, solvent power, 
as a carrier; the problem of safe water and interpretation of analyses; 
methods of examination of water ; Food : in relation to human life, 
definition, sources, classes, dietaries ; adulterations and sophistica- 
tions of food materials, methods of food analysis. The work is to 
be regarded as an important addition to sanitary chemistry. 

Veterinary Counter Practice. A Treatise on the Diseases of 
Animals and the Most Suitable Remedies for Them. Written ex- 
pressly for chemists and druggists by qualified and experienced 
members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Third 
edition. Published at the offices of the Chemist and Druggist, 42 
Cannon Street, London, E. C. 1900. 

It is not generally recognized among pharmacists that veterinary 
counter practice is a legitimate part of the pharmacists' calling, par- 
ticularly when situated in the country, as he is more likely from his 
knowledge and skill with compounding of medicines to be able to 
supply the requirements of the farmer, stockholder and pet owner. 
The suggestions in "Veterinary Counter Practice" are not intended 
as a "substitute for the clinical experience absolutely necessary to the 
equipment of a competent veterinary practitioner, but in hundreds 
of cases it will enable the pharmacist to understand cases detailed t 



Am. .Tour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1901. j 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



103 



him at his counter, and to supply the most suitable remedy." The 
arrangement of the contents is as follows : Medical and Surgical 
Treatment of Domestic Animals ; Veterinary Medicines ; Diseases 
of the Horse; Lameness in Horses; Dentition of the Horse; 
Diseases of Cattle; Diseases of Sheep ; Diseases of Pigs ; Diseases 
of Dogs; Treatment of Eye Diseases; Wounds, Sores, etc., in 
Animals; Diseases of Poultry; Posological Table; Miscellaneous 
Veterinary Formulae ; Veterinary Surgeons Act; the title " Veteri- 
nary Chemist ;" .the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Acts; Sale of 
Horses; Veterinary Curriculum; Methylated Veterinary Prepara- 
tions; Administration of Poison to Horses. A number of illustra- 
tions on lameness in horses and dentition of the horse serve to elu- 
cidate the text. The book is a valuable one, in not only the 
information it contains, but in throwing out numerous hints as to 
how the pharmacist may increase his trade in this particular field. 

The Student's Medical Dictionary. Including all the words 
and phrases generally used in medicine, with their proper pronun- 
ciations and definitions, based on recent medical literature. By 
George M. Gould. Eleventh edition. Enlarged with many illus- 
trations. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1900. $2.50. 

The new edition has been enlarged by over 100 pages, contains a 
large number of new illustrations and a new table of eponymic terms. 
It is particularly adapted to the wants of students, and contains cor- 
rect and succinct definitions of all the more common words that are 
used in the different books, lectures, etc. 

The book is of peculiar value to the pharmacist as well as physi- 
cian and dentist, as the price is reasonable, the size is convenient 
and the definitions are right to the point. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 
The fourth of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1900-1901 was held on Tuesday, 
January 15, 1901. Mahlon N. Kline, well known in pharmaceutical 
circles, presided. The meeting was a notable one, in that a number 
of papers of exceptional value were presented. Prof. J. H. Beal, 
of Scio, O., widely known for his important contributions on the 
subject of pharmaceutical jurisprudence, presented a paper on " A 
Lesson in Practical Politics Applied to Pharmacy Legislation " (see 



Pharmacen tic a I Meeting. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1901. 



page 66). The value of this paper is evidenced by the fact, as stated 
by the speaker, that the methods outlined by him have been practi- 
cally applied in securing pharmaceutical legislation in Ohio. The 
paper is one which is deserving the reading of every pharmacist of the 
United States, as it shows the value of individual effort, in a most 
forcible manner, in securing beneficial legislation, In commenting 
upon the paper, Mr. Kline said that he heartily endorsed what had 
been said by Professor Beal and that he was convinced that no one 
could gather together more common sense concerning the manner 
of securing pharmaceutical legislation than was done by the speaker. 
Mr. Cliffe likewise said that he had never heard a more succinct 
statement of the methods to be employed for securing desirable 
legislation than was brought out in the paper by Professor Beal. 
He said that he had known the motion to refer a bill to a committee 
for amendment to be useful in defeating a bad bill, as well as being 
an epitaph for a good bill, as brought out by Professor Beal. Mr. 
Cliffe referred to the proposed pharmacy law for the State of Penn- 
sylvania and said that it differed from the old one in certain 
respects, in that it (a) required all stores to have a license which 
must be renewed annually ; (b) the registration of apprentices at a 
nominal fee, which would serve to establish their identity ; {c) regis- 
tration in two grades ; (d) an improvement in the clause relating to 
poisons. Mr. Cliffe further suggested to those present that they 
speak of this meeting to proprietors and others in their respective 
neighborhoods, urging them to support the proposed law. Professor 
Remington commended very highly Professor Beal's labors for secur- 
ing desirable legislation and said that he was glad that the paper 
was so unanimously endorsed by the meeting. A special vote of 
thanks was given Professor Beal for his valuable paper and for the 
efforts hj had made in coming so far to present it at this meeting. 

An exceptionally valuable paper and one having special interest 
at this time, on account of the revision of the U.S. P., on " The 
Chemistry of Ipecacuanha," by Dr. B. H. Paul and A. J. Cownley, 
London, was presented on behalf of the authors by Professor 
Kraemer (see page 57). 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert gave very interesting papers on " The Use of 
X-Rays in Detecting the Adulterations in Drugs " and " The Produc- 
tion of Nitric Acid from Atmospheric Nitrogen," both of which he 
demonstrated by means of electrical apparatus supplied by Messrs. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. \ 
February', 1901. J 



PJiarmaceu tic a I Meeting. 



105 



Queen & Co. The paper on " The Use of X-Rays in Detecting 
the Adulterations in Drugs" appears in full in this issue. The 
others, on " The Production of Nitric Acid from Atmospheric Nitro- 
gen " and " Commercial Asafcetida," will be printed in the March 
issue of this Journal. Those commenting upon these papers were 
Professors Remington and Lowe and the Chairman. 

J. Percy Remington presented a paper on "Improvements in the 
Remington Pharmaceutical Still," which was illustrated by means 
of the apparatus, exhibited both in sections and in operation. Mr. 
Wallace Procter said that he had used this still lor a good many 
years and that the improvements in clamps for securing the head 
of the still and the attachment for holding the condenser were 
desirable features. Mr. E. M. Boring said that he had used the 
Prentis still for the making of aromatic waters and found the appa- 
ratus to fulfil all his wants, and said that it had in its favor the fact 
that no clamps whatsoever were used. He said that he thought 
the adaptation of the boiler idea with condenser, as in the Rem- 
ington still, was a good one. 

Among the pieces of apparatus exhibited was " The Druggists' 
Label Gummer," which is intended to do away with the old method 
of paste and brush and appears to be particularly adapted where 
large numbers of labels are used. 

Mr. W. L. Cliffe presented to the College two mortars, one 
which he obtained while on a recent trip to Mexico, which was 
made of stone of volcanic origin and used in the grinding up of 
Chile or red pepper, which is largely used with corn meal in that 
country. The other was a carved wooden mortar cut out of a solid 
block of wood, and was obtained from Arabia, it being used there in 
the grinding of coffee. 

Mr. Wallace Procter exhibited a pair of saddle-bags which had 
been used during the Mexican war by Mr. Mordicai, a former 
Philadelphian, an engineer in the U. S. Army. The bags still con- 
tained a number of medicinal preparations, as essence of pepper, 
mint, ammonia water, morphine sulphate, calomel, ipecac, jalap, 
laudanum, compound cathartic pills and iodide of potassium pills. 

Among the papers to be presented at the next meeting on 
February 19th are the following: 

(1) " Remarks on a New Cold Cream and Other Ointments." By 
William C. Alpers, Sc.D., New York City. 



106 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, {^braSyTSS? 1 ' 

(2) « Why do Syrups Spoil ? " By Alfred I. Cohn, New York City. 

(3) " Assay of Coca." By William R. Lamar, New York City. 

(4) " Gum Mastic." By Henry C. C. Maisch, Ph.D. 

(5) " The Ebulliscope." By William R. Lamar, New York City. 

H. K. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy was held December 31st, the President, How- 
ard B. French, in the chair. Nineteen members were present. 
The minutes of the semi-annual meeting, held September 24th, were 
read and approved as read. The minutes of the Board of Trustees 
for the months of October, November and December were read by 
the Registrar, W. Nelson Stem, and approved as read. 

The consideration of the proposed addition to the By-Laws sub- 
mitted at the September meeting (and published in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy for November, 1900, page 562) was then 
taken up and, after slight amendments, was adopted. The Revised 
Code of Ethics was then taken up for action (a printed copy hav- 
ing previously been mailed to the members), and after consideration 
by section was adopted with , slight alterations in the phraseology 
of section (4) four. 

Mr. Beringer presented a printed copy of the newly revised By- 
Laws, and as this completed the work of the Committee, asked 
that they be discharged. The report was accepted and the Com- 
mittee discharged with the thanks of the members. 

The President reported that he had asked the solicitors of the 
College for an opinion as to the advisability of copyrighting the 
name and seal of the College, who reported against the advisability 
of it,-as under existing laws it would not prevent any one from 
using the name of the College for business purposes. 

Announcement was made of the death of our fellow-member, 
David Preston, which occurred on the 22d of October, at Fallston, 
Md. Mr. Preston was elected a member in 1874. No further 
business, the meeting, on motion, adjourned. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, igoi. 

i 

i ^ THE CHEMISTRY OF IPECACUANHA. 
By Dr. B. H. Paui, and A. J. Cownxey. 
( Concluded from p. 66. ) 

In our examination of the alkaloids of ipecacuanha the Brazilian 
variety was employed in the first instance. The extraction was car- 
ried out in the following manner, mainly to avoid any possible dele- 
terious action on the alkaloids : A quantity of the drug was ex- 
tracted with cold alcohol, the alcoholic percolate mixed with basic 
lead acetate, filtered, and the excess of lead removed with dilute 
sulphuric acid. The filtrate was neutralized and the alcohol dis- 
tilled off. The clear solution was then agitated with ether and 
ammonia. That ether solution was next shaken out with weak 
sulphuric acid and the acidulated solution repeatedly shaken 
with caustic soda, in the presence of ether, until cephaeline, 
the base soluble in caustic alkali, had been completely separ- 
ated. The base, insoluble in weak caustic alkali, was then con. 
verted into hydrochloride and the salt recrystallized from water. 
Finally, the base was precipitated by ammonia. In the examina- 
tion of New Granada ipecacuanha the powdered drug was mixed 
with lime and extracted with amylic alcohol and the bases then sep- 
arated as before described. In order to obtain the crystalline emetine 
hydrochloride more readily, cephaeline should be completely 
separated by treatment with caustic alkali. Cephaeline is obtained 
from the caustic soda liquor by neutralization with acid and then 
shaking out with ether and ammonia. 

The third alkaloid, which we have named psychotrine, was ob- 
tained by extracting with chloroform, the ammoniacal liquid from 
which emetine and cephaeline had been separated by ether. 

(107) 




108 Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. { A Varch, i9 h oi!" m ' 

EMETINE. 

Emetine is apparently an amorphous base and almost colorless. It 
melts at about 68° C, is strongly alkaline to litmus, and neutralizes 
acids completely. On exposure to light it becomes of a yellowish 
color. It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform or ben- 
zine, but is only sparingly soluble in hot petroleum spirit or in 
water. On evaporation of any of these solutions emetine is left in 
the form of- a transparent varnish. Emetine is insoluble in solu- 
tions of caustic alkali, and is thus distinguishable from cephaeline. 

Analysis of the base, emetine, which had been prepared from the 
crystalline emetine hydrochloride by precipitation with ammonia^ 
gave the following results. These results correspond very closely with 
those obtained by Glenard and with the formula C 15 H 22 N0 2 — 248 
or Qo H 44N 2 4 = 496. 

i. 2. Mean. Theory. 

Carbon 72*23 71*80 72*01 72*58 

Hydrogen 8*71 9*02 8*86 8*87 

Nitrogen — 5*75 5*75 5*64 

Oxygen — — 13*38 12*91 

ioo* ioo* 

The platinochloride was obtained as a buff-colored amorphous pre- 
cipitate, almost insoluble in water or alcohol. It was dried until con- 
stant at iOO° C, being partially decomposed at 120° C. On analysis 
•208 gramme gave -045 gramme platinum = 21-63 percent. Calcu- 
lated for (C 15 H 22 N0 2 ) 2 PtCl 4 2HCl = 21*53 percent. Molecular weight 
of the platinum salt, 905-7. 

On titrating emetine with hydrochloric acid it was found to require 
for neutralization 14*56 per cent. HC1; this result corresponds 
with 12*71 per cent, in the hydrochloride, the calculated quantity 
being 12*83 per cent., agreeing with the formula C 15 H 22 N0 2 HC1 or 
C 30 H 44 N 2 O 4 .2HCl. 

The saturating power of the base is, of course, the same whether 
emetine is expressed as monovalent C 15 H 22 N0 2 = 248, according 
to Glenard, or bivalent with the formula CgoH^N^ = 496, as in 
either case 248 parts of emetine are equal to 36*5 parts HC1 or 496 
parts to 98 parts H 2 S0 4 , respectively. 

Emetine hydrochloride may be obtained in a crystalline form by 
evaporating a water solution slowly or by adding ether to an alco- 
holic solution. From water the salt crystallizes in radiating groups 



A Va°rch,r9oi. rnJ "i Chemistry of Ipecacuanha, 109 

of silky filaments, which are very readily soluble in water. The hy- 
drochloride is rendered anhydrous at iOO° C. The dried salt on 
analysis gave 12-91 per cent. HCl. Calculated for C 15 H 22 N0 2 HC1 or 
QoH^N^jO^HCl, requires 12-83 per cent. HCl. 

The salt crystallizes with greater facility in the presence of an 
excess of acid. On adding moderately strong hydrochloric acid to 
emetine it is immediately converted into a bulky mass of fine silky 
crystals, whereas the formation of crystals from a neutral aqueous 
solution of the^salt does not take place when the solution is dilute 
until some time has elapsed and the solution has become concen- 
trated. This difference of behavior suggested the possibility that 
an acid salt was formed, but, on analysis of the silky mass of crys- 
tals formed on adding strong acid to the base, that was not found to 
be the case. Considerable difficulty was found in obtaining the 
crystals which separated from an acid solution in a fit state for 
analysis on account of the large quantity of mother liquor absorbed 
by the crystals. Drying by heat gave a neutral salt containing 
12-83 P er cent.' HCl as required by theory. Analysis of the crys- 
tals well pressed on bibulous paper showed that no acid salt is formed, 
but that the presence of free hydrochloric acid merely promotes the 
crystallization of the neutral salt. The following results were 
obtained with the material thus imperfectly dried : 







Calculated for 






C 15 Ho 2 N0 2 .HC1.3H 2 




Found. 


or C30H44N2O4.2HCl.6H2O. 






73*26 


HCl . 




10-78 






15*96 




IOO" 


100 * 



The amount of hydrochloric acid in a dry acid salt having the 
composition C 15 H 22 N0 2 .2HC1 or C 30 H 44 N 2 O 4 4HCl would be 22-74 
per cent. 

Emetine Hydrobromide. — This salt can be obtained by adding 
potassium bromide to a solution of emetine hydrochloride or by 
neutralizing the base with hydrobromic acid. It crystallizes in 
tufts of silky needles. Emetine hydrobromide is now prepared on a 
commercial scale, and a sample supplied to us by Mr. W. G. Whif- 
fen gave on analysis the following results: 



I IO 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1901. 



Calculated for 

KmHBr. C 15 Ho 2 N02.HBr or 

Commercial CaoH^NaO^HBr. 

Crystalline. Anhydrous. Anhydrous. 

Emetine 66-90 75-25 75-38 

Hydrobromic acid 22-01 24*75 24*62 

Water 11-09 — — 



ioo- IOO" IOO' 

The commercial salt appears to approximate to a salt having the 
following composition : 

Emetine 67*95 

HBr 22-19 

Water 9-86 



ioo- 

which corresponds with the formula C 15 H 22 N0 2 HBr.2H 2 or CgoH^- 
N 2 4 2HBr.4H 2 0. 

Emetine hydrobromide becomes anhydrous at 100° C, and the 
crystalline salt effloresces on exposure to air, until it' has the compo- 
sition approximating to a salt with the above composition, when it 
remains constant. It is a permanent salt, undergoing no alteration 
in color after being kept for some months. It is readily soluble in 
water, but much less so than emetine hydrochloride, difficultly solu- 
ble in absolute alcohol or in chloroform. 

Emetine hydriodide was obtained in the form of silky needles by 
slow evaporation of its alcoholic solutions, and the nitrate in crystal- 
line tufts by dissolving the nitrate in alcohol and adding ether. 

The mercury salt was obtained in granular crystals, which melt 
to a resin in hot water on adding mercuric chloride to emetine hy- 
drochloride. The chromate, picrate, ferricyanide and the gold salt 
have also been obtained. The sulphate, acetate and oxalate are 
very soluble in water or alcohol, and apparently uncrystallizable. 

CEPHAELINE. 

This base, when precipitated from a solution of its salts by am- 
monia, is colorless ; but, like emetine, it soon acquires a yellow color 
on exposure to light. It is very much less soluble in ether than eme- 
tine and is very sparingly soluble in cold petroleum spirit, but with 
the aid of heat is more freely dissolved, and on cooling the solution 
is again deposited in a flocculent form. On evaporation of a solution 



iiti. .lour. Pharm. 
March, 1901. 



} Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 1 1 1 



of cephaeline in alcohol, ether or petroleum spirit, the base is left in 
the form of a faintly yellowish transparent varnish. From ether 
cephaeline separates in the form of bunches of delicate silky needles 
which form more readily in the presence of water. It is readily ob- 
tained in a crystalline form by agitating a salt of cephaeline with 
ether and ammonia, when cephaeline crystallizes out almost im- 
mediately. Cephaeline precipitated by ammonia melts at about 102° 
C. The crystals from ether melt in a capillary tube at g6°-g^>° C. 
On exposure of, the crystals to a temperature of ioo° C. there is a 
loss of weight amounting to 478 per cent.; at 120 C. there is no 
further loss in weight, but the base acquires a brown color without 
melting and evidently undergoes some alteration which has not yet 
been studied. 

Cephaeline is soluble in dilute caustic alkali and is thus readily 
separated from emetine. 

Analysis of the anhydrous base gave the following results, which 
correspond with the formula C 14 H 20 NO 2 = 234 or C 28 H 40 N 2 O 4 = 
46S: 

Calculated. 

Carbon 71*28 7179 

Hydrogen 8*69 8*54 

Nitrogen 6*24 5*94 

Oxygen 1379 1373 



100 ' 100 * 

On titrating the base it was found to require for neutralization 
15-66 and I 5-67 per cent. HCl, the calculated quantity for the above 
formula as monovalent C 14 H 20 NO 2 or as bivalent C, 8 H 40 N 2 O 4 being 
15-59. The mean of these results would give 13-54 per cent, of 
HCl in the salt as against 13-49 per cent, calculated. 

The platinochloride is yellow and decidedly darker in color than 
the corresponding salt of emetine. On analysis it gave 22-38 per 
cent, of platinum, the calculated quantity for the formula (C 14 H 20 - 
N0 2 ) 2 .PtCl 4 .2HCl, molecular weight 878, being 22-21 per cent, 
platinum. 

Cephaeline Hydrochloride. — Cephaeline, like emetine, forms the 
crystalline hydrochloride with greater facility in the presence of ex- 
cess of acid. It crystallizes in fine transparent rhombic crystals 
and has the composition represented by the formula 

C 14 H 20 NO 2 .HCl3H 2 O or C 28 H 40 N 2 O 4 2HCl,6H 2 O 



112 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
March, 1901. 



PSYCHOTRINE. 

This alkaloid exists in ipecacuanha in very small amount, 
relatively, to emetine and cephaeline, and it differs from those 
alkaloids in being very sparingly soluble in ether. As previously 
mentioned, it is obtained by extracting with chloroform the ammoni- 
acal liquid from which emetine and cephaeline had been previously 
extracted by ether. The quantity obtained was too small to allow 
of complete examination, but the physical characters of psychotrine 
distinguish it in a very definite manner. It is a crystalline alkaloid 
which separates from ether in well-defined transparent prisms of a 
pale lemon yellow color. It melts at about 1 38 C, neutralizes acids, 
and apparently has a much higher molecular weight than either eme- 
tine or cephaeline. Psychotrine dissolves readily in alcohol or 
chloroform, the solutions becoming dark-colored on exposure to 
light and depositing a dark brown substance. 

In order to obtain more precise information as to the molecular 
weight of emetine and cephaeline than is given by the analysis of 
their platinum salts, we carried out many experiments for that pur- 
pose, employing Beckmann's boiling point method. 

In dealing with emetine and cephaeline there are several diffi- 
culties to be overcome in order to accurately ascertain the rise in the 
boiling point of the solvent as the basis of the molecular weight de- 
termination. Sakurai, Landsberger and others have suggested 
modifications of Beckmann's process in order to obviate the varia- 
tions peculiar to it ; but in dealing with emetine and cephaeline 
there is difficulty in obtaining the solvent that shall have no action 
on the alkaloid at the 'boiling point of the solvent. Ether is the 
only solvent for emetine and cephaeline that we have found to allow 
the solution of the alkaloid to be boiled without decomposition of 
the alkaloid as judged by the change in color. Ether, however, has 
the great disadvantage that when in a dry condition it does not 
readily dissolve these alkaloids. When emetine and cephaeline are 
liberated in a nascent condition they are readily dissolved by ether 
in the presence of water, but that is not the case when the dry base 
is added to perfectly dry ether. Dry chloroform and absolute al- 
cohol readily dissolve these bases, but judging frbm the intense 
darkening of the solutions and separation of floccuient matter after 
boiling, there is an apparent alteration. Trustworthy results with 
ether could only be obtained by employing the modification of the 



Am. Jour. Phar.ii.") 
March, 1901. j 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



i*3 



method suggested by Sakurai, 1 of weighing the solvent after noting 
the rise in temperature and ascertaining the amount of alkaloid dis- 
solved in the ascertained quantity of the solvent. 

The results obtained by Beckmann's method were as follows : 







Molecular Weight. 


T? tn f i n f* 

JZ, LLL\Z till c . 


Ether as solvent. 




Molecular weight 


(i) 249 319 283 294 


286 




(2) 240 334 285 


286 




Ethylic alcohol as solvent. 






353 (i)38r 519 477 


432 




(2) 484 527 547 


519 




(3) 473 439 652 


521 




Chloroform as solvent. 






(1) 402 


402 




(2) 469 


469 


Cephaeline. 


Ethylic alcohol as solvent. 






533 593 


563 



The figures I, 2, 3 denote that there was a first, second and third 
addition of the alkaloid to the same solution. With the exception 
of ether, the solvents employed have, as already noted, a great color- 
changing action on the alkaloids. The simple expression of our 
analytical data gives the empirical formula for emetine as C 15 H 22 N0 2 
= 248, and for cephaeline C 14 H 20 NO 2 == 234, in which case the 
figures have a monobasic value. The determination of the weight of 
the molecule as shown by the rise in boiling point when employing 
ethylic alcohol and chloroform as solvents, while not entirely satis- 
factory from the possibility of decomposition of the alkaloids having 
to some extent taken place, nevertheless points to the molecular 
formulae and weights being for emetine CgoH^NX^ = 496, and for 
cephaeline C 28 H 40 N 2 O 4 = 468. On this point, however, further in- 
formation no doubt will be forthcoming from such results as may be 
obtained by a splitting up of the molecule. 

It is satisfactory to be able to chronicle the fact that the results 
as above obtained in the investigation of the ipecacuanha alkaloids 
have been practically confirmed by so eminent an authority on al- 
kaloids as Dr. Hesse, who kindly gave us the benefit of his valuable 

1 Jour. Chem. Soc, LXI, 989. 



ii4 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1901. 



assistance by examination of emetine and cephaeline ; x as well as 
by E. Merck. 2 

Dr. Hesse's results as compared with our own are thus tabulated : 









Calculated. 


Emetine. 


Paul and Cownle3 T . 


Hesse. 


Paul and Cownlev. 
CisHnoXOo or 
CaoH44N 2 04. 


Hesse. 

C30H40N2O.. 




72*01 


71-99 


72-58 


72-87 




8-86 


8-12 


8-87 


8-50 


N 


575 




5'64 


5'66 




21-63 


21-67 


21-52 


21*56 


Cephaeline. 






CuHgoNOa or 
C28H40N2O4. 


CjsHsgNaO*. 


C 


71-28 


71-84 


7i'79 


72- 10 


H 


8'6 9 


8-n 


8-54 


8-15 


N 


6-24 


_ 


5*94 


6 - oo 


Platinum 


22-38 


22*40 


22 - 2I 


2224 



In other words, then, these results agree so closely that our for- 
mulae for the two bases may be accepted as correct if we assign to 
each the formula respectively as, emetine, Co (l H 44 N 2 4 , and cephae- 
line, CogH^NoC^, as will be seen by the following molecular weights i 

Cephaeline. 
234 x 2 = 468 

466 



Emetine. 

Paul and Cownley 248 x 2 = 496 

Hesse 494 



THE PHARMACOLOGY OF EMETINE AND CEPHAELINE. 

Dr. R. B. Wild, Lecturer on Materia Medica and Therapeutics at 
Owens College and the Victoria University, Manchester, has kindly 
carried out the experimental investigation of the comparative 
action of emetine and cephaeline upon certain tissues and organs, 
in the pharmacological laboratory of the Owens College. The re- 
sults obtained afford some information as to the relative activity of 
these bases and give some indications of their therapeutic valued 
The hydrochlorides of the bases were respectively employed. It 
was found that emetine and cephaeline both possess powerful 
emetic action ; but the emetic dose of emetine was double that of 
cephaeline ; on the other hand, the nausea produced by cephaeline 

1 Pharm. fourn., LXI, 98. 

2 Berichte, 1894, 50. 

3 The La?icet, Nov. 23, 1895. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March. 1901. 



Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. 



"5 



is double that of emetine. For therapeutic use it seems probable 
that in cephaeline we have a powerful and certain emetic in doses 
of 5 to 10 milligrammes. In acute catarrh and fever, where vomit- 
ing is not required, emetine in small doses seems likely to prove of 
considerable value, and as an emetic in doses of 10 to 20 milli- 
grammes when a more depressing action is required. In other words, 
then, emetine is a good expectorant, but cephaeline not quite its 
equal, while cephaeline is undoubtedly superior as an emetic. 

BRAZILIAN AND COLUMBIAN IPECACUANHA. 

The observations of Dr. Wild are of importance as indicating 
that ipecacuanha for pharmaceutical purposes must be regarded 
from the nature and the amount of emetine and cephaeline rather 
than from its botanical source. 

The results of analyses of selected samples of the two kinds of 
ipecacuanha show that although the total amount of alkaloid in the 
two kinds does not differ materially, the proportions of emetine and 
cephaeline are so different that the drugs cannot be regarded as 
interchangeable. 

This is apparent from the following analyses: 





Brazilian. 










Columbian. 




Root. 


Stem. 






Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




i*45 


ri8 


0-89 




'52 


•59 






•04 


03 


<ro6 




2'0I 


r8o 


2 - 20 



This difference is made clearer from the following percentage 
composition : 



Emetine . . 
Cephaeline . 
Psychotrine 



Brazilian. 



Columbian. 



Root. 



72-14 
25-87 
1 '99 



Stem. 



65-6 
32-8 
r6 

IOO" 



40'5 
56-8 
2 '7 
ioo- 



u6 Chemistry of Ipecacuanha. { ^mS'/SSl"* 

The method of analysis adopted consists in taking 50 grammes 
of the root, mixing with one-fifth of its weight of lime, moistening 
with water and then extracting with amylic alcohol. The amylic 
percolate is extracted with dilute acid, and the acid liquid shaken out 
with ether and ammonia to extract the emetine and cephaeline, leav- 
ing psychotrine to be extracted by chloroform from the ammoniacal 
liquid. The ether residue, consisting of emetine and cephaeline, is 
then titrated with semi-normal hydrochloric acid, of which 1 c.c. == 
0-124 gramme emetine and 0-117 gramme cephaeline. Emetine and 
cephaeline are then separated by treating the hydrochloric acid solu- 
tion with caustic soda in the presence of ether and repeatedly shak- 
ing the ether solution with soda until all the cephaeline has been 
separated. The ether solution of emetine is evaporated and the 
residue titrated with standard acid, the result being expressed as 
emetine. The soda liquor is acidified, shaken with ether and am- 
monia, and the ether residue of cephaeline titrated as with emetine. 
The total number of cubic centimetres of semi-normal hydrochloric 
acid used in titrating the separated bases, emetine and cephaeline, 
should equal the number required before their separation. When 
the separation has been satisfactorily made, the emetine hydrochlo- 
ride should be readily obtained in a crystalline form on evaporating 
the solution, and the solution of cephaeline hydrochloride should give 
the characteristic crystals of cephaeline when shaken with ether and 
ammonia. 

The statements made by some observers, that ipecacuanha root 
which has been deprived of its alkaloids has a greater therapeutic 
value in the treatment of dysentery, require to be received with 
doubt, inasmuch as the so-called de-emetinized ipecacuanha has not 
been found in our experience to be entirely free from alkaloidal eon- 
tents. In fact, as much as 0-5 per cent, of total alkaloids is not un- 
common. Some attempt, however, was made to isolate and study 
another constituent of ipecacuanha from the basic lead precipitate 
previously mentioned as obtained in our separation of the basic con- 
stituents. A crystalline constituent was obtained of the nature of a 
glucoside somewhat resembling saponin. It had no emetic action 
in doses of 0-25 gramme. 

Laboratory, 13 Fenchurch Avenue, London, E. C. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1901. J 



A New Cold Cream. 



117 



A NEW COLD CREAM. 
By Wiixiam C. Aj_pers, Sc.D. 

In proposing a formula for a new cold cream, I beg to apologize 
in advance if what I am going to say is not new to you. In these 
days of continuous research by thousands of ambitious, restless 
minds, we are never sure that some one else has not long ago dis- 
covered what we consider as new. The only safeguard against such 
repetition consists in the diligent reading of pharmaceutical and 
chemical journals, and here I must confess to a sin of omission ; for 
the pressure of business during the last two years has not left me 
time enough to do my full duty in this respect. 

The words " cold cream " have a double meaning. As a prepa- 
ration of the Pharmacopoeia, the synonym of Unguentum Aquae 
Rosae, its formula is, of course, definite and fixed, and no ointment, 
however superior, can be dispensed in its place. But, besides this 
Pharmacopceial meaning, cold cream is a collective name for all 
unctious preparations that serve as an emollient for the skin, and the 
laity, when asking for cold cream, care but little whether the 
ointment that they receive is made after one formula or another, as 
long as it is soft and soothing, of grateful odor and desired efficiency. 
We all know that the official preparation, while fulfilling all these 
requirements when freshly made, cannot be depended upon after 
only a short time, particularly when exposed to a sudden change of 
temperature. In pharmacies where the sale of toilet articles is 
made a special feature, the official cold cream is entirely unavaila- 
ble ; for when put up in sealed packages, we never know in what 
condition it may be when sold. For this reason nearly every enter- 
prising pharmacist has his private formula, differing more or less 
from the official one, and it may be stated without fear of contra- 
diction that none of the numerous proprietary cold creams are 
made in accordance with the Pharmacopoeia. It is for such a 
preparation, uniform in all climates and available under all con- 
ditions, that I propose this new formula. The disturbing element 
in the official preparation being the oil, a proper substitute was 
found in* the so-called paraffin oil, also sold under the name of 
mineral oil or white oil. Care must be taken to select the best 
quality, entirely free from odor and color. 

The formula is as follows : 



Ii8 A New Cold Cream. { Am mSXm. 

White wax 150 parts. 

Paraffin oil 600 " 

Water 240 " 

Borax 9 " 

Oil geranium 1 " 

Oil rose, 10 to 20 drops 

To make 1,000 parts. 



Dissolve the wax in the oil with the aid of a gentle heat ; in another 
vessel dissolve the borax in the water ; bring both solutions to the 
same temperature, not exceeding 6o° C. (140 F.), and pour the 
aqueous solution into the oil in a continuous stream. Stir gently 
for a minute or two, add the essential oils while stirring, and pour 
into jars before cold. 

This preparation is a snow white, soft and smooth ointment of 
glossy appearance and pleasant odor, far surpassing in elegance the 
official cold cream. The time to prepare it is less than fifteen min- 
utes. It will keep in the heat of summer and the cold of winter, 
becoming but slightly thinner in summer. From the testimony of 
those that have used this preparation, it is fully equal, if not supe- 
rior, to any other cold cream, rendering the skin soft and white and 
exercising a soothing influence on irritated surfaces, chapped hands 
and lips. The cost is much less than that of the official cold 
cream. 

In preparing this ointment a few points must be carefully ob- 
served. Do not overheat your solutions; if too hot, a much inferior 
preparation will result. Let both solutions be of the same tempera- 
ture ; for this reason I use a chemical thermometer as a stirring 
rod. Be careful to wipe the stirring rod (or thermometer) each 
time when you move it from one solution to the other. Do not 
stir very briskly after mixing the two solutions. Be sure of the 
purity of the wax ; do not take a mixture of paraffin and wax 
which is sold often as white wax and foolishly preferred by some 
on account of its greater whiteness. 

Instead of plain water, rose water, or water with any desired 
odor may be used, omitting the oils afterwards, or other fragrant 
oils may be substituted for the essential oils. The quantities of oil 
and wax may also be varied to produce an ointment of different 
consistency. 

The most remarkable feature of this cold cream is the fact that it 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
March, 1901. 



Why do Syrups Spoil? 



119 



changes its consistency but slightly in various temperatures, and 
never loses its grateful odor and elegant appearance. This quality 
was certainly imparted by the use of the mineral oil, and the thought 
naturally suggested itself to use this oil also in other ointments with 
the view of making them more stable and uniform. I intended to 
make a series of experiments in this direction, but lack of time 
during the last two years prevented me from carrying out my in- 
tention. I can only submit to you two samples, one of simple cerate 
in which 100 parts of lard have been replaced by the same quantity 
of mineral oil, and one of camphor cerate, in which the cotton-seed 
oil has been replaced by mineral oil. The former one, the simple 
cerate, prepared last July, has stood for a long time in direct sun- 
light without showing signs of granulation or decomposition. I 
trust that these few remarks may encourage others to take up this 
work, which seems to promise good results. 



WHY DO SYRUPS SPOIL? 
By Alfred I. Cohn, Ph.Gr., New York. 

The reason why the syrups of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia so fre- 
quently spoil is a question that has engaged the attention of many 
investigators. The spoiling has been ascribed to various causes, and 
almost as many means have been proposed for its avoidance ; in 
fact, a search through the literature of pharmacy of the past decade 
or two will bring to light a striking variety of expedients adopted 
for preventing or retarding decomposition in Pharmacopceial syrups, 
not only individually, but collectively as well. 

Among the causes which are prone to occasion deterioration in 
syrups, the following are the most prominent : 

(1) Thinness of syrup, i. e., insufficient sugar has been used, 
whereby the syrup obtained is not sufficiently dense. 

(2) Constant or prolonged exposure to too high a temperature, 
as in a room heated too warmly; proximity to a heater, etc. 

(3) The presence of substances prone to ferment, such as acacia, 
albumin, gelatin, pectinous matter, etc. 

(4) Exposure to light, as in the case of syrups containing ferric 
salts. 



120 



Why do Syrups Spoil? 



.4m. Jour. Pharnv 
March, 1901. 



(5) The presence of substances which are naturally inclined to be 
unstable, such as hydriodic acid, hypophosphites, etc. 

(6) Fermentation due to the action of yeast or other microbic 
agents. 

(7) Impurities in the sugar used in making the syrup, e. g., ultra- 
marine, etc. 

On carefully examining these causes we find that, with the excep- 
tion of one or two, perhaps, they are all practically under the con- 
trol of the pharmacist, as we shall see. 

It is a well-known fact that a syrup of proper density is far less 
prone to spoil, provided, of course, it be made from proper ma- 
terials, than is a syrup made with insufficient sugar. On the other 
hand, a too concentrated syrup is just as likely to spoil as a weak 
syrup, because it is equally well known that a very concentrated 
syrup will deposit crystals of sugar, and, in so doing, will become 
weaker in sugar than if made with just sufficient sugar. In other 
words, the latter, in crystallizing out, leaves the syrup deficient in 
sugar. Hence it follows that a very concentrated syrup must not 
be kept in a place where the temperature is likely to fall much, 
otherwise the syrup, having deposited the excess of sugar, which it 
does not take up again without heating, becomes too thin and may 
thus readily spoil. 

A constant or prolonged exposure to warmth is apt to be detri- 
mental for practically the same reason as mentioned above. The 
warmth makes the syrup too thin, so to speak, and renders it sub- 
ject to change. 

The presence of easily fermentable substances and those readily 
prone to decompose cannot, of course, be avoided ; hence it is all 
the more important that due regard be paid to the quality of the 
syrup used in order not to increase their tendency to decompose, 
but rather to prevent, or at least retard, decomposition as much as 
possible. 

Exposure to light and the action of microbic agents are also easily 
avoided or prevented. 

We now come to what is, perhaps, the most frequent and most 
mischievous of all the causes from which syrups spoil, and that is the 
impurities in the sugar from which the syrup is made. 

Syrup made from sugar answering the requirements of the U.S. P. 
is a very stable preparation, if of proper density. Experience, 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
March, 1901. 



Why do Syrups Spoil? 



121 



moreover, has shown such a syrup to be the best preservative of 
unstable chemicals, in the sense of its being able to prevent, or at 
least greatly retard, the decomposition to which such chemicals are 
prone. Nevertheless, substitutes for it have been proposed or highly 
recommended, among others the total or partial replacement of the 
syrup by glucose or glycerin, or even both. In certain syrups addi- 
tional expedients have also been recommended, yet, in my expe- 
rience, these substitutes and expedients are unnecessary ; in fact, 
under certain circumstances, they are more likely to aggravate mat- 
ters. 

These substitutes and expedients have all been proposed or 
recommended, it is my belief, because the syrup as ordinarily made 
is not prepared from suitable materials. We are all accustomed to 
consider the sugar we usually buy as so perfectly fitted for every 
use in our daily domestic lives, that the thought is scarcely likely to 
occur to one that the spoiling of a syrup may be traced to the 
quality of the sugar used. 

The pharmacist usually obtains his supply of sugar from the 
grocer ; or he may, perhaps, in some instances buy it direct from 
the manufacturer by the barrel. In neither case, however, is he 
likely to receive a pare sugar, simply because pure sugar has natur- 
ally a yellowish color, to correct which the manufacturer adds some 
blue pigment, usually ultramarine blue, to " whiten " the sugar — 
just as the laundress blues her linen, and for a similar reason — and 
thus to render it more agreeable in appearance and hence more 
salable. 

Ultramarine blue, however, is an exceedingly mischievous sub- 
stance when present in Pharmacopoeial syrups, and it is really the 
most frequent cause of the spoiling of the latter. The quantity of the 
pigment present in sugar is in no wise sufficient to affect the eligi- 
bility of sugar as a daily food, yet it is quite sufficient to cause the 
decomposition of easily decomposable chemicals. This will be 
evident if we consider how ultramarine blue is made, and what it 
is, chemically. 

Ultramarine blue is prepared by heating together a mixture of 
fine white clay or silica with sodium carbonate, sulphur and char- 
coal ; or, a mixture of kaolin, sodium sulphate, sodium carbonate, 
sulphur and charcoal. According to the proportions taken of the 
several ingredients, ultramarines of various colors may be obtained. 



122 



Why do Syrups Spoil? 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1901. 



For instance, there may be prepared deep-blue, light-blue, violet, 
blue, green, white, violet, red, and also yellow ultramarines. All 
these pigments are of varying composition, and, using one and the 
same formula, it is exceedingly difficult, if not almost impossible, 
to secure uniform results, as the different lots are likely to exhibit 
varying shades and have different compositions. Hence no positive 
formula can be properly assigned to any one ultramarine. 

According to some investigators, ultramarines are considered to 
be compounds of aluminum-sodium silicate with sodium sulphide ; 
by others they are believed to be mixtures of aluminum silicate, 
sodium polysulphide, and sodium sulphate, sulphite, and hyposul- 
phite ; still others state them to be aluminum-sodium silicates in 
which a part of the oxygen is replaced by sulphur ; again, many 
believe them to be compounds of aluminum-sodium silicate with 
aluminum sulphate. 

Whichever of these views is taken, however, the broad fact 
stands out that an ultramarine is to all intents and purposes a sul- 
phide ; whether of aluminum, silicon or sodium makes little differ- 
ence, so far as its relation to our subject is concerned. When it is 
also added that ultramarine blue is capable of effecting all the dis- 
turbances of which a readily-decomposable sulphide is capable, and 
that it is decomposed by all acids, even the weakest, as well as by 
acid salts, such as alum, for instance ; when we consider that it is 
also decomposed by simply boiling (in syrup or water), we may ap- 
prehend what an important influence its presence may have in 
syrups containing salts inclined to be unstable. 

The U.S. P. demands that sugar be free from untramarine, yet it 
is probable that few pharmacists note this requirement with care, 
and fewer still are likely to test the sugar they buy to see that it is 
free from this pigment. 

It would, therefore, appear expedient, in fact almost necessary, 
that a form of sugar be made official in the U.S. P. now under revis- 
ion, which may always be depended upon as being absolutely free 
from all disturbing contaminations and impurities, and which shall 
yet be within the reach of every pharmacist. 

The sugar which will best answer all requirements is white rock 
candy. This sugar, because obtained by crystallization, can always 
be depended upon as bein^ free from ultramarine. 

Attention having thus been called to the mischievous properties 



Am. Jour. Pbarm.1 
March. 1901. J 



Why do Syrups Spoil c t 



123 



possessed by ultramarine, it may readily be seen what reactions the 
pigment would effect in the individual syrups. 

On allowing a simple syrup, made by the cold process, to stand 
for a while, a deposit forms, consisting of sulphur precipitated as a 
result of the decomposition of the ultramarine ; sometimes the pig- 
ment itself is also deposited, particularly if a large quantity has 
been used in " whitening " the sugar. The syrup is then likely to 
acquire a rather disagreeable odor. If the syrup is made by boiling, 
the ultramarine, on continued boiling, is decomposed, and a blackish 
scum rises, which may be removed. A syrup made by boiling is, 
hence, apt to keep better than one not boiled. 

In syrup of acacia, the calcium gummate and ultramarine react, a 
calcium sulphide being formed. The syrup, which is naturally 
prone to decompose even under the most favorable conditions of 
preservation, is thus made to deteriorate with increased rapidity. 

In syrups of citric acid, calcium lactophosphate, lemon and squill, 
there are free acids present, sufficient to decompose the ultramarine 
and render the syrups unfit for use. 

In syrup of hydriodic acid we have a naturally unstable chemical 
which requires all our art to properly preserve, and which must be 
particularly well protected from the action of reducers. With such 
a chemical, ultramarine immediately gives a reaction. The syrup 
soon develops a red color and becomes totally unfit for use. This 
syrup has been the subject of much experiment, with a view to find-, 
ing means of rendering it more stable. Among these means there 
has been recommended the partial or total replacement of the sugar 
by glucose or glycerin. Glucose as ordinarily found on the market 
is unfit for this purpose, as it nearly always contains appreciable 
quantities of free sulphuric acid, and is, moreover, very prone to 
ferment. Glycerin is totally inadmissible, as it enters into chemical 
reaction with the hydriodic acid, the result being the formation 
of allyl iodide. The syrup soon develops a straw color which 
rapidly deepens, while the preparation acquires a disagreeable odor 
and taste which render the syrup unfit for use. 

In syrup of ferrous iodide we have again a readily changeable 
iron salt, subjected in addition to the action of a sulphide. Natur- 
ally enough, ferrous sulphide forms, together with an unstable iodide 
from which free iodine is soon liberated. In this syrup glycerin 
would be a good preservative, were it not that pure syrup is very 



124 



Why do Syrups Spoil? 



[Am. Jour. Pharm^ 
I March, 190L 



much better. Glucose is inadmissible because of the reasons al- 
ready stated. To fully appreciate what effect the presence of ultra- 
marine has on this syrup, it is only necessary to boil a syrup made 
from ordinary sugar and one made from rock candy. That made 
with sugar turns brown when the boiling-point is approached, while 
that free from ultramarine may be boiled for a long time without 
impairing in any way the fine green tint, of the syrup. It is true 
that the particles of superheated syrup adhering to the flask or 
evaporating dish above the surface of the liquid may carbonize and 
impart a color to the syrup when dissolved in the latter, but the 
color will not be due to decomposition of the syrup, as is the case 
when a sugar syrup has been used. If care be taken to avoid the 
solution of the carbonized particles, the boiling syrup retains its 
handsome brilliant green color. Nor is it necessary to keep any 
iron wire in a syrup so made, as recommended by some. The 
syrup may even be freely exposed, and does not require to be kept 
in well-filled bottles only, or in small, completely-filled bottles. 

In the syrups containing hypophosphites, we have again readily 
changeable salts acted upon by a sulphide. The compound syrup 
of the N. F. in particular spoils rapidly if any ultramarine is pres- 
ent, whereas if absent the syrup keeps perfectly. 

In syrups of senega, senna and rhubarb, we have polygalic acid, 
cathartic acid and chrysophanic acid present, respectively; in syrup 
of wild cherry, hydrocyanic and tannic acids; in syrup of black- 
berry root, tannic acid. In fact, an inspection of all Pharmacopoeial 
syrups will show that there are but few which do not contain one or 
more constituents imcompatible with and fully able to decompose 
ultramarine blue. 

To go a step further, syrups are valued adjuvants, and, next to 
water, are perhaps more largely prescribed than any other prepara- 
tion. Syrups are thus brought into contact with every kind and vari- 
ety of substance, a fact which in itself furnishes sufficient reason for 
insisting that a pigment-free syrup be made obligatory in the next 
Pharmacopoeia by replacing the sugar by white rock candy. 

It is true the initial expense of preparing such a syrup is greater 
than when sugar is used, because rock candy itself costs somewhat 
more than sugar, and because, since it contains more water of 
crystallization than does sugar, more of it must be used to obtain a 
syrup of proper density. Notwithstanding the greater first cost, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. t 
March. 1901. / 



The Assay of Coca. 



125 



however, a syrup so made will be found cheaper in the end, if there 
be taken into account not only the time wasted, but also the 
pecuniary loss entailed by the necessity of throwing away the 
spoiled material. 



THE ASSAY OF COCA. 

By Wiijjam R. Lamar. 

Since the Committee of Revision chosen at the Eighth Decen- 
nial Convention for revising the United States Pharmacopoeia, held 
in Washington, during the early part of May of last year, was in- 
structed to append assay processes to as many of the potent drugs and 
their preparations as were found amenable to assay, where sim- 
plicity of process, both as to method and apparatus employed, would 
lead to fairly uniform results in the hands of different workers, it is 
reasonable therefore to expect that coca will receive due considera- 
tion at the hands of the committee, and the hope is entertained 
that it will find a place among those drugs finally selected for stand- 
ardization. 

Having frequent occasion to determine the alkaloidal content of 
this drug, it is thought that a description of the process in use in 
this laboratory, and one which has been found to give perfectly 
satisfactory results, might present some points of interest. 

It is scarcely to be expected that much which is new or original 
can be said of any process likely to be put forward for the valuation 
of this or related drugs, inasmuch as the same general principle 
underlies them all. 

However, by calling attention to and emphasizing such points in 
the assay as have been found essential, results are easily obtained 
which are quite concordant and represent fully the value of the 
drug in question. 

It is the writer's opinion that a lack of appreciation of the extreme 
instability of the alkaloids accompanying coca is, in the main, the 
cause of the many discordant results in the assays published of this 
drug. 

As is well known, cocaine, cinnamyl cocaine and isatropyl 
cocaine are all methyl esters of a differently substituted ecgonine 
molecule. 



126 The Assay of Coca. { ^Varch.wo^- 

The relationship existing between these bodies can easily be seen 
from an inspection of the following structural formulae: 

ECGONINE. COCAINE. 



HC !I \ Q *h HC il i CH 2 



HC» a l C /H HC l|f 



C 

N • CH, X _ N • CH, 1 



H 



CH-0(COC 6 H 5 )-CH 2 'COOCH 



CINNAMYL COCAINE. ISATROPYE COCAINE. 

CH 9 

HCf 



CH 2 



H 



HC^ V hc" a 1 /H CH * 



C 



N-CH 3 \ /O-CCKCHiCH-C^ N CH 3 \ ,0 ' CO ' C * C 6 H 5 



CH 



CH; 



It is the readiness with which the methyl group, attached to the 
carboxyl, is split off, forming, in the case of cocaine, a body, viz., 
benzoyl-ecgonine, which, although possessing alkaloidal property 
as regards its behavior to precipitants of such, is nevertheless vir- 
tually insoluble in most of the solvents (ether, chloroform, etc.) 
employed for abstracting the alkaloids from their solutions after 
rendering alkaline, that the discrepancy above referred to is most 
likely due. 

This saponification occurs quite readily, both in alkaline and acid 
solutions, and slightly so in neutral solutions with the progress of 
time, but to a marked extent if there be much elevation of tempera- 
ture. 

Hence it is apparent that a large excess of alkali employed both in 
the liberation of the alkaloids from their existing combinations in 
the leaf, and their subsequent precipitation from the solution of 
their salts, prior to extracting and weighing, is to be especially 
avoided. 

This excess is not only to be avoided, but the strength also of 
the alkali itself should be as low as is consistent with a complete 
liberation of the bases. 

So also must the strength of acid employed for removing them 
from the menstruum used be carefully regulated. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1901. J 



The Assay of Coca. 



127 



The ideal menstruum to be employed in extracting any drug un- 
der assay is the one which, while completely removing in a reason- 
able length of time the alkaloids or other active principles contained 
therein, at the same time brings into solution the least possible 
amount of the objectionable, so-called extractive matter, which not 
infrequently occasions so much trouble in the subsequent steps of 
the process. 

Such a menstruum is confidently believed to exist in the em- 
ployment of kerosene oil for the exhaustion of coca. 

The process about to be described is a modification of the well- 
known one of the late Dr. E. R. Squibb, 1 in which a dilute solution 
of ammonium hydrate is substituted for the solution of sodium car- 
bonate employed to liberate the alkaloids from their natural com- 
binations. 

The ammonium hydrate appears to be more penetrating, prob- 
ably due to its volatility, and for this reason it is favored. 

The quantities employed and the method of procedure are as fol- 
lows: 



Coca in No. 40 powder 25 grammes. 

Ammonic hydrate (2 per cent. NH 3 ) 25 c.c. 

N 

— hydrochloric acid 75 c.c. 

Ether ^ # each a sufficient quantity. 

Kerosene oil j 



Place the powdered leaf into an open vessel of suitable capacity 
(about 450 c.c); a beaker, except for its fragility, answers very well. 
However, a covered jar, such as is commonly used for holding solid 
extracts, has been used to advantage, and in fact is rather to be 
preferred. 

Now add to it 25 c.c. of an approximately 2 per cent, solution of 
ammonia and mix well together by means of a stout glass rod of 
such a length that, while in the jar, will just allow the cover to rest 
in its normal position; permit this to macerate for half an hour, 
stirring from time to time, the whole being well covered. 

At the expiration of this time remove the cover and note whether 
or not the odor of ammonia is perceptible after stirring; if so, 



1 Ephemeris, Vol. Ill, p. 1104. 



128 



The Assay of Coca. 



/Am. Jour. Pharui. 
\ Marcb,1901. 



gradually add 75 c.c. of kerosene oil, stirring well after each addi- 
tion. 

After the whole has been intimately mixed, cover the jar and al- 
low to further macerate for an hour or more, stirring at intervals of 
ten or fifteen minutes. 

Transfer to a cylindrical percolator of 500 c.c. capacity (preferably 
of the Oldberg type) containing a plug of absorbent cotton firmly 
pressed into its throat ; pack only slightly. 

Remove the last portions of the leaf from the jar by means of oil 
delivered from a wash bottle, allowing this to pass through before 
covering with a fresh supply. 

The percolation should proceed at the rate of six or eight drops 
per minute, collecting about 450 c.c. of percolate. If the process of 
percolation is carefully executed, a smaller quantity of percolate suf- 
fices ; sometimes 250 to 300 c.c. are sufficient to accomplish a prac- 
tical exhaustion of the leaf. 

Transfer the percolate to a separatory funnel of 700-750 c.c. 
capacity of the Squibb pattern, and after rinsing the beaker used to 
receive the percolate, with small portions of oil, add to the contents 

N 

of the separator 25 c.c. of — hydrochloric acid and shake continu- 

10 

ously lor ten minutes. 

Allow the separator to rest, when the separation will be almost 
completely effected in twenty minutes ; draw off this acid liquid 
together with the slight amount of emulsion remaining at the line 
of contact of the two liquids into another separator of from 265- 
285 c.c. capacity. 

Add to the oil remaining in the separator another portion of 25 

c.c. — hydrochloric acid, shaking and separating as just described, 
10 

and finally the extraction is completed with a third portion of 25 c.c. 
N 

— hydrochloric acid. 
10 

To the united acid solutions of the alkaloids are now added 20 c.c. 
of ether and the whole well shaken together. After carefully releas- 
ing the pressure, the liquids are allowed to separate, the acid liquid 
is then drawn off into a second separator of like capacity and to it 
is added a fresh portion of 15 c.c. of ether, the two well shaken 
together and allowed to separate completely, thus removing the 
last trace of oil and coloring matter. 



Am. Jour. Phaim. 
March. 1901. 



The Assay of Coca. 



129 



The acid solution is now drawn off carefully into a third separator ; 
the ether remaining in the first separator is shaken successively 
with two portions of water of 5 c.c. each ; after separation has taken 
place, these in their turn are added to the second ether washing, 
and after shaking and allowing to separate, are drawn off into the 
third separator containing the major portion of the acid solution. 
To this is then added a sufficient quantity of ammonia water 10 
per cent., previously diluted with four times its volume of water, to 
render the liquid slightly alkaline. 

If the ammonia water used is of proper strength, then 6 64 c.c. 
of the dilution will be sufficient. However, in practice it usually 
requires from 8 to 9 c.c. 

This method of procedure prevents an unnecessary excess of 
alkali which, as has been pointed out, exerts a saponifying effect 
upon the alkaloids, proportional to the degree of its concen- 
tration. 

(To satisfy one's self of this fact, it is only necessary to add, say 
5 c.c. of 10 per cent, ammonia water for the precipitation of the 
alkaloids, and to remove them by extracting with successive por- 
tions of ether, until this latter upon evaporation leaves no weigh- 
able residue. 

If now, to a portion of the alkaline liquid remaining, a few drops 
of Mayer's reagent be added, an unmistakable evidence of the pres- 
ence of benzoyl-ecgonine will be recognized.) 

Extract now the alkaloids with three successive portions of ether, 
using respectively 40, 30, 30 c.c, taking care in each instance to 
allow the ether to separate completely, drawing off the aqueous 
liquid carefully into another separator, and pouring the ethereal 
solution of the alkaloids out through the upper opening of the 
separator into a tared beaker of 160 c.c. capacity. 

Rinse the separator with 10 c.c. of ether, pouring it out at the 
top, into the separator containing the aqueous portion. 

Now hold the separator from which the ethereal solution has just 
been removed, in the left hand, with the mouth of same inclined 
downward at an angle of about 45 with and over that of the sepa- 
rator containing the aqueous portion, and while rotating same, 
rinse the rim with 5 c.c. of ether delivered from a dropping tube in 
such a way that in falling it will drop into the separator beneath; 
in a similar manner rinse the cork stopper, and finally add to the 



130 



The Assay of Coca. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1901. 



contents of the separator an additional 10 c.c. of ether, making in 
all 30 c.c. for the second extraction. 

Shake the separator with its contents actively for a few moments, 
then allow the liquids to separate, drawing off the aqueous portion 
into the separator previously emptied, the ethereal layer being 
added to that already in the beaker. 

This operation is repeated a third time. 

The beaker containing the ethereal solution of the alkaloids is 
set in a warm place (30°-35° C), and as soon as the ether has 
evaporated, it is dried at a temperature of 6o° C. until of a constant 
weight, this usually requiring about three hours. 

The weight obtained multiplied by four expresses the percentage 
of alkaloids in the leaf. 

The alkaloids so obtained are almost colorless, possessing only a 
faint cream tint, and are beautifully crystalline in appearance. 

If it is desired, as a check upon the ^weight, they may be titrated, 
N 

using an excess of _ sulphuric acid V.S. (about 25 c.c.) and a few 

cubic centimetres of ether to facilitate the solution, and after the 
ether has been entirely dissipated, the excess of acid is determined 
N 

by means of potassium hydrate V.S., using (2) two drops of a 

cochineal tincture (1 gramme in 25 c.c. of 25 per cent, alcohol). 
The factor for the pure alkaloids as determined by numerous as- 

N 

says is 0*01514 gramme as the equivalent of I c.c. of — H o S0 4 V.S. t 

20 

the extremes being 0-01493-0 0155 gramme. 

However, if the assay has been carefully conducted, this is entirely 
unnecessary, for the gravimetric result is in reality the more accurate, 
this being due not only to the difference in the molecular weights of 
the alkaloids, but also to the variable composition of this mixture. 

The claim has been made by A. R. L. Dohme 1 that the so-called 
Keller method is far superior to all other methods for assaying coca, 
but as none of the methods employed in his comparison was similar 
to the one just described, it was thought advisable to institute such 
a comparison. 

The following results speak for themselves : 



Proceedings Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1895, 268. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
March, 1901. J 



Commercial Asafoetida. 



131 



KELLER METHOD. 


SQUIBB'S MODIFIED. 






















to" 


bo 






to 


JbO 




•6 


> 


'Z 




■p" 


> 


"v 




V 








u 








'3 


d 

80. 






qui 


6 

to 


>> 
.Q 




U 


sf 


v. 






X 


"P 




to 


iT- f 


IH 



CO 


to 




'0 


lloid: 


K»; «. 
O 


I C.C. 


alkal 


aloid 


d 


I c.c. 


alka 




CO 









to 




'o 


< 


X 


O 


u 




X 





u 







V 


ba 

cs 





^ i s 


a 

<u 


rt 


eight 


0. c.c. 


quival 


ercent 


r eight 


0. c.c. 


quival 










PL| 




7\ 


W 


Ph 


I. 0-1204 gm. 


476 


0-0253 S m - 


1-204 


0-203 gm. 


1 3 "44 


0-0151 gm. 


•8l2 


II. o-nS6 " 






i- 186 


■2042 " 






•817 



The sample of coca used was the Huanuco variety (Erythroxylon 
Bolivianum). 

The alkaloids from Keller method were of a very dark brown 
color and crystallized from ether with difficulty. 

It will be seen that while the Keller method does give a consider- 
ably higher result gravimetrically, it gives a much lower one by 
titration. 

The cause of the high result of the gravimetric process of Keller 
is no doubt due to the fact that the light chloroform-ether mixture 
extracts matter soluble in the dilute acid, which the kerosene oil 
does not, this foreign matter again entering solution when the alka- 
loids are precipitated and shaken out with the heavy chloroform- 
ether mixture. 

As a result of very many assays made during the past few years, 
tr.e conclusion is reached that a leaf to be of good quality should 
assay by above process about 07 per cent, of total alkaloids. 
Laboratory of Schieffelin & Co., 
New York. 



COMMERCIAL ASAFCEITDA. 

By M. I. Wilbert. 

Asafoetida has for many years been used extensively as an anti- 
spasmodic and also with good effect as a carminative in the flatulent 
colic of children. In addition to this, it has been used to some 



132 



Commercial Asafcetida. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1901. 



extent in the treatment of certain nervous disorders, and especially 
in attacks of hysteria occurring at or about the menopause. 

Of late years, however, it has come into prominence on account 
of its value in relieving the flatulence that usually follows as a 
sequel to abdominal operations. The opening of the abdomen, and 
the necessary disarrangement of the various organs, seems to cause 
a suspension of the normal peristaltic action of the intestines, and 
the tympanites, caused by the consequent inability to expel the 
accumulated flatus, is the cause of much pain and discomfort to the 
patient. So far as known, nothing gives as prompt or as much 
relief as the administration of some form of asafcetida, preferably an 
enema or a suppository. 

It follows, naturally, that the efficiency of the various preparations 
of asafcetida depends largely on the quality of the raw material from 
which they are made. Having occasion to handle a considerable 
amount of this gum, for the manufacture of the various preparations, 
the writer has at times been much perplexed by the difficulty of 
procuring a satisfactory supply of the crude drug. Samples of the 
gum have, from time to time, been compared with the Pharmaco- 
pceial requirements, and in almost every instance the amount of 
alcohol soluble material has fallen decidedly below that required. 
This fact, and the number of articles that have been published, 
within a year or more, in the British pharmaceutical journals, com- 
menting on the high standard for asafcetida that has been estab- 
lished by the British Pharmacopoeia, and the poor quality of the 
drug as found in the British market, has induced the writer to 
make a more systematic study of the available supply of asafcetida. 

From correspondence with several drug houses it was learned 
that the price of asafcetida varied from 12 cents to $1.50 per pound, 
according to quality. It was also learned that the better grades of 
asafcetida were extremely scarce in this market, and that at the 
present time there was no available supply of choice select gum 
or tears. 

The ruling prices for the gum on hand varied from 30 cents to 
55 cents a pound. At the latter price a small quantity of loose 
tears was secured, from which sample No. 1 was subsequently 
selected. The sample as obtained from the jobber would not have 
given as favorable results, as it was freely mixed with date stones, 
transverse sections of roots, small pieces of stone, masses of hair, 



.Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1901. / 



Co m mercia I Asa fcetida . 



133 



pieces of sacking, and in addition to this, many of the tears had 
quite a considerable amount of coarse sand adhering to them. 

Another sample, No. 10 of the annexed list, was kindly lurnished 
from the stock of a local hospital, where it had been on hand tor 
upward of five years. This sample was dry and hard, but, as far as 
y oreign admixture was concerned, was not above the average. 

The other specimens were samples of commercial gum, and the 
results of the examinations, with the prices paid or asked for the 
various varieties, are indicated in the annexed table : 



No. 


Source and Description. 


Alcohol 
Soluble. 


Insoluble. 


Ash. 


Price. 


1 


I,oose tears . . 


. . New York 


70*1 


29 '9 


7-2 


$0:55 


2 






44"3 


557 


34"2 


■ 30 


3 j 






414 


58-6 


35-8 


•45 


4 






36-4 


6 3 '6 


45'i 


■43 


5 






31-2 


68-8 


5i*9 


•36 


•6 






30*2 


69-8 


50*6 


•32 


7 






28-5 


7i'5 


46-6 


•39 


8 


Powdered . . . 


. . Philadelphia 


19-8 


8o'2 


606 


•35 


9 








817 


62-1. 


.40 


10 






4°'5 


59'5 


45'9 


? 



The method followed in making these examinations was to take 
IOO grammes of the drug and, after coarsely comminuting the 
same, placing it in an Erlenmeyer flask and adding 200 c.c. of alco- 
hol ; the mixture was then set in a warm place for three or four days 
and occasionally agitated. After this the dissolved portion was fil- 
tered through a double tared filter, while the residual drug was then 
put into a mortar and rubbed down to a paste ; it was then trans- 
ferred to the Erlenmeyer flask again and the mortar washed out with 
a sufficient quantity of alcohol, which was added to the drug ; this 
mixture was allowed to stand in a warm place, with occasional agi- 
tation, for several days, and then transferred to the filter mentioned 
above. Here it was subsequently washed with warm alcohol until 
the washings from the filter were without odor and did not give any 
turbidity when added to water. The residual drug was then dried 
to constant weight in a drying oven and weighed. After being 
thoroughly mixed, 10 per cent, of this residue was taken and incin- 
erated to obtain the proportionate amount of ash. 



134 



Co m mercia I Asa fcetida . 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ :\rarcb, 1901. 



It may be noted that the price asked for the crude drug is not 
necessarily an indication of its quality. Of the eight samples that 
were examined, just as received from the jobber, one, the poorest 
(No. 9), was rather above the average in price, while the best in 
quality (No. 2) happens to have been the cheapest. 

As might have been expected, the samples of powdered gum 
were rather below the average in the amount of alcohol soluble 
matter. Another feature of powdered gum, and a very important 
one, is the change that seems to be caused by the drying process ; 
for example, the water soluble portion seems to be so altered or de- 
stroyed that it is impracticable to make the official emulsion from 
the powdered drug, as it will not dissolve readily in hot water. 

The practice of adulterating asafcetida seems to be a very old one, 
•'and it has been the cause of much comment. Nearly fifty years 
ago Joseph F. Heathcote published in the American Journal of 
Pharmacy an examination of powdered asafcetida, only 15 per cent, 
of which was soluble in alcohol. Following this there are several 
references to the generally poor quality of asafcetida. 

In 1892 G. W. Kennedy read a paper before the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association, in which he reports the examination of 
ten specimens of gum asafcetida, ranging in alcohol soluble matter 
from 29-25 per cent, to 68-8o per cent., with an average of 49 36 per 
cent., or a fraction below that required by the present German Phar- 
macopoeia. Only one of the specimens came up to the requirements 
of the U.S.P. 

Moore and Martin report (in Chem. and Drug., 1899) the result 
of examining twelve specimens. These varied in alcohol soluble 
matter from 14 to 39 per cent., and the ash varied from 26 to 63 
per cent, of the original weight. 

J. C. Umney (Chem. and Drug., 1899) also reports examining a 
number of samples varying in alcohol soluble matter from 2 i-i to 
79-8 per cent., and leaving an ash varying from 62-2 per cent, for the 
lower grades to 3 2 per cent, for picked tears. 

Mr. Russel W. Moore {Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1899) gives his re- 
sults of an examination of 167 samples of asafcetida known to be 
deficient ; only six of these samples contained more than 45 per 
cent, of alcohol soluble matter. 

The deductions to be drawn from these examinations are that the 
crude drug, as it occurs in this and the English markets, is grossly 



Am. Jour. Pliarm."* 
March, 1901. J 



Correspondence. 



135 



adulterated, and never, or at least very seldom, complies with the re- 
quirements of the Pharmacopoeias. The price asked is not necessarily 
an indication of the quality. Despite this variation in quality there is 
still a considerable amount of the drug- consumed. This would indicate 
that it must have medicinal properties for which no substitute has as 
yet been found. 

The continued use of the drug would also seem to re- 
quire that the Pharmacopoeia should in some way try to equalize 
the strength of the various preparations made from this drug. It 
might be possible, for instance, to require that the tincture should 
contain ten parts of the resinous material instead of, as at present, 
representing the soluble portion of twenty parts of the gum. The 
amount of drug dissolved could readily be ascertained by drying and 
weighing the residue left on the filter, and by subsequently diluting 
the alcoholic solution it could easily be made to correspond to the 
required standard. 

The Pharmacopoeia might further direct that the emulsion be 
made from gum, the alcohol soluble matter of which has first 
been ascertained. 

In view of the fact that powdered asafcetida is used so exten- 
sively for pills and suppositories, and that it is very seldom or 
never reduced to powder by the retail pharmacist, but is always 
bought directly or indirectly from the drug miller, it would seem 
quite feasible that the Pharmacopoeia include " powdered asafcetida" 
and require a definite amount ot alcohol soluble matter, this to be 
low enough to prevent agglutination in warm weather, and still 
high enough to be of value medicinally. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PROCTER MEMORIAL. 

In response to a letter from the editor of this Journal concerning 
the most appropriate way of memorializing the life and work of 
Professor William Procter, Jr., the following are some of the replies 
which have been received : 

Dear Sir : — In reply to your kind letter of the 5th inst, it gives 
me great pleasure to express my high appreciation of the eminent 
services rendered American pharmacy by William Procter, Jr. It is 
my opinion that some ever fresh and ever present testimonial to his 



136 



Corre spon deuce. 



( Am.. lour, f'harm^ 
\ March, 1901. 



services and memory should be instituted by the A. Ph. A., and I 
know of no more fitting and permanent testimonial than a beauti- 
fully executed silver medal, which is to be known as the Procter 
Medal, and which is to be awarded annually by the A. Ph. A. for the 
most meritorious service rendered pharmacy in any of its depart- 
ments, the awarding to be done by the Council of the A.Ph.A., in- 
cluding the chairmen of the scientific, educational, commercial and 
practical pharmacy sections. It will thus be an honor worthy of the 
man whose name it bears, and its annual awarding will ever keep 
fresh in memory the father of our fluid extracts, the typical investi- 
gator and lover of science for science's sake, and the man who so 
closely approximated the ideal of his race. 

Alfred R. L. Dohme. 

Dear Sir: — Your letter of the nth instant came duly to hand. 
In my opinion the most appropriate memorial would be a bust cast 
in bronze by a master. Copies could then be made of alabaster, of 
which, I am sure, every college of pharmacy at least would want one 
to place in its halls. Nothing in the way of a memorial would be 
more classic and nothing would serve the purposes of a memorial 
better, in my opinion. Frederick J. Wulling. 

Dear Sir : — Your esteemed favor of the 7th inst. was received at 
Detroit during my somewhat prolonged absence from the city, 
hence this tardy reply. 

I favor the project of a properly executed monument to Prof. 
William Procter, Jr., in the form of a statue to be erected in some 
central or metropolitan city. My own choice would be Washington. 
The Capital is visited more extensively by travellers than is per- 
haps any one city in the United States, barring New York, and it. 
abounds in beautiful statues and works of art, dedicated to the 
heroes of war, science and literature. The monument to Procter 
should be chosen with a view to its effect, not on the professional, 
but on the public mind — such an effect as is produced by the strik- 
ing statue of Gross, which commands the entrance to the Army^ 
Medical Museum at Washington. At the present time compara- 
tively few, even among the educated laymen, realize that pharmacy 
has produced its fair share of great and eminent men. A beautiful 
statue of Procter, suitably placed, would help to dispel the error. 

Joseph Helfman. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. r 
March, 1901. J 



Correspondence. 



137 



Dear Sir : — I have received your kind favor of the 9th inst., and 
I am very sorry that I did not read the editorial of last November 
in your esteemed Journal. However, I have read the replies pub- 
lished in your February Journal. 

If William Procter, Jr., the father of American pharmacy, is to be 
commemorated in a befitting manner, by all means let it be a life- 
size statue of purest Carrara marble. And place the statue in the 
most conspicuous place in the country. Place it in company with 
the other great men of our country, whose marble statues adorn 
Monument Hall in the Capitol, at Washington. This would be my 
first choice. 

As my second choice, the Procter Memorial Laboratory, at 
Washington, D. C, would be splendid, indeed. (Not the choice, 
but the laboratory.) It was a little difficult to decide first and 
second. 

Certainly, Philadelphia has first claims on her illustrious son, but 
since he is a national figure, his monument should stand where the 
monuments of the most illustrious sons ot the nation stand, and 
that is Washington. G. H. Chas. Klie. 

Dear Sir: — The suggestion of Mr. Arny is precisely that which 
I have had in mind. No doubt the endowment of a scholarship 
would be an appropriate memorial to the " Father of American 
Pharmacy," but gifts would not be as freely made to a scholarship 
connected with any particular school as they would to something 
in which all sections alike would feel that they had equal share. 

A research laboratory is the pressing need to-day of our profes- 
sion. It will cost money to build and equip such a laboratory. It 
seems to me that the money can be raised in no easier way than in 
connection with a memorial to Wm. Procter. 

I believe that the laboratory may be made self-supporting from 
the beginning. We have at present no means of procuring such 
drugs as belladonna of standard strength. The consumers of such 
drugs would willingly pay half a cent a pound lor an article 
accompanied with a guaranteed assay. The laboratory could 
furnish such certified assays for one-half that amount, so that there 
would be a profit to the laboratory and to the dealer. One would 
suppose that all pharmacists would prefer the assayed drugs and 
willingly pay the higher price for them. With more strict require- 



4 



138 



Correspondence. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1901. 



ments such as the new Pharmacopoeia will no doubt lay down, 
many will be compelled by State laws to buy the assayed drugs or 
else themselves assay all they buy. 

The stamp of the Procter Memorial Laboratory would thus come 
immediately to be recognized as authoritative in connection with 
commercial values. Manufacturers would quickly grasp the idea 
that the value of their products might be also enhanced by a simi- 
lar stamp of endorsement, if it should be thought wise to offer it. 

In any case, I believe that it would be not too much to require 
that every proposed new pharmaceutical should be submitted for 
approval to the Memorial Laboratory, which should refuse to give 
countenance to anything not exactly what it was represented to be, 
and should moreover withhold approval from anything whose bona 
fide formula was withheld. 

It would be expected that the Pharmacopoeial Revision Com- 
mittee would receive substantial assistance in its work by such a 
research laboratory, reasonable compensation being made of course 
for necessary expert work. 

While Washington would be the ideal place for the Memorial 
Laboratory, it seems to me that on business considerations New 
York would have first claim on it. This with other details of the 
project may well be left open for discussion, but in my judgment a 
research laboratory would be the most fitting tribute we could pos- 
sibly render to the memory of Professor Procter. 

A. B.Lyons. 

Dear Sir: — Replying to yours of February 6th, I would say that 
I look upon the different plans submitted for a Procter memorial 
this way : 

I would be decidedly in favor of a " research laboratory," pro- 
vided a fund of not less than $200,000 would be raised. This, I 
am afraid, cannot be done. 

I do not like the idea of a " scholarship," because it would 
be extremely difficult to select the most deserving men from 
the many applicants scattered through the whole United States. 
Scholarships should be attached to individual institutions, but I take 
it for granted that it is the general opinion to make this memorial 
one of national character. 

To place a " monument," such as a bronze statue of Procter, in 
some public and well-chosen locality would be highly appropriate. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
March, 1901. J 



Correspondence. 



139 



Yet, of all plans submitted, I favor most the proposition of Dr. 
Fr. Hoffmann, to fourtd a memorial medal " to be granted in 
recognition of superior discoveries or literary accomplishments in 
the domains of theoretical and applied pharmaceutical sciences and 
' arts." 

I am also in favor of Dr. Hoffmann's plan to make this prize 
medal a memorial for both Procter and Squibb, naming it the 
" Procter-Squibb memorial prize medal." 

I am inclined to think that both these men, if their opinion could 
be learned, would much prefer to have their names and memory 
perpetuated in this form, than to have monuments erected in their 
honor. 

While these are my personal views, I desire to say that whatever 
may be done to do homage to the memory of our really great men 
will find my most hearty support. W. Simon. 

Dear Sir: — I am in hearty sympathy with the movement to es- 
tablish a Procter memorial as the climax of any celebration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of the A.Ph.A. Our Association now has a 
considerable fund, which was made secure a few years ago for the 
purpose of husbanding it for the purpose of research. With this 
as a nucleus it ought to be possible to erect at Washington a credit- 
able building devoted to research, on condition that the government 
maintain it and support its officers. Besides having a staff of 
government scientists representing the principal branches of phar- 
maceutical science, including pharmacology, such a building could 
be made the home of the U.S.P. Revision Committee. One labo- 
ratory in such a building might be dedicated to Procter, another to 
Squibb, etc. 

To have a bust made of Professor Procter, or a portrait painted or 
any other expression of appreciation of Professor Procter's services 
is a duty which the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and its 
alumni owe their teacher, and in which they certainly do not need 
the assistance of others. A statue seems out of the question, and 
of pharmaceutical medals we possibly have sufficient. As a nation 
we cannot honor Procter or Squibb, or both, more than by the erec- 
tion of a research laboratory devoted to solving problems which the 
Revision Committee must so largely leave unsolved. 

Since writing the above suggestion, I see that Professor Amy has 



140 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am ^irc££oi arm * 

made a similar one. I heartily second his suggestion, with the 
proviso that the American Pharmaceutical Association erect the 
building and turn it over to the government on co?idition that the 
U. S. Government pledge itself to properly support it. The co-opera- 
tion of the government seems to me of the greatest importance. 

Edward Kremers. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

WEST INDIAN SANDAL OIL. 

The plant Amyris balsamifera yields ah oil entering commerce as 
named above. This oil has specific gravity -962, is dextrogyre and 
fractionates with six portions, the first fraction distilling in vacuo at 
I39°-I47° C. and the sixth at 170 -174° C. The second and 
fourth fractions are most abundant, and the two analyze to C 15 H 24 and 
C^H^HoO respectively. The oil yields with halogen acids a series 
of derivatives, the chlorine derivative (yield 17 per cent.) being 
identical with cadinene dihydrochloride, C 15 H 24 2HCl, and the other 
halogen derivatives being analogous cadinene compounds. — E. Daus- 
sen, Arch. Ph., 1900, 144. H. V. Arny. 

SANDALWOOD OIL. 

The oil of Santalum album, examined by M. Guerbet (J. de Ph. 
et Ch. y 1900, 225), has specific gravity 0-9867 and had specific rotat- 
ing power — 2i-i6°. Saponification separated from it 3 percent, 
of the following acids : Formic, acetic, santalic and teresantalic, all 
found in the oils as esters. Santalic acid, C 15 H 24 2 , is a viscid, color- 
less liquid boiling at 2io°-2i2° C. under 20 millimetres pressure, 
insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, and is so feebly acid that 
it can be freed from its salts by C0 2 . Teresantalic acid, C 10 H 14 O 2 , 
occurs in large colorless prismatic crystals melting at 15 7° C, and 
forms crystalline salts. The unsaponifiable portion of the oil 
yielded, on repeated fractional distillation, 6 per cent, of sesquiter- 
penes, santalenes a and /? respectively, the former boiling at 25 2° 
C, the latter at 28 1°. Both are lsevogyre. Also two alcohols, san- 
talol a and /9, 80 per cent., the study of which is not complete. 
Lastly, there was obtained from the oil by precipitation with semi- 
carbazid hydrochlorate 3 per cent, of an aldehyde, santalol, C 15 H 24 0, 
a colorless liquid of peppery odor, boiling at 180 C. under 40 



A %?a°rchj9oi rm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 141 

millimetres pressure, and forming a crystalline semicarbazone, 
melting at 21 2° C. On oxidation with chromic acid the aldehyde 
yielded santalic acid. H. V. A. 

THE CHARACTER OF DROPS. 

An interesting contribution to this subject is an article by F. 
Eschbaum [Ber. Dtsch. Ph. Ges., 1900, 91). He gives table of 
weights of drops of almost every kind of liquid, and from his 
experiments has deduced the following equations : 

(1) To secure uniform drops it is necessary that the liquid drop 
from a spherical surface of estimated radius. He shows that the in- 
fluence of the surface of the vessel from which the liquid is dropped 
comes from the readiness of this surface to form a curved segment 
of liquid, which the investigators call the meniscus of the drop. 
This aggregation of liquid continues to collect on the dropping sur- 
face of the container until its adhesive power is overcome by the 
force of gravitation, hence the actual formation of the drop is solely 
influenced by cohesion and gravitating force. For instance, he 
finds that, taking two tubes of the same calibre, one of which is 
very thin walled, the thicker the wall, the larger the drop; in other 
words, the outer circumference of the dropping surface is the sole 
determinant of the size of the drop. This continues with in- 
creased circumference of tube until the maximum of a drop 
of water is attained. This maximum drop he finds weighs 0-2330 
grammes. 

(2) The weight of a drop of a mixture of two liquids is always 
between the weight of its two components. 

(3) The weight of a drop of a solution of a solid body, such as 
salts, bases, acids, extractive matter, and also of a solution of a gas, 
is practically the same as that of its solvent. In this connection the 
writer discovered an interesting fact, that, usually, the weight of a 
drop of a saturated solution of a salt is less than that of a drop of 
water. 

(4) That the rapidity of dropping from the same container, or 
variation in temperature during dropping, while exerting a certain 
influence, is not sufficient to be considered in practical work. 

(5) The size of a drop varies according as the liquid is dropped 
from a full bottle or from one partially full. 

Dropped from a tube of diameter 6 63 millimetres, measured from 



142 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { AB £h; fgou™" 

one outer edge to the other, a drop of water weighed 01 gramme ; 
a drop of alcohol, specific gravity 0-831, weighed 0033 gramme; 
one drop of ether weighed 0-0238 ; one drop of chloroform weighed 
00376 gramme. H. V. A. 

KOLA NUT. 

At a recent meeting of the German Pharmaceutical Society, the 
kola tree and its fruit were discussed from two standpoints by K. 
Schumann and by L. Bernegan. From the mass of detail the fol- 
lowing facts were gleaned : 

The fruit of kola weigh as much as 2 kilos, and since a large 
number of fruits are produced by one tree, its branches would be 
subjected to much pressure were it not for a provision of nature, 
namely, from the trunk spring many of the flowers (Cauliflorie), thus 
throwing much of the burden on the sturdy trunk. The flowers are 
of two kinds, in both of which the petals are missing, the calyx as- 
suming a pink color which attracts fertilizing insects. The flowers 
are very odorous (vanillin-like), while the fruit smells like the Mare- 
chal Neil rose. Within the pulpy fruit four to eight seeds or nuts 
are found. These nuts are used by native Africans only when fresh, 
and large quantities are sent to the Brazilian negroes, who likewise 
insist on receiving undried nuts. Accordingly, they are exported to 
Brazil carefully packed in leaves of Cola cordifolia, and by this 
means the seeds can be kept four weeks. The price of the nuts 
ascends in proportion to distance from place of collection ; for in- 
stance, at place of collection in Ashanti, 2,000 nuts cost 6 
marks ; in Salaga they cost 30 marks, while in Bahia, Brazil, the 
same quantity costs 400 to 600 marks. 

The tree grows sometimes 15 metres high, begins bearing fruit 
in its eighth year, and bears fifty years. The wood of the branches 
is used by the negroes for cleaning teeth, while a decoction of young 
branches is used as a gargle by the negro children. — Ber. Dtsch. Ph. 
Ges. y 1900, 67. H. V. A. 

PURIFICATION OF WATER. 

Water can be freed of bacteria by means of minute quantities of 
the halogen elements, and a study of this is reported by F. Malme- 
jac (J. Ph. et Ch , 1900, 364). To successive quantities of very im- 
pure water, chlorine, bromine and iodine were added, each in pro- 
portion of o-i milligramme to the litre. The reagent was allowed 



An Mi?ch',i P 9oi arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 143 

to act half an hour and the excess removed with sodium thiosul- 
phate. Comparison of the purified waters with the impure sample 
showed that, while the purification effected little change in the 
amount of organic matter tested with permanganate, ranging from 
4*4 milligrammes per litre in the impure to 3 2 in that purified with 
chlorine, and also slight alteration in the amount of ammonia, rang, 
ing from 0-24 milligrammes per litre in the impure to 016 in the 
chlorinated, the destruction of bacteria was most notable, the 
amount in the original water counted on nutritive gelatin after 
eight days being 17,500 (in what quantity? — Ed.) ; in chlorine puri- 
fied water, 300; in bromine purified water, 190, and in iodine, only 90. 
The writer thus gives preference to alcoholic solution of iodine as a 
purifier. Attention is called to the fact that all the water examined 
developed oxygen on standing, the impure original having 9-6 
milligrammes per litre after one day and 12-6 milligrammes after 
twenty days; the chlorinated, 1 r6 milligrammes after one day and 
15-3 milligrammes after twenty days. These represent the extremes. 

H. V. A. 

THYMOTAL. 

A new remedy against Anchylostomum duodenale. 

Thymol is known for its antiseptic properties. It is therefore 
administered, internally, especially against that dangerous parasite, 
the Anchylostominn duodenale^ when Ext. Filicis mas aether, Pellie- 
tierin, Kamala et t. g. fail. 

Anchylostomum duodenale is one of the special plagues of warm countries, 
especially of Italy. Italians spread it sometimes. Frequently it becomes of 
an epidemic character. It is one of the causes of chlorosis, and can become 
fatal, under certain circumstances. The "worm " reaches a length of 18 milli- 
metres. The sexes are separate. West India is especially infested with it. 
How well it 7s provided for its deadly work can be judged from a drawing 
made by Professor I/euckardt, reproduced in " Practisch wichtige microsco- 
pische Objecten," page 298 of Hager-Mez' "Das Microscop," Berlin, Julius 
Springer, 1899. 

The administration of thymol has bad after-effects ; it causes 
dizziness, intoxication, nausea. 

Applying the same process whereby guajacol loses its strongly 
aromatic and burning taste, becomes tasteless, but preserves its 
medical properties, e. g., converting it into a carbonate. 1 Mr. J. F. 



J E. Schmidt, " Ausf. Lehrb. d. Pharm. Ch.," II, page 938. 



144 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { An &5££; Sjf rm - 

Pohl, apothecary at Paramaribo, states that he succeeded in con- 
verting thymol into thymol carbonate, a nearly tasteless, colorless, 
crystalline compound, varying but little in its melting point from 
thymol (thymol, 5o°-5i°; thymol carbonate, 49 ; details were not 
given as to how this estimation was made), but considerable in its 
boiling-point (thymol, 230 ; thymol carbonate, "over" 400 ). 

This new remedy is not dissolved in the stomach ; causes, there- 
fore, no dizziness nor nausea, and is very effective against those in- 
testinal pests where Ext. Filix mas. cannot be taken. 

We regret to state that Mr. Pohl has added to our already un- 
bearable burden of new remedial names another name ; has put a 
mysterious shroud around it and called the compound thymotal, 
wherefore he cannot show a good cause of doing this. 

The remedy has the usual support of half a dozen doctors. 

J. B. Nagelvoort. 

THEOBROMA CACAO. 

Th. Peckolt's " Medicinal and Useful Plants of Brazil," which 
appeared in the Berichte der deutschen Pharmaceutische Gesell- 
schafi, opens a new chapter in botanical materia medica, and 
it is to be hoped that the articles will be gathered into one 
volume. 

From the closing article the following data on Theobroma Cacao 
is gleaned : 

The seeds were not used by the native Brazilians until after the 
advent of the Europeans, the natives employing only the sweetish 
pulp, from which they fermented a beverage. Since the seeds were 
used by the Mexicans and Peruvians from primeval days, there is 
evidently no ethnological connection between the west coast Indians 
and those of Brazil. 

The tree is considerably cultivated at the present time, for, by 
reason of the low price brought by coffee and the expense of its 
culture, many planters are turning to cacao, 600 trees on a hectare 
(2.y 2 acres) of ground bearing, after five years, 4,500 to 4,800 kilos 
dried seed each year. The frequency of crop and size of seed de- 
pend on climatic conditions, in hot places two crops a year being 
the rule. In Cantagallo the average fruit weighed 220 grammes 
and yielded 27-5 grammes dried seed; while in Rio — a warmer 
place — the fruit averaged 330 grammes, divided as follows: Rind, 



Am Mareh, P i^ m "} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 145 

204 grammes ; pulp, 36 grammes ; seed, 90 grammes, which dried 
to 48-6 grammes. 

The rind yielded tat, resin, albumen, tannin, glucose, mucilage (4 
per cent.), water (81 per cent.), ash (2 per cent.) and theobromine 
(0-6 per cent.). 

The mucilage makes the rind a valuable substitute for ground 
flaxseed, which spoils very quickly in Brazil. It is also of use as 
fodder. 

The pulp contains tartaric acid (1 per cent.), glucose (3-8 per 
•cent.), albumen (0*5 per cent.), mucilage (1 per cent.), pectin and 
extractive (7 per cent.), ash (1 per cent.). The alcoholic liquor pro- 
duced from it is very palatable and ferments to a good vinegar. 

The fresh seeds contain water (46 per cent.), fat (17 per cent.), 
theobromine (0-2 percent.) and ash (1-25 per cent.). 

The fresh leaves contain water, fatty oil, resin, theobromine (0-07 
per cent.), tannin, extractive and 0*2 per cent, of a substance tasting 
like glycyrrhizin and resembling it in analytical reactions. 

H. V. A. 

FORMATION OF CINCHONA ALKALOIDS. 

Believing that the alkaloids were developed in the leaves, just as 
is starch, Dr. J. P. Lotsy experimented at the Java governmental 
•cinchona plantations as follows : Leaves were divided at the midrib, 
the half with midrib being either left on tree or immersed in water, 
the two halves being assayed at different times, control experiments 
having shown that the two halves of the same leaf, examined at the 
same time, yielded approximately the same amount alkaloids. In 
some cases the half first examined was rich in alkaloids, while the 
half left on the tree was, within twelve hours, free from alkaloids. 
That this disappearance was due to migration of the alkaloids into 
the bark and not to dissociation of same by leaf processes was shown 
by the fact that, if the remaining half were removed from tree, the 
diminution of alkaloidal strength was never observed ; but, on the 
contrary, a leaf originally free from alkaloids developed same on 
exposure to light after being removed from tree. This is of im- 
portance, because, while some experiments showed the emptying of 
alkaloids from a leaf within twelve hours, in other cases, twelve 
hours after the first half showed no alkaloids, the second half 
yielded a considerable quantity. 



146 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am Mirch,i9oi. rm ' 

The percentage of alkaloids in young succirubra leaves is ten 
times greater than that of the old leaves, but the actual amount in 
each leaf is not as great. The average tree, having 10,000 leaves 
weighing about 5 kilos when dried and yielding about ^ per cent, 
alkaloids a day, produces about 2 kilos of alkaloids a year (5 
grammes a day), a quantity much greater than that obtained each 
year from the bark of an average tree. This shows the leaves fully 
capable of producing all the alkaloids we find. The excess in for- 
mation is easily accounted for: (1) The leaves are never com- 
pletely emptied each day. (2) The unfavorable weather reduces 
alkaloidal output. 

The theory of leaf formation of alkaloids is strengthened by the 
facts that the petioles are richer in alkaloids than the blade, that 
the branch bark contains more than the trunk bark, that the root 
bark is practically free from alkaloids. The leaves, however, con- 
tain no crystalline alkaloids, hence no quinine. This is explained 
by saying that the leaves produce a fundamental and soluble alka- 
loidal base, which is elaborated into the true alkaloids when being 
stored in the bark. — Bet. dtsch. Ph. Ges., 1900, 124. 

H. V. A. 

ASSAY OF VOLATILE OIL IN AROMATICS. 

Distil an alcoholic percolate of the drug with steam, taking care 
that distillate represents an aliquot part of the drug. Place 100 c.c.. 
of this distillate, to which a few drops of diluted sulphuric acid is 
added, and which must not contain more than 50 per cent, of alco- 
hol, in a special flask, having a lower bulb of 95 c.c. capacity 
connected by a narrow neck, graduated from 98 c.c. to 100 c.c. in 
fractions of 05 c.c, to a second bulb holding 25 c.c. up to its neck, 
which in turn connects with a third bulb of value in agitation. The 
liquid in the flask is cooled in water to exactly 20 C. and an exact 
reading is taken, after which petroleum ether (sp.gr. 640 to 067 o)> 
of same temperature is added up to the 125 c.c. mark. In this 
way the flask contains two distinct layers of liquid, say the aqueous 
up to 100 c.c. and the benzin up to 125 c.c. The mixture is 
vigorously shaken five minutes and then allowed to cool to 20 C, 
when it is noticed that the oil formerly present in the aqueous layer 
has been absorbed by the benzin, increasing volume of the latter 
the amount of oil present, as proven by experiments of the author. 
— Dr. Neuman Wender, Ph. Post, 1900, 344. H. V. A. 



AD M J a°r U ch^9oi!' m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 147 

THE ETHER TEST FOR SCAMMONY. 

Of two consignments of the same scammony sent from Beyrouth 
in Syria — one to Germany, the other to France — the former was re- 
turned as not standing the ether solubility test of the pharma- 
copoeia, while the French specimen was found perfectly satisfactory. 
This led P. Guigues de Ch. et Ph., 1900, 529) to investigate, and 
he found the cause of the contradictory reports in the variable 
quality of commercial ether ; even that labelled "pure." He finds 
many of the most reliable ethers contain water, even to 160 per 
cent., and the slightest trace renders scammony insoluble. Most 
contain alcohol, which renders the resin easily soluble even when 
water is present in the solvent. Another curious point is that in 
some cases the resin dissolves freely in a certain quantity of ether 
and precipitates when excess of the solvent is added. From these 
several facts the writer concluded that the test should be carefully 
studied and revised, with special reference to quality and quantity 
of the ether employed. H. V. A. 

PHENYLHYDRAZINE REACTION FOR URINE. 

The difficulties of above test, which is most valuable for detect- 
ing minute quantities of urine, can be obviated as follows: Put in 
ordinary test-tube equal amounts (about size of a pea) of phenyl- 
hydrazin, HQ, and crystallized sodium acetate. Fill tube with the 
urine and cork, not allowing finger to come in contact with the 
phenylhydrazin, which is a dangerous poison to the blood. Shake 
the mixture till the salts are dissolved, then remove stopper, place 
tube in boiling water, immediately removing flame. Allow the test- 
tube to remain in the water till completely cold, preferably over 
night ; then remove precipitate with pipette and examine micro- 
scopically. The crystals rarely appear as striking as pictured in the 
books, but the presence of sugar can be safely established if the 
precipitate is intensely yellow and crystalline. By this means 001 
per cent, sugar can be detected. Practice is essential to diagnosis, 
hence the beginner is urged to first experiment with urine to which 
glucose has been added.— Dr. F. Eschbaum, Schw. Woch. f. Ch. 
und Ph , 1900, 214. H. V. A. 



i 4 8 



Editorial. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1901. 



EDITORIAL. 

PARLIAMENTARY LAW IN ASSOCIATIONS. 

At the different association meetings there are many members 
who are more anxious for the good of their professions than are 
conversant with parliamentary law. The result is that when the pre. 
siding officer is more or less familiar with the law and anxious to 
carry out the law these members who are making motions and 
amendments contrary to such laws sometimes find that they are 
declared to be out of order; and hence are inclined to consider 
such rulings to be unjust and not in accord with the good of the 
cause they are expounding. 

There are very few presiding officers of professional bodies who 
are thoroughly conversant with parliamentary law and able to carry 
on a meeting in the proper way. This arises because the presiding 
officers are usually selected on account of their scientific or literary 
attainments — as they undoubtedly should be — and not' because of 
their being good parliamentarians. It is true that, as a rule, at the 
meetings of professional bodies no serious difficulties confront the 
chair. However, difficulties do arise and chairmen sometimes lose 
their heads, and things are sometimes said and done which are un- 
wise and unfortunate, but which fortunately are usually expunged 
from the records and not published. 

Observations on the actions of various bodies show that each 
body should have a presiding officer to direct its business affairs 
who is familiar not only with the needs of the body, but who is 
also a good parliamentarian. Professor Lloyd, when President of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association (Proceedings, 1888, p. 15), 
made the following recommendation, which is deserving the consid- 
eration of all associations, as it would tend unquestionably to 
facilitate the business of the organizations and permit the ablest 
men to be selected for the most honorable positions of these asso- 
ciations, and who are not then burdened with the difficulties of pre- 
siding at all the meetings. 

Professor Lloyd says : " Sometimes it may be desirable to elect as 
your president a man totally inadequate in the direction of parlia- 
mentary tactics, and of little value as a presiding officer. What- 
ever good reason may induce such a selection, I think that it will 
not be disputed that it is necessary to always have an accomplished 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, J 901. / 



Editorial. 



149 



parliamentarian as presiding officer, in order to facilitate the work 
of the organization. I can refer to this matter graciously, for I re- 
flect my own shortcomings in doing so. The good judgment of 
this Association wisely associated with me a superior parliamen- 
tarian, capable, willing, obliging, and I thank you for the considera- 
tion shown me; but especially am I indebted to this gentleman, 
Mr. M. W. Alexander, who has so discreetly and acceptably con- 
ducted your meetings. 

" I believe that it would be well to honor such men and serve 
yourselves by extending them lengthened positions in presiding 
over us, and create in our body a new office, a presiding chairman, 
who can both preside over the general meeting and fill vacancies in 
the absence of the chairmen of the sections. 

"The President elected by reason of a special fitness for other 
labors will then have time to attend to his peculiar duties; he may 
appoint committees, etc., etc., during your meetings without the 
distractions attending the chairmanship; the conducting officer, 
elected by you at stated periods because he is really capable of 
being a parliamentarian, will conduct your deliberations in a proper 
manner. He will become acquainted with faces, names and meth- 
ods, and facilitate the order of your meetings. # * *• # 
I will admit that some of our Presidents are capable parliamentari- 
ans, but it is sometimes desirable to elect men without such accom- 
plishments. In support of this opinion, since writing this section, 
I have reviewed an editorial article by Dr. Fred. Hoffmann on the 
subject in the Pharm aceutische Rundschau (September, 1885), and 
extract the following sentence: 'A thorough familiarity with the 
subject matters of the deliberations, and the rare gift of wise tact, of 
quick and good judgment, and of energy, are requisites for manag- 
ing large conventions with success.' If men with these talents and 
ability, and with comprehensive knowledge, can be placed, or have 
been found, at the helm of the association,, it certainly would be 
conducive to the best interests and efficiency of its annual meetings 
to retain them. If it is not considered advisable to add this new 
officer, I strongly urge that the Vice-Presidents be selected for the 
purpose of filling this position, and that the President-elect be re- 
lieved from the detail work of conducting the meeting, giving his 
entire attention to the real work of his office." 

The mode of procedure in selecting the presiding officers in the 



Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Marcb,190l. 



American Association for the Advancement of Science is one 
which commends itself to all professional organizations, as it tends 
to relieve the President of performing more than one series of du- 
ties each year. The President is elected at one meeting, presides 
at the following meeting and delivers his presidential address the 
next succeeding year. This, however, does not do away with the 
necessity of his presiding at one of the meetings, and, should he not 
be a parliamentarian or desire to qualify himself as such, places him 
in an unpleasant position. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
the forty-eighth annual meeting, held at Richmond, Va., May, 
1900. Baltimore: 1900. 

A succinct account of the Richmond meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association has already been given the readers of this 
Journal (see Vol. LXXII, p. 291). The full account of the meet- 
ing, with papers and discussions as well as a number of addresses, is 
given in 344 pages of the proceedings just published. In 517 pages 
is given the report on the progress of pharmacy, from July i, 1899, 
to June 30, 1900. The remainder of the proceedings is devoted to 
a list of members, constitution and by-laws and other matters ot 
interest to members. There are few, if any, associations in which the 
members receive greater value from their membership than that of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association. From the viewpoint 
of a business transaction, it is one of the best investments the 
apothecary can make. 

Inorganic General Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 
Theoretical and Practical. A Text-Book and Laboratory Manual, 
containing Theoretical, Descriptive and Technological Chemistry ; 
Class Exercises in Chemical Equations and Mathematics ; and Prac- 
tical Manufacturing Processes for Five Hundred Chemical Prepara- 
tions, with Explanatory Notes. By Oscar Oldberg. In two 
volumes. Chicago: Chicago Medical Book Company. 1900. 

For the student who desires to get at the fundamental principles 
underlying theoretical chemistry, the work of Professor Oldberg 
will be a decided help. The language is succinct, clear and ta 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) Rp<7np<79)<; t £ T 

March, 1901. / I^evieiVS. I5I 

the point. The author treats well of such important subjects as 
the atomic theory; chemical polarity ; the relative intensity of the 
chemical energy of different elements ; atomic valence ; chemical 
notation and nomenclature ; the laws and conditions which domi- 
nate the course of chemical reactions ; oxidation and reduction ; 
the periodicity of 'the properties of the elements; the intimate 
relations of all these to each other and to atomic mass ; and their 
bearings upon the practical problems of chemical work. There are 
also included adequate instruction, rules and examples, designed to 
enable the student to fully master the all-important practical uses 
of chemical equations and mathematics, seven chapters being de- 
moted to these subjects. 

Volume I is divided into three parts and includes chapters on the 
following subjects: Part I. Elementary Theoretical Chemistry: (i) 
Introductory, Some Common Kinds of Matter; (2) Atoms, Mole- 
cules and Chemism ; (3) Preliminary Experiments Showing Physical 
Signs of Chemical Action ; (4) The Chemical Elements ; (5) The 
Law of Definite Combining Proportions and the Atomic Theory ; 
(6) Chemical Polarity ; (7) The Relative Intensity of the Chemical 
Energy of the Elements ; (8) Atomic Valence ; (9) Atomic Polarity- 
Value ; (10) Chemical Notation; (n) Chemical Nomenclature; (12) 
Classification of Chemical Compounds — Binary Compounds; (13) 
Hydroxides, Acids and Bases; (14) Salts; (15) The Relations of 
Oxides, Acids, Bases and Salts to Each Other; (16) Structure of the 
Metallic Oxygen-Salts of the Common Acids; (17) Chemical Re- 
actions; (18) Oxidation and Reduction; (19) The Forces and 
Conditions which Dominate the Course of Chemical Reactions ; (20) 
How to Write and Balance Ordinary Chemical Equations; (21) 
How to Balance Equations Representing Reactions of Oxidation 
and Reduction; (22, 23, 24) Examples in Oxidation and Reduction; 
(25) Atomic Polarity- Value as an Aid to the Verification of the 
Structure of Molecules ; (26) The Periodicity of Properties of the 
Elements ; (27) A Recapitulation of Fundamental Facts, Definitions 
and Hypotheses. 

Part IT. Elementary Descriptive Chemistry : (28) Order of 
Study of the Elements and their Compounds ; (29-67) The Ele- 
ments and their Compounds, including the Ammonium Compounds 
and Metallic Salts of the Organic Acids. Part III. (68, 69) 
Stoechiometry. 



152 Reviews. { A ViS. ? 9 o?. r ^ 

The contents of the second volume include: 

Part I. General Principles and Methods Applicable in the Pro- 
duction of Inorganic Chemical Preparations: (i) Choice of Methods 
and Materials; (2) Crushing and Powdering; (3) Dry Chemical 
Processes; (4) Solution : Its Nature, Causes and Effects; (5) Sol- 
vents, Solubility, Solutions ; (6) The Clarification of Liquids^ 
Strainers, Presses, Filtration ; (7) Evaporation ; (8) Distillation ; (9) 
Crystals and Crystallization; (10) Crystallizations from Solutions ; 
(11) Dialysis; (12) Precipitation; (13) Chemical Solution, Wet 
Oxidation, Wet Gas Operations; (14) Uses of Unfinished Products; 
Purification of Crude Chemicals. What to do with Damaged Pro- 
ducts. Profitable Chemical Work; (15) The Preservation of Medi- 
cinal Substances; (16) Solubilities of Chemical Compounds in 
Water and in Alcohol ; (17) The Densities of Solids and Liquids. 
The Mohr.Westphal Balance ; Hydrometers ; Pycnometers, etc. ; 
(1 8) Rules for Making Solutions of any Given Strength, and for 
Diluting, Fortifying and Mixing; (19) Laboratory Furniture and 
Apparatus ; (20) Laboratory Rules and Precautions ; What to do- 
in Accidents ; How to Clean Apparatus. Part II. Laboratory 
Manual of Inorganic Chemical Preparations: Introductory; Weights 
and Measures; Water; Acids; Other Preparations ; Tables; Index. 

The chapters on Chemical Polarity, Atomic Valence and Atomic 
Polarity- Value, in Book I, are particularly valuable. The applica- 
tion of atomic valence in balancing equations is of great value, par- 
ticularly in the consideration of oxidation equations. It is doubtful 
if there are any formulae or reactions which are not in agreement 
with the doctrine that no atom can gain increased combining value 
except at the expense of some other atom or atoms and that the 
gain and the loss exactly balance each other. The consideration 
of the nature of atoms underlies the whole superstructure of prac- 
tical chemistry. Part I is based on the most advanced chemical 
theories, and the author has wisely devoted over 300 pages in the 
consideration of the fundamental matters connected with theoretical 
chemistry. The remainder of Part I is given to the consideration 
of the elements and the stoechiometry of inorganic chemistry. 
Volume II is devoted to the consideration of actual laboratory 
operations in the production of inorganic chemicals and the making 
of 500 inorganic chemical preparations. The author has shown an 
assimilation of the subject matter and an originality of treatment 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1901. / 



Reviews. 



153 



that is pleasing, and there can be no question but that students, 
investigators and manufacturers will find that these volumes contain 
just such information as is frequently lacking in many of the text 
and reference books on this subject. 

King's American Dispensatory. New edition. Entirely re- 
written and enlarged. By Harvey W. Felter and John Uri Lloyd. 
Two-volume edition, royal octavo, containing together 2,284 pages, 
including complete indices. Cloth, $4.50 per volume, postpaid. 
t Sheep, $5 per volume, postpaid. The Ohio Valley Company, 
publishers, Cincinnati, O. 

Volume I of this work appeared in 1898 and a brief mention of 
it was made in this Journal, 1898, p. 580. Volume I includes 
substances from A-G and contains 904 pages. Volume II includes 
substances from G-Z inclusive and contains 1,267 pages. Volume 
II is an improvement over Volume I in editorial work as well as in 
the use of paper and typographical work. The treatment of the 
eclectic materia medica is the best part of the book, and it is in this 
particular field that the work is a valuable contribution to materia 
medica. The student and investigator who is anxious to know 
more about the possibilities of the cultivation of medicinal plants in 
America will find numerous valuable hints, as under podophyllum : 
" May-apple is hardy and will thrive in fence corners of cultivated 
fields, often resisting the advances of agricultural improvements, 
when other common fence-weeds have been exterminated. It is 
not, as is the case with many other valuable medicinal plants, likely 
to be soon eradicated." Under hydrastis we read : " With hydrastis, 
however, the opposite is true ; the plant disappears as soon as the 
ground is disturbed by the settler." There are many things re- 
corded that one would have difficulty in ascertaining, as literature 
" is so scattered and references become more and more difficult to 
look up. The new edition of King's Dispensatory will be much 
appreciated by those who have been anxiously waiting its appear- 
ance and it will prove a valuable adjunct to the reference library 
of the physician and pharmacist. 



Cinchona Barks of the New York Market was the subject of a paper 
by J. H. Stallman at an evening meeting at the College of Pharmacy of the 
city of New York on January 15th. The paper was discussed by Professor H. 
H. Rushy, well known for his studies on cinchona, coca and other vegetable 
drugs, and Adolph Henning. 



154 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1901. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The fifth of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1900-1901 was held Tuesday, 
February 19th. Theodore Campbell, a local pharmacist and a 
member of the College, presided. 

The first speaker was Dr. Wm. C. Alpers, of New York City, 
who is well known for his active interest in pharmaceutical matters 
in general. Before taking up the main topic of his paper, Dr. . 
Alpers said, in referring to the oft-repeated statement that pharmacy 
is not in a satisfactory condition, that if any advancement is to be 
made, the impetus must come from the colleges of pharmacy. He 
therefore urged the students who were present to strive to make 
the most of their opportunities while in college and to strive for 
high ideals. He said that there is something greater than pennies, 
that knowledge is a greater and nobler capital than dollars and 
cents. It is a capital which neither sickness nor misfortune can 
take away. He said he had little respect for the man who stoops 
to the gutter to find a penny, but high regard for the man who 
looks up to the stars for his ideals. 

• Then taking up the subject of his paper, which was entitled 
" Remarks on a New Cold Cream and Other Ointments," the 
speaker gave a practical demonstration ot his method of procedure 
(see page 117). One point which was brought out by the speaker 
and which he especially emphasized was that of using chemical 
thermometers for operations requiring heat, this being a point that 
is too often neglected by pharmacists. 

In reply to a question by Wallace Procter as to whether cold 
cream made by the proposed formula retains the water better than 
the official ointment, Dr. Alpers said that, so far as his knowledge " 
went, it did, his experience having been with samples only a year 
old, which as pointed out had kept perfectly. 

F. W. E. Stedem said that his only criticism on the official cold 
cream was the presence of borax, which interfered with its use as 
a basis for mercurial salts. 

E. M. Boring also remarked upon this point and said that he 
invariably omitted the borax. His method of procedure is to melt 
together the spermaceti, white wax and expressed oil of almond, 
and to allow to cool over night, the rose water being incorporated 



Am k J a rch,f9 h o?. rm '} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 155 

the next day. Mr. Boring also said that he endeavored to keep his 
ointments in a cool place in summer and that he did not experience 
much difficulty in keeping them. Continuing his remarks, Mr. Bor- 
ing said that until comparatively recently paraffin had not been 
favorably considered as a basis for ointments containing active 
ingredients, but that Wilbert had shown that by incorporating a 
considerable portion of water with the ointment base this difficulty 
was overcome. This point, he said, took his memory back to war 
times when the Government rejected a considerable quantity of 
paraffin on account of its rancidity. 

Remarking on this point, Dr. Alpers said that of course it must 
be borne in mind that a much purer article is obtainable now. 

With regard to the presence of borax in the formula proposed by 
him, Dr. Alpers said it was desirable to retain it, as it assisted in 
the mixing of the two solutions and also added to the appearance 
of the finished preparation. 

Mr. Campbell said that he had been using a formula somewhat 
similar to the one given by Mr. Alpers and that it yielded a satis, 
factory preparation. 

M. I. Wilbert read a paper on " Oxygenated Petrolatum," and 
gave a practical demonstration of its mode of preparation. In the 
first step certain proportions of paraffin oil and oleic acid are mixed 
together, the resultant solution being of a cloudy appearance; 
and to this, spirit of ammonia is added when the solution clears up. 
This solution acts as a solvent for many medicinal substances such 
as camphor, salol, phenol, creosote, ichthyol, etc., and is especially 
adapted for use in liniments. It furnishes an ideal solvent for iodine, 
as it prevents the iodine from evaporating, also facilitates its absorp- 
tion, and may be applied several times a day without producing 
blistering effects. 

Replying to a query as to a rise of temperature when iodine is 
added to the preparation, Mr. Wilbert said that it was very slight. 

A very interesting and suggestive paper on " Why Do Syrups 
Spoil?" by Alfred I. Cohn, New York City, was presented in abstract 
on behalf of the author by Prof. Henry Kraemer (see page 1 19). 

The next speaker introduced was Wm. R. Lamar, of New York 
City, who read a paper on " Assay cf Coca " (see page 125). 

Prof. Jos. P. Remington said that he was pleased that Mr. Lamar 
had taken up this subject, as the Prrarmacopceial Revision Com- 



1 56 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharro. 
t March, 1901. 



mittee desires to have work of this kind, as there is an evident need 
for standardized drugs. He said that ten years ago there was a cry 
for standardized preparations, but that the committee found diffi- 
culty in adopting methods which could be utilized by the pharmacist 
as well as by their originators. 

Dr. Alpers said that he was also much interested in the subject 
of the paper. He said that a number of years ago he had tried a 
number of assay processes using various solvents. He asked 
whether by the use of kerosene for extracting coca there was any 
trouble from the introduction of higher paraffin oils, as this appears 
to be a rather variable article, having different flashing points in 
different states. In reply, Mr. Lamar said that he had had no 
trouble in this respect, that he used an ordinary 150 test oil. 

Professor Remington spoke of the small percentage of alkaloid in 
the drug, and referred to the question of the importation of crude 
cocaine into this country for the manufacture of the alkaloid. Mr. 
Lamar spoke on the tariff regulations and said that there was a 
duty on both the purified and crude alkaloid, and that on account 
of the heavy duty on the latter, only a limited quantity is imported. 
He also said that the crude article (alkaloid) contained a very small 
percentage of the true alkaloid. 

Dr. C. B. Lowe referred to some assay experiments which Dr. 
Rusby had made some years ago in South America, which led to 
the belief that a larger percentage of alkaloid could be obtained from 
leaves which were comparatively fresh. 

Lyman F. Kebler said that he had examined a sample of the 
crude alkaloid which assayed 96 per cent., and that he knew of one 
manufacturing firm which used this article exclusively for the manu- 
facture of their cocaine. 

Mr. Lamar said that the problem of the purity was an important 
one and that the question to be determined was whether the alka- 
loid in question was pure or whether it contained by-products. His 
experience had been that it contained a number of impurities. 

Dr. H. C. C. Maisch presented a paper on " Gum Mastic," which 
will appear in a later issue of this Journal. The author, having a 
sample of mastic submitted to him which was very light in color, 
and suspecting that it was a substitution product, submitted it to a 
comparative test with other commercial samples, and it was found 
that they were all identical. • 



Am Ma°rch, f 9 J oi. rm - } Pharmaceutical Meeting. 1 5 7 

In discussing this paper Professor Lowe referred to the history of 
mastic, stating that it was of great interest, and, to a large extent, 
that of the island of Scio, from which the drug comes. 

He said that in the fourteenth century a Genoese family by the 
name of Laccaria obtained a concession from one of the Greek em- 
perors (to whom the island was then tributary), and settled there, 
being joined by many of the nobles of Genoa, who relinquished 
their family names, taking the general name of Ginstiniani, and 
forming a society called the Mano. This company, which was 
somewhat like the former East India Company, taking advantage of 
the weakness of the emperor, declared themselves independent and 
governed the island to suit themselves, making their own laws, 
coining their own money and fighting their own battles. The isl- 
and was held by this company with somewhat varying fortunes for 
some 250 years, when it was conquered by the Turks, who hold it to 
this day. 

When under the control of the Mano, the annual revenue from 
mastic amounted to the large sum (for those days) of about $69,000. 

Mr. Ke,bler submitted a sample of the drug which he said was 
whiter than the specimens accompanying the paper. He said the 
statement in the U. S. P. about it being brittle will not hold. He 
further remarked that he did not attach as much importance to 
the acid number as is ordinarily done, but still he was in favor of 
using every available method. 

In speaking of th^ use of mastic in medicine, Jos. W. England 
said that mastic was used in connection with aloin in the Lady 
Webster pill, to retard the action of the aloin until it reaches the 
intestines. 

Mr. Kebler remarked, in connection with the subject of indicators, 
that distilled water frequently gives an alkaline indication with 
cochineal, and on this account causes a variation in the assay figures 
in titrating for alkaloids. 

The same speaker then called attention to the impurity of the 
gum arabic on the market, and said that he had a great deal of 
difficulty in obtaining a pure article. Aqueous solutions of samples 
which he had examined had a reducing action on Fehling's solution. 
He said that, of course, it is admitted that inferior grades do this, 
that is, they contain some sugar which reduces the copper solution. 

Mr. Lamar exhibited an ebulliscope, an instrument of French 



153 



Notes and News. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1901. 



manufacture, which is used extensively for determining the percent- 
age of alcohol in wines and liquors. He said that concordant results 
could be obtained with it, and in this respect was more satisfactory 
than some of the other methods which are used. In order to show 
the comparative accuracy of the method, he gave the following data: 
In one case an alcohol which had a specific gravity of -9867 as 
determinedly Squibb's specific gravity bottle, this being equivalent 
to 1008 per cent, by volume, gave a percentage of 97 per cent, by 
volume withjthe ebulliscope, a difference of -38 per cent. A second 
samplexontained 19-34 per cent, by volume according to the Squibb 
apparatus, and with the ebulliscope, 19 7 per cent, by volume, these 
figures'representing extremes of variation. 

Mr. Procter, having tried the use of paraffin for denarcotizing 
opium as suggested by Gordon (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1900, p. 576), 
exhibited a specimen of the residual paraffin which was considerably 
colored. The resulting tincture was re-paraffined, but the second 
product was similar in appearance to the first. 

A vote^of thanks was tendered the authors of the papers for their 
presentation. 

At|the next meeting, on Tuesday, March 19, Prof. Virgil Coblentz, 
of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, will give a 
lecture on " Recent Developments in the Study of the Relationship 
between Chemical Constitution and Physiological Action of Organic 
Compounds." Florence Yaple, 

Secretary pro tern. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Commercial Pharmacy will receive attention at the hands of a number of 
competent lecturers at the University of Michigan on each Wednesday, from 
February 13th to May 29th, inclusive. 

IvEHN and Fink, whose establishment in New York City was burned out 
recently, are temporarily located at 77-79 Beekman Street, and expect to 
occupy their new building at 120 William Street by March 1st. 

A new Research Laboratory. — The twentieth century will no doubt 
be a century of progress in applied science, and one of the developments 
will be the research laboratory, where investigators will carry on researches 
which have practical objects in view. Parke, Davis & Co. intend to build 
an elaborate science laboratory which will be devoted exclusively to research 
work in chemical and biological directions. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 

— — h M % €\ 



APRIL, igoi. 



JO 




CONTRIBUTIONS FROM H. M. GORD1N 

I. THE ASSAY OF CRUDE DRUGS. 

The first step in the alkaloidal assay of drugs and galenical prep- 
arations consists in the extraction of the alkaloids from these 
sources. The exactness of such an assay will depend in the first 
place upon the completeness of exhaustion of the respective 
sources, and in the second place upon the exactness of the method 
which is employed for the estimation of the isolated alkaloids. 
With regard to this estimation, the method which I proposed some 
time ago 1 seems to work very well with all alkaloids except those 
which are not precipitated by Mayer's or Wagner's reagents in very 
dilute solutions (coniine), or those that are only precipitated by 
these reagents in presence of a very large excess of acid (colchi- 
cine). 2 In applying this method to the assay of drugs, it is often 
found that upon addition of the above-mentioned reagents the preci- 
pitate obstinately refuses to separate out even upon prolonged shak- 
ing. In such cases the addition of a little talcum powder, which of 
course must be perfectly neutral, and a little shaking will speedily 
throw down all the precipitate, leaving a perfectly transparent 
supernatant liquid. The error in titration which is liable to arise 
from the addition of the talcum is probably so small that it can 
safely be neglected. Should very exact results be desired, this 
error can be entirely eliminated by standardizing the acid and alkali 
with the same alkaloid under the same conditions, i. e. f with the use 



1 Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1899, 2872 ; Pharm. Arch., Vol. II, No. 10. 

2 Ibid. 

(159) 



i6o Contributions from H. M. Gordin. {^l^mi™' 

of an equal amount of talcum. In this way the final estimation of 
the isolated alkaloid presents no difficulty whatever. 

The only other condition upon which the exactness of a drug as- 
say depends is, then, the complete extraction of the alkaloids. In 
the case of fluids, the complete extraction of the alkaloids presents 
no difficulty. By the aid of immiscible solvents we can either di- 
rectly, or after a few very simple operations, separate the alkaloids 
from the other plant constituents with such completeness that no 
known reagent will show the presence of alkaloid in the exhausted 
liquid. 1 

But the case is entirely different with solid, not wholly soluble 
substances, particularly crude drugs. The complete exhaustion of 
crude drugs is sometimes connected with such difficulties that very 
often fluid extracts contain much less alkaloid than is known to be 
contained in the drug which the extracts are supposed to represent. 
It is well known, for example, that fluid extract nux vomica, as 
sent out by most manufacturers, contains only about i}4 per cent, 
of total alkaloids, whereas the drug itself generally contains from 
3 to ^/i P er cen t. In the Pharmacopceial directions for making 
fluid extracts we are told to continue the percolation till the drug 
is exhausted. But how are we to know when the drug is ex- 
hausted ? That the absence of appreciable quantities of alkaloid 
in a few drops of the percolate is not sufficient proof of complete 
exhaustion was shown in a previous paper, 2 in the case of colchi- 
cum. The only way to prove the completeness of exhaustion is to 
test the dregs qualitatively for alkaloids. This can be easily ac- 
complished by removing the dregs from the percolator, drying 
- them and then digesting a few hours with Prollius* fluid. After 
filtering and shaking out with acid water, the presence or absence 
of alkaloidal matter can be ascertained by means of the general 
alkaloidal reagents. 

If this method of testing the completeness of exhaustion be 
applied to many of the methods which have been proposed for the 
extraction of alkaloids for assay purposes, it will be found that most 
of these methods are very far from securing complete exhaustion. 

1 The great exactness of separation by immiscible solvents can be deduced 
from a formula given in Ostwald's " Analytische Chemie." 

2 Gordin and Prescott. Paper read at the meeting of the A.Ph.A., at Rich- 
mond, Va., 1900. 



Am A J p°rn r ;i9Sr nJ -} Contributions from H. M. Gordin. 161 

As we generally do not know how much alkaloid is left behind, it 
is impossible to introduce a proper correction in our results. 

How ineffective some of the proposed methods of exhaustion are 
can be shown by applying the Dunstan and Short method 1 to the 
assay of nux vomica. 

Ten grammes of dry powdered nux vomica were extracted in a 
S^xhlet with a mixture of alcohol and chloroform for three hours, 
as directed by these authors. The extract thus obtained, after 
passing through immiscible solvents, was assayed by the general 

N 

alkalimetric method above referred to, using — acid and alkali for 

40 

titration and Mayer's reagent as precipitant. The dregs were then 
removed from the Soxhlet, dried and assayed separately by means 
of modified Prollius' fluid, as given later under nux vomica. The 
final estimation was again made by the above-mentioned alkali- 
metric method. In both cases, amounts representing 5 grammes 

of the extract and dregs respectively were taken up by 20 c.c. 

40 

acid. The factor taken was the mean factor of strychnine and 
brucine. 

EXTRACT. 

N 

— acid consumed by 5 grammes, 13-5 c.c. — 2-46 per cent, total 
40 

alkaloids. 

DREGS. 

N 

— acid consumed by 5 grammes, 27 c.c. = 0-49 per cent, total 
40 

alkaloids. 

By taking 1 gramme of talcum with definite amounts of — acid, 

40 

making up the liquid to 100 c.c, filtering off 50 c.c. and titrating 
N 

with — alkali, using phenolphtalein as indicator, I find that this 
40 

amount of talcum consumes 2 c.c. — acid It is therefore best to 

40 

use 1 gramme talcum in all cases where the precipitate retuses to 

separate out, and deduct 2 c.c. from the total amount ol ? acid 

40 

consumed by the alkaloid. 



^rescott's " Organic Analysis," 1887, 456. 



1 62 Contributions from H. M. Gordin. { Am A P rn r ;i9S. arm ' 

We see that by Dunstan and Short's method we only extract 
about 83 per cent, of the total alkaloids. 

In order to select the best method of extraction among the great 
number proposed for that purpose, the custom has generally been 
to make comparative assays of one and the same drug by different 
methods and give that method the preference which gives the 
highest results. This way of establishing the correctness of a 
method is certainly not without faults. It is not the high results we 
want, but the true results. Just as some faulty features of a method 
are liable to give results below the truth, there are others which 
might give results above the truth. The explanation of a method 
giving too low results is easily found by admitting that either the 
extraction is not complete or the operations of the method involve 
a loss of some alkaloid. The cause of too high results is not so 
easily found, but a method should not be adopted unless it be shown 
that it gives exact results, or at least approaches the truth nearer 
than any other method. 

Now, it is certainly possible to work out for every drug a method 
which will have this quality. Such a method might be too tedious,, 
too expensive, and too complicated for general use. But such a 
method could be used as a standard with which simpler and quicker 
methods could be compared. If it can be shown that the standard 
method gives the most exact results obtainable at the present state 
of our knowledge and that among the many simpler methods a 
particular one gives results which approach those obtained by the 
standard method better than any other method, that particular 
method should be chosen for general use. Any other method giv- 
ing either higher or lower results than the standard method should 
be rejected. How to find such a standard method I shall try to 
show in the case of a few drugs only, but the principles can be 
extended to any other drug. 

The necessary and sufficient demands which should be put to a 
standard method are : ^ 

(1) That the exhaustion should be so complete that no alkaloid 
could be found in about 5 grammes of the dregs by the method 
explained above. 

(2) The operations involved in the standard method should only 
be such as are not liable to injure the alkaloid under consideration. 
Heat, strong acids or strong alkali and prolonged exposure to the 



^ Ap°rn; i9oT m *} Contributions from H. M. Gordin. 163 

air should therefore be avoided as much as possible. As it is 
impossible to exhaust some drugs like nux vomica, ipecac and cin- 
chona without the use of acids, only very dilute acids should be 
used. 

The standard method might vary from drug to drug, but in no 
case shall any method be adopted as a standard unless it possesses 
the above-mentioned features. As we have to admit that a method 
which gives good results upon one sample of a drug will give equally 
good results with any other sample of the same drug, provided the 
samples are in the same condition of fineness, etc., we can establish 
by means of the standard method the actual amount of alkaloid in 
a given drug as exactly as it is possible at present, and then try 
different expedient methods until we find one which, being simple 
and expedient, gives results which are the same or very nearly the 
same as those obtained by the standard method. Should there not 
be such a simple method, we can adopt any desirable method and 
introduce a definite correction into our results. 

With these principles in mind, I started to apply the ideas here 
developed to a few of the more important medicinal drugs. Among 
the drugs chosen, some are very easily affected by strong reagents, 
but easily exhaustable (coca), others are quite stable in presence of 
reagents but are very difficult to exhaust (nux vomica), and again 
others are both easily affected and difficultly exhausted (ipecac). 
As my intention was not to compare most of the proposed methods 
with each other, but only to find one among them which gives 
results approaching sufficiently near those of the standard, I shall 
not record a large number of experiments with many methods 
which proved not to answer the above requirement, but shall give 
briefly the positive results and how they were obtained. In every 
case I first established a standard method and then tried to find a 
suitable substitute for this method. Should any other more expedient 
method be found, it might easily be adopted, providing its results 
are not far from those of the standard. 

The most expedient seem to me to be the following two methods, 
which I shall call method A and method B. As one or the other 
of these two methods has given very good results as compared with 
the standard method in the case ot the drugs tried, I have not con- 
sidered any other method, but it is possible that in the case of other 
drugs some other method might give results even more concordant 
with those obtained with the standard method. 



1 64 Contributions from H. M. G or din, { Am ApTif;im rm ' 

METHOD A. 

Ten grammes of the drug in No. 6o powder are put into a Dun- 
stan and Short apparatus, 1 and extracted with alcohol (95 per 
cent.) for about three to four hours on the asbestos plate. Most of the 
alcohol is then distilled offfrom a water-bath, and when the extract is 
reduced to about 10 c.c, it is cooled and diluted with water contain- 
ing about 1-2 per cent, sulphuric acid. The liquid is then poured 
into a 50 c.c. or a 100 c.c. measuring flask, washing the vessel in 
which the boiling took place, and filling up the flask to the mark 
with acidulated water. The liquid is now shaken with a little tal- 
cum, filtered, and in 25 c.c. of the filtrate the alkaloids estimated by 
passing through immiscible solvents, using either ammonia or 
sodium hydrate for the liberation of alkaloids and either ether 
alone or a mixture of ether and chloroform in the right proportions 
to take up the alkaloids. In the case of hydrastis, a little potassium 
iodide is added before filling the flask up in order to remove ber- 
berine. The alkali used to liberate the alkaloid is in most cases 
ammonia, except in the case of cinchona, where it was found that 
ammonia gives rise to an emulsion, whereas sodium hydrate works 
very well. If a fixed alkali be used, it is necessary to shake up the 
ethereal solution of the alkaloid with calcined magnesia, and filter 
in order to remove the last traces of alkali. 2 After distilling off the 
ethereal liquid the alkaloids are estimated by the general alkali- 
metric method, referred to in the beginning of this article. 

METHOD B. 

This consists in digesting the drug in very fine powder with ten 
times its amount of Prollius' fluid modified, 3 putting the mixture 
into a mechanical shaker for four hours, or shaking frequently dur- 
ing twelve hours, drawing off an aliquot part, and shaking out with 
acid water. The alkaloids are then set free by ammonia, or Na- 

l Pharm.J. (3), XIII, 664 ; Allen, "Org. Anal." 3d ed., Vol. II, Parti, page 21. 
This apparatus is far superior for hot extraction to the ordinary Soxhlet. The 
temperature of the menstruum is higher and the working of the apparatus sim- 
pler and always continuous. It is only necessary to have the menstruum boil so 
quickly that the drug is always covered with liquid, and to put a piece of 
cotton and then a heavy piece of glass, or better, a piece of lead, on top of the 
drug. 

2 Arch, d' Pharm., 1900, 336. 
3 Lvons' "Handbook," 1899, 23. 



Am A J p°r l n r ;5Sr m '} Contributions from H. M. Gordin. 165 

OH, and shaken out with an immiscible solvent. The final estima- 
tion is carried out in the same way as in method A. The method 
Bis practically the same as that given by Lyons in his " Hand- 
book," on page 43. It differs from Keller's method in so far that 
no water is added for the purpose of causing the drug to ball to- 
gether, and that the liquids are taken by volume, not by weight. 
This addition of water is certainly a source of indefinite error. 
Water takes up some ether and together with it some alkaloid. 
Besides, water itself dissolves the alkaloids to a greater or less ex- 
tent. Codeine, for example, is soluble in eighty parts water, atro- 
pine in 135 parts. . 

But even an alkaloid which is very difficultly soluble both in 
water and ether is taken up to a considerable extent by water when 
an ether-chloroform solution of the alkaloid is shaken with water. 
The following experiment proves this : 

0-102/ gramme strychnine was dissolved in 10 c.c. chloroform; 
to this solution 30 c.c. ether and 10 c.c. water was added and the 
whole shaken a minute or two in a separator. After a half hour's 
standing the perfectly clear lower aqueous layer was drawn off into 
a tared aluminum evaporating dish, the liquid completely removed 
by evaporating on the water-bath, and after drying and cooling at 
125 C, the vessel again weighed. It was found that 0-0044 
gramme of strychnine, or about 3 per cent, of the amount taken, 
was taken up by the water. 

As in the assay of drugs, we very often work upon quantities con- 
taining less than 01 gramme alkaloid, and the quantity taken up by 
the water depends only upon the amount of the latter, the loss from 
the solubility of the alkaloid in aqueous layer is liable to be even 
greater. 

On the other hand, the water which, in Keller's method, is added 
to ball the drug together, taking up some ether, diminishes the 
volume of the latter, so that by drawing off half the amount of the 
ethereal liquid originally added, either by weight or by volume, we 
actually get more than half of the amount originally taken, and the 
results will be too high. The influence of this circumstance was 
also proved by experiment. 

0-1047 gramme strychnine was dissolved in 50 c.c. of a mixture 
of three parts of ether and one part chloroform; 125 c.c. water was 
now added, the mixture shaken, and after complete separation into 



1 66 Contributions from H. M. Gordin. { A % J p 7if;iSJi* rm - 

two layers, 25 c.c. of the upper layer was removed into a tared alu- 
minum dish. After complete evaporation, drying at 125 C. (to 
remove all trace of chloroform), and weighing, 0564 gramme of 
strychnine was found to have been contained in the 25 c.c. ether- 
chloroform. This is more than half the amount of strychnine 
taken by 0-0041 gramme, or nearly 8 per cent, in excess. 

As can be seen from these experiments, the error in excess is far 
greater than the error causing a lowering of the results. It is for 
this reason that Keller's method (with the addition of water) gen- 
erally gives higher results than when the water is left out. This 
was proved by the following experiment : 

(1) Fifteen grammes belladonna root in No. 80 powder were 
digested with 150 grammes of a mixture of three parts ether and 
one part chloroform for ten minutes. Ten c.c. ammonia (10 per 
cent.) were then added and the mixture shaken four hours in a 
shaker. Thirty-five c.c. water were now added, and after shaking 
and settling of the drug, 100 grammes (= 10 grammes drug) were 
drawn off and shaken out with three portions ot acid water, using 
50 c.c, 40 c.c. and 30 c.c. successively. The alkaloid was then 
shaken out with light chloroform-ether mixture and ammonia, and 
estimated alkalimetrically by my general method, using Wagner's 
reagent as precipitant. 

(2) The same amount of the same drug was treated in exactly the 
same manner, only leaving out the addition of water. 

The results obtained were as follows : 

N Acid Consumed 

40 Percentage of 

by 10 Grammes. Alkaloid. 

(1) With water 9 c.c. 0*648 

(2) Without water . y6 c.c. 0*576 

The addition of water then raised the results nearly 1 1 per cent. 
It is for this reason that in method B the addition of water was left 
out altogether. The ethereal layer, in most cases in my experience, 
separates out quite well, even without the addition of water, pro- 
vided it is set aside for a sufficient length of time. In some cases the 
shaking up of the mixture, before drawing off the aliquot part, with 
about 2 grammes of calcined magnesia, will clear up the superna- 
tant layer very quickly. 



\ 



A % J P °rn r ;£o b r m *} Contributions from H. M. Gordin. 167 

COCA LEAVES. STANDARD METHOD. 

Ten grammes in No. 60 powder were moistened in a small mortar 
with 5 N c.c. of diluted alcohol, then placed in a small percolator, 
washing the mortar out repeatedly with fresh menstruum and pour- 
ing the washings on the top of the drug. Following the general 
rules of percolation, i. e. y macerating forty-eight hours, etc., the per- 
colation was continued very slowly till about 200 c.c. of percolate 
were obtained. The first 10 c.c. were received into a 50 c.c. meas- 
uring flask and set aside ; the balance was concentrated in vacuo, 
first at about 45 C, then at ordinary temperature, till reduced to 
about 25 c c. This was added to the reserved portion, and the 
whole, after washing the vessel in which the concentration took 
place with acidulated (2 per cent.) water, was made up with acid 
water to 50 c.c. 

The dregs were first deprived of moisture as much as possible by 
forcing dry air by means of the pump through the percolator, and 
then thoroughly dried in desiccator. After digesting 5 grammes of 
the dregs a few hours with Prollius' fluid, filtering, and shaking out 
with acidulated water, no alkaloid could be detected either by 
Mayer's or Wagner's reagents. 

The exhaustion being complete and no strong reagents or high 
heat having been used, this method of extraction was taken as a 
standard. The alkaloidal assay of the leaves was now carried out 
by filtering the acid liquid (using a little talcum), shaking out 25 
c.c. (= 5 grammes drug) four times with ether and ammonia, using 
30 c.c. ether each time. After distilling off the ether completely, 

a few drops chloroform and then 20 c.c. of ^ acid were added, and 

40 

the chloroform removed by blowing air into the flask. The estima- 
tion was then carried out by my general alkalimetric method, using 
Mayer's reagent as precipitant. 

N 

It was found that 5 grammes of the drug consumed 6-6 c.c. _ 

40 

acid = 1 per cent, ether soluble alkaloids, calculated as cocaine. 

The same leaves in the same state of fineness were then assayed 
by method A. The liquid, after distilling off the alcohol, was 
made up to 50 c.c. with acidulated water, filtered through talcum, 
and in 25 c.c. of the filtrate the amount of alkaloid estimated exactly 
as in the standard method. 



168 Contributions from H. M. Got din. {^ m -l^\J^ vs "' 

Two assays by method A gave the following results : 

fo Acid Consumed Percentage of Alkaloids 
Method Used. by 5 Grammes. (Ether Soluble). 

Standard 6"6 i*oo 

a ; 6-5 0-988 

A (duplicate) 6'6 roo 

Method A giving the same results as obtained by the standard 
method, and being easily carried out, this method A should be 
adopted for the assay of coca leaves. 

HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS. THE STANDARD METHOD. 

Ten grammes of hydrastis in No. 60 powder were treated exactly 
as the coca leaves were treated in the standard method for that 
drug, but using a menstruum consisting of six volumes of alcohol, 
three water and one glycerin (U.S. P. menstruum for fluid extract 
hydrastis). The dregs, examined as described under coca leaves, 
were found to be free from hydrastine. The percolate was concen- 
trated in vacuo to about 50 c.c, mixed with the reserved portion 
previously received into a 100 c.c. measuring flask, and after wash- 
ing the vessel in which the concentration took place, diluted to 100 
c.c. with water containing 2 per cent, sulphuric acid and about 5 
per cent, potassium iodide. After shaking a lew minutes the liquid 
was filtered and 20 c.c. of the filtrate (= 2 grammes of drug), after 
making alkaline with ammonia, shaken out three times with a mix- 
ture of three parts of ether and one part of chloroform, using 30 
c.c. each time. The assay was then finished as that of coca. 

The same drug in the same state of fineness was then assayed by 
method A, finishing exactly as in the standard method just de- 
scribed, i. e.f using potassium iodide, making up to 100 c.c, etc. 

N 

- Acid Consumed PercentaRe of A i kaloid 
Method Used. by 2 Grammes. (Hydrastine). 

-Standard 7 c.c. 3*47 

A 7 c.c. 3-47 

A (duplicate) 7 c.c. 3*47 

Method A giving such good results as compared with the 
standard method, A should be adopted for the assay of hydrastis in 
preference to all other methods. 
Laboratory of 

The Wm. S. Merrell Chemical Company, 
Cincinnati, O. 

( To be continued. ) 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
April, 1901. 



Gum Mastic. 



169 



GUM MASTIC. 

By Henry C. C. Maisch ; Ph.D. 

About a month ago there was brought to the analytical depart- 
ment of Hance Brothers & White a sample of mastic which was 
so light in color that substitution was at once suspected. On sub- 
mitting it to comparative test, with other samples of the ordinary 
commercial variety, it was found that the several specimens were 
identical. 

I then looked up the literature on the subject of the color of 
mastic and came across historical data which may prove of interest. 

The species of Pistacia lentiscus is indigenous to the basin ©f 
the Mediterranean, but it is only in the island of Scio (formerly 
Chios) where the resin is collected and then only from a broad, 
leaved variety cultivated in the northern portion of this island, 
Orphanides has shown in 1856 that there are probably other places 
in the Grecian archipelago and on the Grecian mainland suitable 
for its cultivation. The trade in mastic was the property of the 
Sultan until the separation of Greece from Turkey. Twenty-two 
thousand oka (1,260 grammes each) were claimed as tribute, and 
for the balance of the crop only a small price was paid. In 1822 
the island was devastated and a large number of the inhabitants 
killed by the Turks, and as the above arrangement could not, in 
consequence, be continued, the islanders obtained the privilege of 
selling mastic to any one, but were compelled to pay an annual 
tribute of 750,000 piasters, or about $2,250. Under this arrange- 
ment the lot of the planters was somewhat more agreeable, as they 
obtained decidedly better prices for their crops. 

During May and June vertical incisions are made into the bark of 
the trees from which the resin slowly exudes in the form of drops 
or tears. These gradually harden and are collected between August 
and November and assorted into three kinds. The best variety 
consists of white or at most pale yellowish tears darkening some- 
what with age. Fliickiger (" Pharmacognosie des Pfianzenreichs," 
3d edition, p. 115) states: " Perfectly fresh they (the tears) are of a 
somewhat greenish tint due to the chlorophyl of the bark ; this 
soon disappears and is replaced by entire freedom from color, or 
after a longer time by a dull yellowish tint. The poorer quality is 
yellowish from the start." In the Pharmacographia, 2d edition, p. 



170 



Gum Mastic. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April. 1901. 



164, the authors state: " They are of a pale yellow or slightly 
greenish tint, darkening by age, dusty and slightly opaque on the 
surface." Martius (" Pharmacognosie," 1832, p. 364) distinguishes 
several varieties and classes the seraglio mastic as the best. It 
was shipped principally to Constantinople for use in the Sultan's 
harem, but at that time appearing occasionally in European com- 
merce. He describes this variety as appearing in " separate, white 
or yellowish-white, roundish tears." The tears have a glassy 
appearance internally and possess a peculiar balsamic odor which 
becomes more pronounced on heating. Mastic is aromatic, and 
when chewed becomes plastic, by which it is distinguished from 
sandarac, which remains in the form of powder. 

Mastic is chewed in the Orient for perfuming the breath and 
whitening the teeth and is said to have the property of hardening 
the gums. 

Bombay mastic, which occasionally appears in the market, is an 
oleoresin obtained from Pistacia terebinthus, a variety of which 
yields the Chian turpentine. According to the Pharmacographia 
Indica, Vol. I, p. 378, ''The general appearance is much the same 
-as that of true mastic, but the color is rather deeper and it wants 
the fine perfume of the latter article. In the rainy season, unless 
kept with great care, it runs into a pasty mass." 

The two kinds differ in solubility. According to Fielding (Phar- 
macographia Indica, Vol. I, p. 379), 75 per cent, of true mastic is 
soluble in hot alcohol, while the Bombay mastic dissolves com. 
pletely; true mastic and Bombay mastic are completely taken up 
by hot turpentine, but on cooling the solution of the latter variety 
gives a precipitate appearing in cauliflower-like masses and amount- 
ing to 25 per cent, of the dissolved mastic. Wills ("Vegetable 
Materia Medica," 1886, p. 72) states that Bombay mastic is soluble 
in alcohol and this solution is colored brown by ferric chloride. 

The chemical composition of mastic is about 1 per cent, of vola- 
tile oil, 80 to 90 per cent, of alpha resin and 10 to 20 per cent, of 
beta resin or masticin. The alpha resin only is soluble in cold 
alcohol, possesses an acid reaction and is known as mastichic acid. 
According to Tschirch, mastic belongs to the " resene resins " and 
consequently would contain no resin esters. 

K. Dieterich [Pharmaceutische CentralJialle, 1899, 453) has deter- 
mined the acid numbers of several samples of mastic ; Bombay 
mastic, 137-6, 103-89; Levantine, 65-99; Turkish, 90-56. 



Am Ap r^ r ;l?o h l? ^m •} Production of Nitric Acid. 171 

The process proposed is to dissolve I gramme mastic in 50 c.c. 
benzine, add 10 c.c. decinormal alcoholic and 10 c.c. decinormal 
aqueous potassium hydrate solution and put aside for twenty-four 
hours in a closely stoppered bottle, occasionally shaking. At the 
end of this time the mixture is titrated with decinormal sulphuric 
acid, using phenolphtalein as indicator, but adding no water. The 
difference between 20 and the number of cubic centimetres of deci- 
normal sulphuric acid used multiplied by 28 gives the acid number. 

This method was used in the examination of the mastic samples 
above referred to. 

No. 1 was a blank experiment made without the addition of any 
mastic and required 19 9 c.c. sulphuric acid for neutralization, and 
this number was used in place of 20 mentioned above. 

No. 2 was the white sample referred to in the beginning and re- 
quired 17-85 c.c. sulphuric acid ; 19-9 — 17*85 = 2-05 X 28 = 57-4. 

No. 3 was of a pale yellowish tint and required 17-4 c.c. sulphuric 
acid ; 19-9 — 17-4 = 2-5 X 28 = 70. 

No. 4 was like No. 3 in color, a pale yellow, and required 17-8 
c.c. sulphuric acid ; 1.9-9 — l 7'% — 21 X 28 = 58-8. 

No. 5 was of a deep yellow color and required 17 8 c.c. sulphuric 
acid; 19-9 — 17-8 = 2-1 X 28 = 58-8. 

These acid numbers are similar to that obtained by Dieterich for 
Levantine mastic, and the samples behaved with alcohol like true 
mastic. 



THE PRODUCTION OF NITRIC ACID FROM ATMOS- 
PHERIC NITROGEN. 

By M. I. Wii^BERT. 

It does not seem to be generally understood that the production 
of nitric acid and the various nitrates by the combustion of atmos- 
pheric nitrogen is one of the immediate possibilities of the future. 
Text-books on chemistry, when speaking of the chemical properties 
of nitrogen, usually content themselves by asserting that nitrogen 
is neither combustible nor is it a supporter of combustion. And 
while this is true in the ordinary sense of the word, or under ordi- 
nary conditions, nevertheless, it has be^n known for many years 
that nitrogen is combustible under favorable conditions, and the 
only reason why we are not enveloped in a sea of nitric acid, instead 
o r a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, is because the ignition point 
of nitrogen is higher than the temperature of its flame. 



172 



Production of Nitric Acid. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1901. 



Many attempts at the artificial production of nitrogen compounds 
have been made, from time to time, and as a result of these experi- 
ments it was found that, when hydrogen is burned in oxygen hav- 
ing an admixture of a small quantity of nitrogen, a portion of the 
latter combines with some of the oxygen to produce one or more 
of the oxides of nitrogen. It was also found that when atmospheric 
air in a glass globe, or other confined space, is subjected to a series 
of electric sparks, red fumes of nitrogen tetroxide were formed. 
These fumes, in the presence of water, are decomposed with the for- 
mation of nitric acid. It was subsequently learned that when the 
air is compressed the production of red fumes is materially increased. 

This combustion of atmospheric air by means of induced currents 
seems to indicate the solution of the problem, so that even at the 
present time it would seem possible that nitrogen compounds might 
be produced economically in this way. 

Sir William Crookes, in the presidential address before the Brit- 
ish Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Bristol, 
England, in 1898, referred to this particular problem at some length. 
He made especial reference to the necessity of the nitrates as fertili- 
zers for the growth of cereals, for which, it is estimated, upward 
of 2,000,000 tons are used annually. In the course of this address, 
Sir William Crookes recounts the experiments of Lord Rayleigh, 
who had tried in various ways to effect the combustion of the 
nitrogen in atmospheric air for the purpose of separating argon. 

From the data furnished by Lord Rayleigh's experiments, Sir 
William Crookes gives some interesting figures. He estimates that 
at the present price of coal, with a possible conversion of 10 per 
cent, of its available energy into electricity, sodium nitrate might 
be produced at about $130 per ton. If, on the other hand, the initial 
cost of the electric current -could be cut down to one-fifth, as at 
Niagara Falls, it would reduce the cost of electric sodium nitrate to 
$26 per ton, and this latter figure, with, native nitrate quoted at 
about $37.50 per ton, would seem to offer a fair margin of profit. 

There is even a possibility of improving on these figures. Within 
a year or two, another source of energy has been suggested that 
seems destined to play an important part in mechanical and in- 
dustrial development. This source of energy is derived from the 
conversion of blast furnace gases into power by means of a new 
style gas engine that has been introduced at some of the larger 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1901. J 



Oil of Walnuts. 



173 



blast furnaces in Europe, especially in Belgium and in Germany. 
This type of engine was shown at the late Paris Exhibition and 
seems to have attracted considerable attention. It is claimed by 
men who have made a study of blast furnace practices that it 
would be possible to generate a considerable excess of power at 
these plants as a result of the introduction of this type of engine. 

The power generated from this source would necessarily be more 
or less irregular, so that it could be used to advantage only in the 
manufacture of some more or less unimportant by-product. It 
could, for instance, readily be converted into electric energy, and 
this in turn could be used in the production of various nitrogen 
compounds, the raw materials for which are always at hand and in 
unlimited quantities. This available source of energy, with a large 
and constantly increasing demand for nitrates as fertilizers, would 
seem to offer considerable inducement for the practical application 
of a process for the artificial production of nitrogen compounds. 



OIL OF WALNUTS (JUGLANS NIGRA, L.). 1 

By Lyman F. Kebi^r. 

Frequent and repeated efforts were made to secure a pure oil of 
walnuts, with the invariable result that the dealers were either 
unable to supply it, or oils like the following were sent : 

No. 1. Walnut Oil, White. — This article was colorless, of a 
sweetish taste, with a peppermint-like flavor and soluble in water 
and 92 per cent, and 50 per cent, alcohol. Farther investigation 
showed it to be diluted glycerin, flavored with a menthol-like body. 

No. 2. Walnut Oil, Cone- — The word concentrated immediately 
cast a halo of suspicion about this oil, and on submitting it to a 
fractional distillation about 80 per cent, came over between 78 and 
85 C, which was chiefly ethyl alcohol. Then the thermometer 
rose rapidly to 205 C, which is the boiling point of nitrobenzene 
(oil of mirbane) and the odor confirmed the boiling point. A small 
amount of non-volatile matter was left. 

When it is remembered that oil of walnuts is chiefly used by 
artists for paints, because it dries into a varnish which is less liable 
to crack than linseed oil varnish, the enormity of such adulterations 
becomes self-evident. 



1 Read before the Chemical Section of the Franklin Institute and contributed 
by the author. 



174 



Indicators in Nature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
April, 1901. 



Having been unable to secure an oil of good quality, walnut 
kernels were secured, ground, and the oil expressed by means of a 
hydraulic press. In this way 25 per cent, of oil was obtained, 
while the kernels actually contained 66 per cent, of oil. It was 
thus deemed of interest to investigate the oil, inasmuch as no such 
examination seems to have been made. 

The oil generally used is that obtained from Juglans regia, L., a 
tree indigenous to Persia and cultivated in Europe and America. 
The kernels of this nut contain from 30 per cent, to 40 per cent, of 
" virgin " oil. The fresh cold-drawn oil 1 is limpid, nearly color- 
less or pale greenish-yellow and of agreeable taste and odor, has 
a specific gravity of 925 to 9265 at 15 C, saponification num- 
ber 186-197, iodine value 142 to 15 1-7, fusing point of fatty acids 
16 to 20° C, dries well and is said to be brought into this country 
from France and Switzerland in no- gallon tuns. 

Hickory nut oil resembles the above walnut oil very much, and 
is known as "American Nut Oil." 

Wm. T. Brannt (1896, ' A Practical Treatise on Vegetable Fats 
and Oils," Vol. II, 37) says: " Oil of black walnuts is sometimes ex- 
pressed, but is of little value." On examining the cold pressed black 
walnut oil, the following physical and chemical constants were ob- 
tained : it is limpid, of a straw yellow color, possesses a pleasant, 
agreeable, walnut-like odor and taste, becomes turbid at — 12° C, 
has a specific gravity of 09215 at 15 C, saponification number 
I90-I-I9r5, acid number 8-6-9, ether number 181-5-182-5, Hehner's 
number 93 77, Reichart-Missel value 15 c.c, iodine value 141-4- 
142-7, melting point of fatty acids 0° C. 

The drying qualities are excellent, equal, if not superior, in 
this respect, to linseed oil, leaving a tenacious, flexible, transparent 
film. An artist, on using it, pronounced it a very satisfactory article 
for fine painting. 

THE WIDE OCCURRENCE OF INDICATORS IN NATURE. 2 

By G. S. Fraps. 

In the course of some work on a black cow-pea bean, the writer's 
attention was attracted by the change from black to red which took 
place when it came in contact with an acid. Later, in speaking to 

^'Chemical Analysis of Oils, Fats, Waxes, etc.," by J. Lewkowitsch, 1898 
P- 35o. 

2 Amer. Chem. Jour., 1900, p. 271. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
April, 1901. J 



Indicators in Nature. 



175 



Mr. G. H. Whiting, a student, about this, he mentioned that the 
juice of the blackberry had the properties of an indicator. These 
observations led to the work about to be described. Since com- 
pleting it, the writer has been informed that a lady placed some 
violets in ammonia water to preserve them, and to her astonish- 
ment they became green. 

The results of this work show that indicators are of very common 
occurrence in nature. .Some seventy-four kinds of colored flowers, 
both wild and cultivated, the leaves of five varieties of coleus, the 
cow-pea bean, the blackberry, mulberry, smilaxberry, strawberry 
and the red beet were extracted with water or dilute alcohol, and 
the extract tested for indicators. In only three cases did the extract 
not become one color when acid and another color when alkaline. 
'As a rule, the coloring matter was fairly sensitive as an indicator, 
being changed by from less than one to two drops of tenth-normal 
ammonia. Some of the changes were very sharp, and many of the 
colors were very beautiful. In some cases the color passed through 
several stages in going from acid to alkaline, or the reverse. 

The materials examined could be grouped in four classes : 

Class I. — Extract not affected by acid or alkali. 

Class II. — Extract colorless when acid, yellow when alkaline. 

The flowers in this class were yellow, and the yellow coloring 
matter was hardly affected by the extracting agent. 

Class ///.—Extract red (or a shade of red) when acid, yellow 
when alkaline. 

Class IV. — Extract red when acid, green when alkaline. 

Classes III and IV are not sharply separated, sometimes the 
color produced by the alkali being such that it was hard to decide 
whether it was yellow-green or green-yellow. Ammonia was the 
alkali used; often a green solution with ammonia would have been 
yellow with caustic soda. Most of the coloring matters in these 
two classes were very sensitive. In many cases the flowers were 
bleached when boiled with water, and the extract nearly colorless, 
or quite so ; but it would become colored when made acid or alka- 
line. 

Class V. — Miscellaneous. This includes all that do not fall in 
the other four classes. It must be observed that in no case do the 
colors occur in the reverse order from those in the other classes — 
that is, never colorless when alkaline and yellow acid, or red when 
alkaline and green or yellow acid. 



176 



Indicators in Nature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



The colors of the coleus, especially, depend on the degree of 
acidity of the leaf as well as on the kinds and distribution of the 
colors. With coleus colors there is a regular change in color from 
acid to alkaline, or the reverse, passing through several stages. It 
is easy to see that a slight change in the acidity of the sap of the 
leaf will affect the color and give rise to some of the manifold 
variations that are observed in the coleus. The same may be said 
of some flowers. 

METHODS OF EXAMINATION. 

Two methods were adopted for testing the color. In the one, 
small portions of the material were placed into two test-tubes with 
alcohol, a few drops of fifth-normal hydrochloric acid added to one, 
of tenth-normal caustic soda to the other, and the changes noted. 
It usually requires some time for the effect to be visible. In the 
second method the material was boiled in a large test-tube with 
about 20 c.c. of water, to which a little alcohol was often added r 
cooled, the extract poured off, and titrated with fifth-normal acid 
and tenth-normal ammonia. The two methods usually gave the 
same results, though they were sometimes different, as was to be 
expected, as in the one case all of the color, soluble and insoluble, 
was subjected to the action of caustic soda ; in the other case only 
the soluble part was treated with ammonia. Method 2 allowed 
some conclusion as to the sensitiveness of the color to be made. 

Class I. — Color unaffected by acid or alkali. This includes the 
orange flowers of Sty J osanthus biflora, the yellow ones of CJirysogo- 
num Virginianum, and the leaves of a smooth, red variety of coleus. 
Three materials not containing indicators were found out of eighty- 
one examined. 

Class II. — The flowers in this class give a colorless extract which 
becomes yellow when made alkaline. 

The color is moderately sensitive. All of the flowers but one — 
t*he white petals of the wild daisy — are yellow or orange. Yellow 
is a color which cannot be extracted by boiling water. In some 
cases it goes into solution with the tenth-normal caustic soda. 

This class comprises 10; stamens of begonia and Solanum Caro- 
linense; petals of canna, Oenothera sinuata, Hypoxis erecta, butter- 
cups, allamanda, wild daisy, a yellow wild flower, and leaves of the 
yellow coleus. 



Am Ap r U ii,'i9oi? rm '} Indicators in Nature. 177 

Class III — In this class the materials give extracts which are 
red or a shade of red when acid, yellow or a shade of yellow when 
alkaline. All the colors are fairly sensitive, being changed by at 
least two drops of tenth-normal ammonia. Twenty-one of the 81 
materials examined fall into this group, 11 being originally red or 
pink flowers, 4 orange or yellow, 5 purple or violet, 1 green (coleus 
leaf). The red and pink flowers were the pink, rose (faint pink, 
rose and wild rose), pink larkspur, crimson clover, phlox (faint 
pink, light claret, rose, scarlet, magenta), begonia (2 varieties), 
double oleander, a variety of Euphorbia, Spensonia goligefolia rosa, 
Clerodendrum and Silene Virginica. With the exception of Clero- 
dendrum, which gave a well-colored, orange-pink solution, all of the 
flowers above named were bleached when boiled with water, 
giving a colorless or faintly colored solution, which, however, 
became colored on the addition of acid or ammonia. Verbena 
flowers gave extracts yellow with caustic soda, but green with 
ammonia, and the extract from sweet peas, green when first made 
alkaline, became yellow on standing. These two are included in 
Class IV. 

The purple or violet flowers were the vetch, Mexican sage, helio- 
trope, Clematis ochroleuca and Solatium Carolinensis. They were 
bleached by the boiling. The orange or yellow flowers were orange 
nasturtium and canna, Asclepias tuberosa, yellow Allamanda vereo- 
folia. The yellow color of the flower was unaffected, but a color- 
less or faintly colored extract was formed which became colored on 
addition of acid or ammonia. A red-orange extract was obtained 
from the green part of the leaf of a red and green coleus, which 
was red with acid and brown-yellow with ammonia. 

Class IV. — This includes those coloring matters which are a shade 
of red when acid, a shade of green when alkaline. The greens 
are at times of a beautiful emerald color, sometimes of a yellowish 
tinge. Most of the colors are very sensitive to the reagents, being 
affected by less than one drop of tenth-normal ammonia. 

Thirty of the materials examined fall into this class, 15 being 
originally a shade of red, 9 violet or purple, 3 blue, I lilac, I black 
(bean), 1 yellow. The flowers a shade of red were : red clover, 
scarlet sage, Canterbury bell, red zinnia, rose geranium, crimson 
honeysuckle, California poppy, verbenas (faint pink and rose), sweet 
peas (faint pink, rose, maroon, magenta, lavender), gladiolus (rose), 



1 7 8 



Indicators in Nature. 



Am. Jour. Phai-m. 
April, 1901. 



red cyclamen, varieties of Bumaldce, hibiscus, Tephrosia (devil's 
shoestring), and leaves from four varieties of coleus. With the 
exception of hibiscus, scarlet sage and coleus, the extracts from 
these were colorless or nearly so. 

The purple or violet flowers were phlox, petunia, coriopsis, ver- 
bena, sweet peas, "Jimson weed," maypop, or passion flower, 
Specularia perfoliata and Rue ilia ciliosa. 

The lilac flower was Salvia urtica, the blue ones were Ageratum, 
Runella vulgaris and blue larkspur, the yellow one was nasturtium, 
and the black material, a cow-pea bean. 

The colors from some of these flowers passed through several 
stages on the way from acidity to alkalinity. The most noteworthy 
are : 

Specularia pet foliata: Magenta, blue, green. 
Ruellia ciliata: Rose, lilac, green. 
Salvia tittica: Claret, peacock-blue, green. 
"Jimson weed:" Magenta, purple, green. 

Maypop or passion flower: Magenta, blue, green-blue, olive-green. 
Blue larkspur: Magenta, purple, blue, peacock-blue, green. 
Purple petunia : Magenta, purple, blue, green. 
California poppy: Magenta, purple, violet, peacock-blue, green. 
Red coleus : Red, claret, violet, green. 

Red and yellow coleus: Rose, brown-red, orange-red, yellow- 
green, olive-green. 

Light red, dark red and green coleus: Cherry, violet, brown, 
green-brown, dirty green. 

Red and deep red coleus : Magenta, purple, blue, green. 

Most of the colors above given were very bright and beautiful, 
and, as a rule, fairly sensitive. 

The coloring matters of the following flowers in this group are 
especially sensitive : " Jimson weed," maypop, Salvia urtica, black 
cow-pea (bean), Ruellia ciliata. 

Class V. — This group includes substances giving colors with acid 
and alkali that do not come into the classes already described. 

The colors are those produced by ammonia. The color, when 
acid, is given first, then the stages it passes through to alkaline. 

Bougainvtllea spectabilis (mauve): Purple, colorless. 

Gloxinia hybnda (pink) : Pink, purple, brownish-red. 

Gloxinia kybrida (purple) : Magenta, purple, olive-green. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
April, 1901. 



Correspo n den ce . 



179 



Dendrobium nobitia (purple) : Pink, purple, blue, green. 
Amaryllis (red) : Cherry, maroon. 
Salvia (red) : Orange, dark red. 
Cynthia (yellow) : Yellow, terra-cotta. 
Geranium (scarlet) : Scarlet, violet. 
Gaillardium (red) : Scarlet, corn, yellow-brown. 
Snapdragon (red) : Red, red-brown. 
Canna (red) : Red, orange-brown. 
Fruit : 

Smilaxberries (red) : Pink, violet. 
Beets (red) : Magenta, purple. 
Strawberries: Straw, purple. 
Blackberries : Rose, colorless. 
Mulberries: Cherry, violet. 
Brown cow-pea bean : Colorless, brown. 

Laboratory of the North Carolina College 
of A. and M. Arts, June, 1900. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PROCTER MEMORIAL. 1 

In response to a letter from the Editor of this Journal concern- 
ing the most appropriate way of memorializing the life and work of 
Professor William Procter, Jr., the following are some of the replies 
which have been received: 

Dear Sir: — Your letter of the 7th inst, requesting an expres- 
sion of opinion as to the form of memorial to the late Professor 
Procter I would most favor, has been duly received. It affords me 
particular pleasure to comply with this request, inasmuch as it 
brings to mind personal memories of the one whose life and work 
it is proposed to commemorate, and for the purpose in view I 
believe that no more fitting opportunity could be found than on the 
occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association — a body which is not only the national exponent of 
American pharmacy, but one with which he was so long and so 
intimately associated. 

1 For other information and correspondence on this subject, see editorials 
November, 1900, and February, 1901, and correspondence February and March 
issues of this Journal. 



1 80 Correspondence. { Am ^ r ;S arm - 

I am reminded that it is twenty-seven years ago this month 
since Professor Procter passed away, and as a member of the class 
before which he delivered his last course of lectures, it may be of 
interest to mention that as I write from this distant city I have 
before me, carefully preserved, my student notes of the lecture on 
pharmacy which he delivered on the eve of his death, dated Febru- 
ary 9, 1874. The subject of that lecture was " Animal Substances," 
and it included the consideration of gelatin, milk, the preparation 
of lactic acid and lactates, albumen, cod liver oil and pepsin. As 
Secretary of the Class Society I was also commissioned to convey 
to the family of Professor Procter the resolutions of sympathy 
which my fellow-students had adopted on the occasion of his death. 
The recalling of these incidents after such a considerable lapse of 
time may serve to explain the special interest which I feel, and 
which I know to be shared by one of my classmates, Henry S. 
Wellcome, for many years resident in London, in the success of the 
project under consideration. 

With regard to the form of memorial, it may be well to con- 
sider in the first place what Professor Procter would himself have 
wished, and secondly, what is feasible to accomplish. The work of 
Professor Procter was, to a large extent, that of a pioneer, and, in 
my opinion, his memory and the influence he exerted as a teacher 
and investigator could not be more fittingly and more usefully per- 
petuated than by the foundation of a scholarship to be known by 
his name. If a fund sufficiently large for this purpose could be 
realized, which, unfortunately, is somewhat doubtful, it should be 
held in trust by the American Pharmaceutical Association, and the 
interest applied for the higher scientific education at one of the 
leading American or foreign universities, during a period of at least 
two years, of such a graduate student of pharmacy as might be 
found, by a competitive examination conducted by a committee of 
the Association, properly qualified and otherwise worthy of receiv- 
ing the specified grant. The value of such a benefaction would 
naturally not remain confined to the individual recipient of it, but 
might reasonably be expected to exert the same ever-widening 
influence on scientific progress as the life and work of the one it 
serves to commemorate. The details of the conditions by which it 
would seem desirable that such a scheme should be governed for 
the attainment of the best results need not be further considered 
now. 



Am Ap O rii , ;i90i! rm '} , Correspondence. " 181 

If the plan for a scholarship on sufficiently broad lines is beyond 
the limits of practicability, I should favor in the second place the 
suggestion that has already been made by Dr. Fred. Hoffmann in a 
communication to this Journal (February, 1901, p. 86), namely, the 
institution of a Procter-Squibb memorial medal, for the reason and 
the purpose therein stated. 

My apologies should, finally, be tendered for having trespassed 
so largely upon your space. Frederick B. Power. 

London, February 25, 1901. 

Dear Sir : — Yours to hand requesting my opinion with regard to 
the most suitable form of memorial of Professor Procter. I had 
already read those expressed in your February issue, and think that 
the most suitable form would be either a scholarship or research 
laboratory. 

A statue will cost at least $15,000, and a further sum would be 
required to maintain it and its surroundings in good condition. 
The interest on this sum would be sufficient for a scholarship. My 
plan would be a travelling scholarship, tenable for, say, two years, 
open for competition to all graduates of colleges of pharmacy, the 
award to be made biennially by a committee of the A. Ph. A. 

The interest on $15,000 would keep a student at one of the Eu- 
ropean universities. The scholarship would be a permanent insti- 
tution perpetuating the name and inciting others to follow in the 
footsteps of Professor Procter, and the amount of good of which it 
will be productive is incalculable. Judging from what I have heard 
and read of Procter's character, the scholarship would be such as he 
himself would have chosen. 

The suggestion of a research laboratory is a good one, perhaps 
the best yet made, but the question of funds lor building and main- 
tenance would have to be solved first, J. E. Morrison. 

Dear Sir : — It is gratifying to know that a movement for memor- 
ializing the life and work of Prof. William Procter, Jr., is likely to 
take definite shape on such a fitting occasion as the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

While a number of plans worthy of careful consideration have 
been suggested, I feel decidedly in favor of establishing a Procter 
medal, to be awarded for original and worthy pharmaceutical work. 
I believe that such a memorial will keep alive the true spirit with 
which Professor Procter worked. H. M. Whelpley. 



1 8 2 Correspondence. , { Am x J p ° r l ?[; S arm ' 

Dear Sir : — Replying to your recent favor concerning the mem- 
orial to Professor Procter, personally I think the best memorial that 
can be established for any man is a scholarship in the line of study 
that absorbed his attention. In this instance it might be a two year 
course of study in a desirable European institution. 

E. L. Patch. 



Dear Sir : — A true memorial serves a double purpose. It hon- 
ors the man to whom it is dedicated and encourages others to emu- 
late his example and continue his work. The first purpose is best 
reached by the erection of a monument in a place where the great- 
est number of his admirers or disciples can see it ; the second, how- 
ever, by some incentive in the shape of a reward for diligence, 
perseverance or accomplished work. Applying these premises to 
our case, I would, first of all, erect a monument to William Procter, 
either a life-size statue or a simple bronze bust, according to the 
available funds. If the former, it should be put in a public place of 
Philadelphia; if the latter, in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
Contributions for this monument should be solicited from all phar- 
macists in the United States, so that it would become a truly 
pharmaceutical tribute to one of our greatest masters. 

The second part of the memorial should be undertaken by the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, of which Procter was a mem- 
ber, and which is the best representative society of American phar- 
macy. It should consist in a prize for acknowledged prominence in 
any of the branches of pharmacy, whether as teacher, inventor, 
manufacturer or practical pharmacist. A medal to be given at 
stated intervals to the deserving one seems to be the best form of 
reward, similar to the Hanbury medal of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference. 

Such a Procter medal, given to the best men of our profession, 
would be the highest testimonial that American pharmacists could 
receive and serve to perpetuate the work of the man whose name 
it bears. William C. Alpers. 

Dear Sir : — In forms of memorials, as in everything else, I con- 
sider that best which contributes most to the advancement and 
happiness of humanity and least to mere human vanity. Statues 
and the like will appeal most to those who think least deeply on the 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
April, 1901. 



Correspondence. 



183 



subject. Scholarships, endowments for research and other such 
measures as will bring forth a constant fruitage of benefit to the 
race will be the ideals of the far-seeing ; but sentimentalists will, per- 
haps, deem such forms' too utilitarian to suit their tastes. If Pro- 
fessor Procter could himself be consulted upon what he would want, 
I have no doubt but that he would prefer the latter form, without 
hesitation. The constant suggestiveness of a continuously acting 
benefit never palls on consciousness but retains for centuries its sweet 
memories. A cold stone statue enthuses only when fresh and new, 
after which it is passed heedlessly by like the dead, lifeless thing 
which it is. Let the American Pharmaceutical Association deliber- 
ate upon and decide what kind of memorial will most, and for the 
longest time, shower benefit upon American pharmacy, and they 
will soon decide upon an ideal that will satisfy futurity. 

R. G. Eccles. 

Dear Sir : — In reply to your letter requesting my opinion on 
the subject of a suitable memorial perpetuating the life and work 
ot Prof. Wm. Procter, permit me to suggest a memorial tablet of 
bronze, with a reproduction of the bust of Professor Procter and 
suitable inscription reminding present and future generations of the 
worth of the man. 

No more fitting place for this memorial can be found than in the 
halls of the institution wherein his achievements were accomplished 
and of which his work is a corner-stone. 

While this form of memorial appears to me most desirable, any 
suggestion finally adopted by those interested will meet with my 
most hearty approval. F. G. Ryan. 

Dear Sir: — Answering your letter of recent date I would say: 
Regarding an appropriate celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of 
the A. Ph. A., and, in that connection, a Procter memorial, I do not 
believe, from what I knew of William Procter, personally, that a 
memorial of brass and marble would be in keeping with his practi- 
cal life and views, however gratifying such a testimonial would be 
to his many revering friends. I would suggest that a committee 
be appointed, of which A. E. Ebert and Jos. P. Remington be its 
chief officers, consisting of a large number selected from the older 
and the younger pharmacists, to suggest to the Association an 
appropriate memorial. I, for one, should gladly help to carry out 



184 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. Pharru. 
\ April, 1901. 



their recommendations. I have read with much interest what has 
been said so well by the American Journal of Pharmacy, editorially, 
and by the correspondents to that journal upon this subject, and am 
glad that it is being considered. 

The revision of the Pharmacopoeia has emphasized the fact that 
we are sadly in need of advanced workmen in pharmaceutical 
science — men of the Procter type — in different sections of our country. 
It seems to me that the A.Ph.A. could aid very materially in a 
practical way if it would take steps toward creating a scholarship 
substantially as proposed by E. L. Patch. 

I referred to this at some length at a meeting of the Association 
in '95 (see Proc, p. 425-429, '95). After the reading of the paper, 
Professor Oldberg made a motion that a special committee be 
appointed to consider the recommendations then made and to report 
at the next annual meeting on the feasibility of carrying out the 
recommendations in this paper. That nothing has been done by 
the Association seems to show, perhaps, that the time is not quite 
ripe to take up the matter actively. Now that we may soon con- 
sider earnestly the question of a Procter memorial, I would again 
revive this motion, and place it before the committee I suggest. 
In suggesting a scholarship or fellowship, I am not losing sight of 
the main point — an appropriate memorial to one in whose memory a 
lasting monument would be a worthy token — but I am keeping 
before me the characteristics of him we are striving to respect. He 
was essentially a practical pharmacist. I do not think he himself 
would consider long as between an investment in marble or bronze 
and an endowment of a fellowship as an appropriate expression of 
a distinguished life such as we may seek to commemorate. In my 
opinion a monument would be insufficient to memorialize the man 
and inadequate to carry out what should be the aims of our worthy 
Association. If I can do anything to further the project under con- 
sideration I shall be very glad. L. E. Sayre. 

Dear Sir: — Accepting the invitation, kindly given by yourself, 
to take part in the discussion, inaugurated by the American Journal 
of Pharmacy, relative to " memorializing the life and work of Prof. 
William Procter, Jr.," one must, at the very outset, ask a series of 
questions that his right to participate may be assured and his efforts 
be properly directed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



Correspondence. 



185 



Entirely pertinent seem the following : Do the pharmacists of 
the nation wish to preserve, throughout time, the memory of the 
" Father of advanced, of professional Pharmacy," in a manner that 
will not only do honor to the subject, but will evidence to the peo- 
ple of this country, even of the world, that there is a real science 
and profession of Pharmacy and that Procter was a most creditable 
and exemplary exponent of both? Do the friends, followers and, 
especially, former students of the good man and distinguished 
teacher wish to possess something entirely of him, his life's history 
and his writings ? 

Do the local members of his profession and the citizens of his 
adopted city and home, where the most of his useful life was lived 
and where he attained his greatest successes, desire to emphasize 
the power and influence of such a character and proudly claim him 
as their own ? Or, would the commonwealth and the city, that 
honor him as their son, and the votaries of pharmacy therein resid- 
ing, pay tribute to his memory and justly make to him such monu- 
ment as will show their pride in the sonship and brotherhood which 
as greatly honors them all ? 

Two of these questions are purely local and must be answered by 
the councils of local associations and the representatives of the 
several bodies interested ; another is to a privileged number, to 
those who were more fortunate than the many who knew him not, 
but who would, for all, do him honor — thus leaving one, alone, for 
general consideration. While all four propositions might very 
properly be answered in the affirmative and be profitably executed, 
there is no possible doubt but that the first not only should, but 
must have prompt and fit realization. 

At the nation's capital, in artistic bronze, let the form of the 
nation's son and pharmacy's patron stand throughout the years as 
a memorial to his worth and a stimulus to his followers. 

Very sincerely, Hy. P. Hynson. 

Baltimore, February 18, 1901. 

Dear Sir : — Having carefully read the memorial paper of Profes- 
sor Remington, your editorial of November, 1 900, and the several 
suggestions, in the February issue of 190 1, regarding the proposed 
actions of the A.Ph.A. in 1902, and also considered the possibilities 
and probabilities of success in securing the most useful and abiding 



186 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
April, 1901. 



service to pharmacy and properly commemorating the life and work 
of Prof. William Procter, Jr., I reply to your request of the 5th inst. 
for my personal opinion. 

Among the earliest and most helpful influences to me of the 
A.Ph.A. was the ever earnest, active work, though always modest, 
and the genial, lovable character of Professor Procter. I can never 
forget him, and often recall his approaching me with a list of 
" queries," with the request that I write in response to one or more. 
At that time I should have undertaken the task of writing a sermon 
or lecture upon the creation of the heavens and the earth as to pre- 
pare a paper for the Association. 

Of all the men I have known in the Association, Professor Proc- 
ter has and does seem to me to fairly represent what may be termed 
the " Good Shepherd " of pharmacy. 

As I sit in church and see the memorial window to our late rec- 
tor, representing in the central figure the good shepherd with a 
lamb in his arms, and in the side panels the four acts of mercy, I 
have thought how appropriate and serviceable such a memorial 
would be of Professor Procter, placed in the several colleges of 
pharmacy, a constant reminder of the " Father of Pharmacy." A 
life-size representation of Professor Procter, with his hand resting 
upon a young man, the Pharmacopoeia and American Journal of 
Pharmacy, four or more side panels representing such scenes as 
could be easily made up from Professor Remington's paper, would 
surely be an impressive, instructive, helpful and stimulating influ- 
ence upon every student. 

Some such work as this, it seems to me, your College should do at 
once. Thus, at the meeting in your city in 1902, the A.Ph.A. could 
properly request the several colleges to follow your example, and 
for their part, the A.Ph.A. to authorize the preparing of a beautiful 
Procter memorial certificate, twenty, thirty, fifty or more to be dis- 
tributed annually to those worthy, recommended by those colleges 
who had put in the window or done something of the kind, and 
approved by a special committee or the Council of the A.Ph.A. and 
indorsed by the Association. 

The certificate should be a fine engraving, possibly of your win- 
dow, accompanied or not by a gold, silver, aluminum or bronze 
medal. And what a prize it would be ! 

It seems to me some such plan as this would be a suitable mem- 



A % J P 7n;woi arm "} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 187 

orial, and accomplish the most good to the greatest number. Such 
a commemoration of the life and work of one of our early members 
who has done so much in the Association, and made his life mem- 
orable as a leader and teacher in progressive pharmacy, and whose 
character is a model to follow, would be alike creditable to the 
memory of Professor Procter and the purpose of the A. Ph. A. 

The cost or expense to the several colleges would not be large, 
and the annual expense to the A.Ph.A. after its first outlay could be 
easily provided for. It would certainly be national and not sectional, 
and, as I see it, of constantly increasing service in making excep- 
tional pharmacists. H. M. Whitney. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

EXAMINATION OF PETROLATUM. 

The several characteristics which should be studied in the ex- 
amination of soft petrolatum are as follows : Color, melting point, 
behavior under oxidizing agents, stability under heat of 200°, re- 
action, homogeneity and viscosity. As the melting point estimation 
is somewhat difficult, by reason of the gradual softening under 
heat, the best method is to melt the product in a beaker glass, 
stir with a thermometer until the liquid becomes cloudy and shows 
first suggestion of thickenipg, when the thermometer is read. As 
to oxidation, 3 grammes of the product warmed on water-bath 
with ioc.c. acid permanganate solution ( T oVcr) snou ld not decolorize 
the permanganate, even after ten minutes' heating. If the perman- 
ganate is decolorized, rosin oil is to be suspected. The heating to 
200° is to detect presence of volatile hydrocarbons which are some- 
times irritating ; 10 grammes of the product heated five hours in 
an air-bath should lose not more than 8 per cent, in weight. The 
reaction of the petrolatum is tested by shaking an ethereal solution 
with 100 c.c. of water containing a few drops of any acid indicator. 
The writer prefers iodeosin. The homogeneity of the product is 
easily proven by examination under the microscope, when no paraf- 
fine needles should be noticed; The viscosity estimation is made 
with special apparatus ; suffice it to say that an artificial petrolatum 
is much less viscous than the natural product. The article closes 
with a report on the examination of six commercial varieties of 
petrolatum. — (Dr. M. Hoehnel, Ph. Zt., 1901, 28.) H. V. Arny. 



i88 



Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



CINCHONA CULTURE IN INDIA AND JAVA. 



Professor Verne, who was sent by the French Minister of Instruc- 
tion to investigate the cinchona culture, mentions the following 
interesting facts in his report : The Indian plantations are found 
about 27 north latitude, 3,600 feet high, in a territory having 
temperature ranging between 28 and 85 F. The mechanical 
labor is performed by the natives, who receive from $1 to $1.70 
per month, without food, according to age and sex. The favorite 
species of cinchona is the C. ledgeriana. The plants are raised on 
mossy ground, sheltered from the winds on one side by a hill and 
on the other side by thickets of bamboo, the young shoots being 
particularly susceptible to sudden changes of temperature. By the 
third year after planting, the tree is sufficiently grown to permit 
the removal of bark, which grows on again within three years 
without recourse to mossing operation. The same system is in 
vogue in Java, where, however, the variety of cinchona is not the 
English C. ledgeriana (Howard's), but the C. ledgeriana of Moen, the 
latter being found to yield 9 per cent, of quinine ; or, if only the 
trunk bark about a metre above the ground is chosen, it yields 14 
per cent, of quinine. On the other hand, the English C. ledgeriana 
assays on an average 4 per cent. In Java the cultivation of the 
latter variety is abandoned ; while C. succirubra planting is diminish- 
ing. In both the English and Javanese plantations a very large 
source of profit is the manufacture of quinine on the spot from 
small and defective pieces of bark, unfit for shipment. Particularly 
striking is the method of quinine extraction as practiced in Java, 
it simply consisting of treating the powdered bark with a 5 per 
cent, solution of caustic soda, heated to 50 C, throwing this 
mechanically agitated mass into a reservoir containing Java petro- 
leum of specific gravity -999, removing the petrolic solution of 
alkaloids by mechanical devices into a warm reservoir, into which 
is poured water acidulated with sulphuric acid. This watery layer 
is removed, evaporated and from the concentrated solution the 
quinine sulphate separates by crystallization, which it is not neces- 
sary to recrystallize, since it contains only one-half of 1 per cent, of 
cinchonine. Of such quinine 50,000 kilogrammes are exported 
annually to the United States. The special reason of the success 
of this quinine manufacture is due to the exceedingly clever me- 
chanical devices used in the extraction. — {jf.de Ph. et Ch. } 1901, 



page 5.) 



H. V. A. 



Am ;i°rii r ;i9oT rnJ '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 189 

VOLUMETRIC ASSAY OF SALICYLIC ACID. 

The following method is suggested as an improvement over pro- 
cesses yet devised. Instead of using bromine acidulated with hydro- 
chloric acid, potassium bromide is employed. This is treated with 
an exact quantity of sodium hypochlorite solution, titrated to rep- 
resent in each litre 3-55 grammes of chlorine, 8 grammes of bro- 
mine, and 3-45 grammes salicylic acid. This volumetric solution 
will keep its strength for about a month if kept in a dark place. 
The details of the assay are as follows : 1 gramme salicylic acid is 
dissolved in 2 c.c. solution of soda and 50 ex. water, and the vol- 
ume brought up to exactly 500 c.c. by addition of distilled water. 
Twenty-five c.c. of this solution is put into an Erlenmeyer flask of 
about 375 c.c. capacity. Five c.c. of a 10 per cent, solution of 
potassium bromide and 10 to 15 drops of hydrochloric acid are 
added, and to this mixture is poured in drop by drop from a burette 
the titrated solution of hypochlorite, until one drop communicates 
a distinct but feeble yellow color to the mixture. To avoid error 
it is better to have a layer of 5 c.c. chloroform (with sufficient al- 
cohol to prevent emulsification in the mixture) to receive the first 
suggestion of free bromine. When this yellow is reached, the 
amount of cubic centimetres of hypochlorite employed is read, and 
the exact amount of salicylic acid is estimated by multiplying by 
3-45. The same method can be utilized for estimation of the sali- 
cylic acid, and also for phenol. — (F. Telle, J. Ph. et Ch. y 190 1, 49.) 

H. V. A. 

OXIDIZING ACTION OF AMMONIUM PERSULPHATE. 

This chemical converts uric acid in the cold to guanine, ammo- 
nium allanturate, ammonium oxalate and urea. It changes biliru- 
bine in alkaline solution to biliverdine. It oxidizes haematine in 
ammoniacal solution in the cold, and more rapidly after heating, to 
a colorless liquid in which is found a precipitate of peroxide of iron. 
In the same way it attacks diluted blood. These reactions seem to 
point to the future value of this reagent in physiological examina- 
tions. — (L. Hugonenq, J. de Ph. et Ck., 1901, 64.) H. V. A. 

DETECTION OF OIL OF SESAME IN OTHER OILS. 

A solution of 100 parts of hydrochloric acid to three or four parts 
of crystallized glucose is prepared. One part of the reagent is put 



190 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am Ap ru r ;i9oi arm ' 

into a test-tube with two parts of the suspected oil. The mixture 
is shaken vigorously two or three minutes, heated to boiling, agi- 
tated in cork tube and then let stand. If the slightest trace of oil 
of sesame be present, the liquid assumes a beautiful rose color, pass- 
ing rapidly to cherry red. The delicacy of the reaction is shown 
by the fact that the presence of 1 per cent, of oil of sesame brings 
the coloration within a few minutes, while 10 per cent, caused 
instant change. — (Tambon, J. Ph. et Ch., 1901, 57.) 

H. V. A. 

SEPARATION OF PLATINUM METALS. 

The platinum ores are roasted, reduced with hydrogen, washed 
with water, then with dilute hydrochloric acid. This removes alka- 
line salts and also iron and zinc. The metallic residue treated with 
twice its weight of sodium chloride, the mixture warmed in a current 
of dry chlorine at red heat. The volatile products of this reaction 
being condensed by appropriate apparatus, while the residue, which 
has been converted into soluble chlorides of the platinum group, is 
dissolved in water, thus freeing them from the chlorides of silver and 
lead respectively. To the solution of platinum metals, sodium car- 
bonate and sodium nitrate are added, precipitating all remaining 
traces of metals foreign to the platinum group, leaving a solution of 
the double nitrites of sodium and ruthenium, platinum, palladium, 
iridium and rhodium respectively, while the osmium goes into solu- 
tion as a sodium chloro-osmite. This solution is treated with caustic 
soda, then with a current of chlorine and distilled, when the osmium 
and ruthenium pass over as volatile peroxides (Os0 4 and Ru0 4 ) 
which are separated by usual methods. The residue in the retort is 
treated with hydrochloric acid and boiled ; sodium nitrite is added 
and then ammonium chloride, when the iridium and rhodium are 
precipitated as double nitrites with ammonium, which are insoluble 
in the presence of sal-ammoniac. The separation of the iridium 
from the rhodium is accomplished through the differing solubilities 
of the chloro-sodium compounds. The original liquid now contains 
platinum and palladium, and the former is separated from the latter 
by the formation of a chloroplatinate of ammonium, which crystal- 
lizes, leaving palladium in the mother liquor, which is removed by 
precipitation with cyanide of mercury. — (Leidie, y. Ph. et Ch. y 1901, 
18.) H. V. A. 



^ m A P °rii;i9oi arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 191 

VOLUMETRIC METHODS OF THE NEW GERMAN PHARMACOPCEIA. 

Of the three methods of volumetric analysis, acidimetry or 
alkalimetry is employed in the new German standard for the estima- 
tion of not only the usual inorganic chemicals, but also in the 
estimation of such alkaloidal drugs as pomegranate bark, ipecac, 
aconite, nux vomica and its preparations, belladonna, cinchona, 
hyoscyamus and their preparations; also for balsam of Peru, bal- 
sam of Tolu, copaiba, rosin, wax, cod liver oil and oil of lavender. 

The oxidation analysis includes the well-known chemicals such 
as iron salts, chlorine water and iodine, and through the latter it is 
applied to the iodine absorption estimation of fats. The precipita- 
tion volumetric analysis is directed for the same chemicals as in 
the U.S.P. and also for the assay of bitter almond water and the 
mustard oils. Concerning the estimations of the first class, that 
for the alkaloids is practically the same as in the U.S. P., a possible 
exception being that " jodeosin " is recommended as an indicator; 
always, however, with the addition of an ethereal layer. For the 
cinchona alkaloids, hsematoxylin is preferred. 

The estimation of acid number, ester number, and saponification 
number of oils and balsams is performed by treating the substance 
with semi-normal alcoholic potassa titration of excess with semi- 
normal hydrochloric acid, phenolphtalein being used as indicator. 
The approximate details of such estimation can be lound in litera- 
ture, notably Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, so suffice it here to state the following standards are chosen 
by the German authority : 

Acid Number. Ester Number. Saponification Number. 



Balsam Peru — 132*5 224-6 

Balsam Tolu ii2'3-i68'5 22 , 4-78"4 — 

Copaiba 75 -6-1797 — — 

Wax 18*5- 24-1 72'8-75'6 . — 

Oil lavender — 84 — 

Cod liver oil — — 196*6 



The iodine absorption of fats is estimated by addition of the fat 
to an 87 per cent, alcohol containing mercuric chloride and a 
definite quantity of iodine ; the mixture is allowed to stand forty- 
eight hours and the unabsorbed iodine is estimated by titration 
with decinormal sodium thiosulphate. Chloroform is added to the 
mixture for purpose of clearing, this aiding in obtaining accurate 



192 



Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm^ 
April, 1901. 



results. One c.c. thiosulphate solution will equal 0-012685 
gramme of iodine. The difference between iodine originally 
employed and the unabsorbed iodine is of course the amount of 
that element absorbed by the fat, and the number of grammes 
absorbed by 1 00 grammes of fat is called the iodine number. — (Dr. 
Laves, Ap. Zt., 1901, p. 30.) H. V. A. 

FERMENTS OF THE LEGUM IN OSZE . 

The work of the ferments of sprouting seeds is continued by 
Bourquelot and Herissey (J. Ph. et Ch., 1900, 357). They extracted 
the ferments from sprouting fcenugreek, luzerne and scoparius 
seed and compared the action of same on starch of caroubier (the 
seed of Ceratonia siliqua) and on potato starch with that of diastase 
from malt, finding it totally different. 

Diastase hydrolyzes potato starch so completely that the mix- 
ture no longer gives the iodine reaction, while the action on carou- 
bier starch is much less than that of the leguminous ferment. The 
latter ferment, called seminase by the authors, on the other hand, 
scarcely affects potato starch, but completely hydrolyzes caroubier 
starch (starch of the horny albumen). 

The seminase obtained from the three plants mentioned above 
is practically identical. Whether it is a single ferment or a mix- 
ture is yet to be studied. H. V. A. 

ANAGYRINE. 

The seeds of Anagyris fcetida, a papilionaceous plant of Southern 
France and Algeria, contain an alkaloid which was at first thought 
to be identical with cytisin. This alkaloid is obtained by percola- 
tion of seeds with 60 per cent, alcohol containing acetic acid, 
evaporation of solvent, removal of fat and resin by treatment with 
water and filtration ; precipitation of gum, color, etc., from filtrate 
with lead acetate ; and chloroformic extraction of alkaloid from the 
alkaline filtrate. Lastly, the chloroformic extract is purified by frac- 
tional crystallization of the alkaloids and their platinic chloride and 
mercuric chloride compounds — this complex method being neces- 
sary to separate the real cytisin from the peculiar alkaloid of 
anagyris — anagyrine. Cytisin is C n H 14 N 2 0, anagyrine is C 15 H 22 N 2 0, 
and in both alkaloids the O atom is neither in a hydroxyl nor in a 
ketone nor in an aldehyde group. 



Am Aprii r ;i9oi arm '} Recejit Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 193 

Cytisin is a secondary base (forming with alkyliodides a tertiary), 
while anagyrine reacts as a tertiary base. 

Comparison of the two formulae seems to show that anagyrine 
is butyl cytisin. 

However, none of the efforts to convert cytisin into butyl deriva- 
tives — several successful ! — yielded true cytisin. Anagyrine yields 
with barium permanganate a peculiar crystalline base, C 15 H 20 N 2 O 2 , 
which appears to be similar to the peroxides of tertiary bases 
studied by Merling and others. The physiological effect of ana- 
gyrine is different from cytisin. — (Dr. F. M. Littescheid, Arch. Ph., 
1900, 191.) H. V. A. 

MALARIA AND THE MOSQUITO. 

Progress in the investigation of the causation of malaria is pro- 
ceeding steadily, and definite proof has now been obtained that the 
bite of a malarious mosquito causes malaria in a non-malarious dis- 
trict, also that if one lives in a malarious district and escapes being 
bitten by a malarious mosquito perfect health is retained. The 
latter is the more important fact, and we owe it to Dr. Louis Sam- 
bon and Dr. G. C. Low, who, as stated in an illustrated note which 
we published on July 7, have since May been living in the malaria- 
infested Campagna of Rome in a mosquito-proof house, and 
although a month of the experiment has still to run, Professor 
Grassi, a leading Italian physician, has telegraphed to Dr. Manson, 
who first formulated the mosquito-malarial theory, that the experi- 
menters are in perfect health and have been all the time, although 
around them the inhabitants of the Campagna are malaria-stricken. 
Drs. Sambon and Low have taken no other precaution than that of 
the protection provided by the house ; they have taken no anti- 
malarial physic, and have breathed the " malaria-stricken exha- 
lations " which constitute the atmosphere of the Campagna. This 
is ample proof, therefore, that the old " exhalation " theory is 
wrong, and that we have to seek for the cause of malaria somewhere 
else. That the mosquito is the infection-carrier there can no longer 
be any doubt. Members of the Liverpool school who went out to 
the gold coast and were not bitten by mosquitoes did not take 
malaria ; one member of the party who was bitten had a severe 
attack of the fever. But that was in a malarious district, and there 
was wanted by the skeptical proof of malarial infection by the mos- 



194 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am A P °rn r ;i9o 1 i arm ' 

quito in a non-malarious district. This has now been provided in 
London by a son of Dr. Manson, who allowed himself to be bitten 
by a malaria-infected mosquito. For the experiment mosquitoes 
{Anopheles) were raised from the egg in a laboratory, so that they 
had no opportunity of obtaining the fever parasites, and these were 
taken to Rome and allowed to suck the blood of patients in whom 
the parasites of tertian fever were ascertained to be present. The 
insects were then sent to the London School of Tropical Medicine 
and fed on vegetable juices until sufficient time had elapsed for the 
fever-germs to reach their venom-glands. Mr. P. T. Manson was 
bitten every second day by the insects until they died, usually about 
ten days after their arrival in London. The first batch was fed in 
London in the first and second weeks of July, the second at the 
end of August, and the last during the second week of September. 
Mr. Manson remained in perfect health until the morning of Sep- 
tember 13th, when he was suddenly attacked by headache, bone- 
ache, lassitude, and loss of appetite, with rise of temperature to 
102 F. On September 15th there was a distinct intermission 
during the forenoon. High fever, with temperature of 104 F., set 
in about 4 p.m. with delirium, and was relieved during the night by 
profuse diaphoresis. The same series of events recurred on Sep- 
tember 1 6th, and on the morning of the 17th tertian parasites were 
found in his blood. The nature of the illness was verified, and the 
parasites were seen, not only by Dr. Manson himself, but by other 
competent observers. The delay in the appearance of symptoms is, 
notable, but is believed to be due either to the condition of the 
insects or to the need for some lapse of time after the parasites are 
introduced into the blood before they multiply sufficiently to become 
effective causes of fever. Mr. Manson is not likely to sustain any 
permanent injury or inconvenience, as the tertian parasite is not 
virulent and is easily killed by quinine, which Mr. Manson has taken 
freely, and there has been no recurrence of the tertian symptoms. 
These signal proofs of the communicability of malarial fever by 
insects, and insects alone, once more attracts attention to the need 
for close study of the various species of mosquito. We are glad, 
therefore, to observe that the inquiry instituted in 1898 at the sug- 
gestion of a committee of the Royal Society by the Colonial Office 
is bearing fruit. The Governors of all the colonies were requested 
to have such collections made and sent to the Natural History 



Am A J p°i U ii r ;5oi? rm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 195 

Museum, South Kensington, for examination and classification, 
and as a result considerably over 3,000 specimens of mosquitoes 
have been received at the museum. The work of identifying 
and^ describing the specimens was at first entrusted to Mr. E. 
E. Austen, the dipterist on the museum staff, but he joined the City 
Imperial Volunteers as a soldier and naturalist. Mr. F. V. Theo- 
bald, one of the few men in England who have studied mosquitoes, 
has carried on the work in Mr. Austen's absence, and is now engaged 
in the preparation of a monograph on mosquitoes, based on the 
collections at the museum. The combined collections contain a 
large number of species, the majority belonging to the genus Culex. 
Mr. Theobald has completed the genus Anopheles y which is the 
medium by which the malaria-parasite is transmitted from man to 
man. The genus is represented in the museum by twenty-two 
species, ten of which are new to science. The Anopheles, unlike the 
Culex, does not appear to have a wide distribution in regard to 
species, although the genus is world-wide. One of the greatest dis- 
tances between any two localities for the same species is Formosa 
and the Straits Settlements. A long series sent from the Straits 
Settlements contained sixty-six Anopheles and seventy-two Culex. 
Some species of Culex seem to have a very wide distribution. Thus, 
one species has been sent from Japan, Formosa, Hong Kong, Malay 
Peninsula, India, South and West Africa, North and South America, 
West Indies and Gibraltar. The Culex is innocent of malarial pro- 
pensities, so that interest is centered on the Anopheles, and the next 
thing we have to learn after Mr. Theobald has completed his classifi- 
cation is whether all the species are malaria-carriers. The subject 
is one which pharmacists of an inquiring turn ol mind may find it 
advantageous to follow, and even the enterprising will find it not 
unprofitable. — (Editorial in Chem. and Drug., 1900, p. 547.) 

VEGETABLE ALKALOIDS, DETERMINATION OF, BY MEANS OF THE 
QUANTITY OF ACID REQUIRED TO FORM NORMAL SALTS. 

In previous investigations it has been customary to disregard 
the theoretical quantity of acid required to combine with the various 
alkaloids, and a process has generally been considered satisfactory 
if the end reaction is sharp and concordant results are obtained. 
This gives considerable trouble in forensic and pharmaceutical work 
where the quantity of available alkaloid is small and very dilute acid 



196 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { K ^l^\\J^ m ' 

and alkaline solutions are employed. In this work N/50 sulphuric 
acid and caustic solutions were employed and the indicator solutions 
standardized by means of the standard acid or alkali, as required. 
The alkaloids were dissolved in an excess of the acid, 50 c.c. of % this 
solution added to the standardized aqueous solution of the indicator, 
and the excess of acid measured by means of the alkaline solution. 
The following indicators, of the usual strength, were employed: 
azolithmin, iodo-eosin, methyl-orange, cochineal, phenolphtalein, 
lacmoid, ethyl-orange, uranine, hematoxylin, alkannin and Congo 
red. The results obtained are summarized in extensive tabulations 
and the relative efficiency of the indicators is given as follows. 

The most suitable are printed in italics ; the next best are enclosed 
in brackets ; (a) indicates a somewhat indefinite end reaction ; (&) 
the indicator is discolored, and (c) change of color reaction transi- 
tory. 

Aconitine. — Iodo-eosin, azolithmin, hematoxylin, cochineal. 
Atropine. — Iodo-eosin, [methyl-orange (#)], azolithmin, hema- 
toxylin, lacmoid, cochineal, uranine. 
Caffeine. — None are suitable. 

Cocaine. — Lacmoid, uranine, cochineal, hsematoxylin. 
Codeine. — Iodo-eosin, (azolithmin), uranine, hematoxylin, cochi- 
neal, lacmoid. 

Coniine. — Iodo-eosin, (methyl orange), uranine, [azolithmin (#)], 
hematoxylin (c), (alkannin), cochineal, lacmoid, Congo red. 

Emetine. — Iodo-eosin, [azolithmin [uranine (ay], [hematoxy- 

lin {ay], cochineal, [lacmoid (£)]. 

Morphine. — (Iodo-eosin), cochineal, lacmoid. 

Narceine. — None are suitable. 

Narcotine. — (Methyl orange), lacmoid. 

Papaverine. — Lacmoid. 

Pelletierine. — (Iodo-eosin), uranine, cochineal, [lacmoid (£)], 
[azolithmin (£)]. 

Quinine. — Azolithmin, uranine, hematoxylin (c), lacmoid, in pres- 
ence of ether. 

Sparteine. — Azolithmin, (uranine), hcematoxylin, phenolphtalein, 
alkannin. 

Strychnine. — Iodo-eosin, azolithmin, (uranine), hematoxylin, 
cochineal, (lacmoid). 

Thebaine. — Iodo-eosin, uranine, (hematoxylin), cochineal, lacmoid 
(a). 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1901. J 



Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 



197 



Veratrine. — Iodo-eosin, hematoxylin, cochineal, lacmoid. 
The low acid values are due to partial dissociation of the alkaloidal 
sulphate in aqueous solutions, a part of the acid belonging to the 
alkaloidal salt being neutralized by the alkali, while the free base 
separates out or remains dissolved in the colloidal state. In disso- 
ciations of this kind the base may not combine with the indicator, 
because of the relative instability of the indicator-alkaloid com- 
pound, which is especially the case if the indicator is a weak acid 
and the alkaloid is a weak base. Fairly good results may be 
obtained with a feebly acid indicator and a strongly basic alkaloid; 
the reverse, however, will not hold good. High acid values are gen- 
erally obtained with methyl and ethyl-orange and Congo red in the 
titration of quinine and sparteine. These are due to compounds of 
the indicator and the alkaloid, formed in solution, which require a 
considerable excess of acid to decompose. — (C. Kippenberger, Ztsch. 
anal. Chem., 39, 201.) L. F. Kebler. 



" STRENGTHENING FLOURS FROM RUSSIA. 

Within recent years there have been introduced into France from 
Russia several brands of flour for the purpose of improving and in- 
creasing the value and yield of bread made from flours deficient in 
gluten. The following results were obtained by Balland (Comp. 
rend. t 131, 545) on the analyses of thre-e brands : 



Constituents. 



Water 

Nitrogenous matter 
Patty matter .... 
Amylaceous matter 

Cellulose 

Ash ........ 

Gluten, moist . . . 
Gluten, dry . . . . 

Total nitrogen . . . 
Acidity 



" Champion.' 



9-90 
29-48 

r6o 
58-22 

- 20 

o - 6o 

82-80 

29* 10 

4717 

0*073 



Hercules. 



10-70 

22-11 

i"45 
64-94 
0-25 
o*55 
64-50 

22'0O 

3'537 
0-065 



11 00 
16-43 

I'20 

70-65 

0-27 
o'45 
46-40 
i6'oo 
2-628 
0-065 



The above analyses indicate that these strengthening flours " 
are simply mixtures of wheat and gluten flours. Their addition to 
over-bolted flours is undoubtedly valuable, in that it makes good 



Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy, /Am - Jour - Pharm - 



April, 1901. 

the deficiency of nitrogenous matter, but they will not raise the 
per cent, of phosphates, and the apparent increase in yield of bread 
is purely fictitious, being due to the additional water absorbed by 
the dried t !gluten. L. F. K. 

SPURIOUS VENETIAN TURPENTINE. 

G. Fabris (Annali del Laboratorio Chimico Centrale delle Gabelle, 
1900, 4, 143, from Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 19, 768). 

Spurious Venetian turpentine, consisting of mixtures of rosin 
oil, colophony and oil of turpentine, have for some time past found 
their way into commerce, their color and consistency depending 
on the relative proportions of the several constituents. In general, 
such products are very thick and have a mingled odor of their com- 
ponent products. They are completely soluble in 95 per cent, 
alcohol, have acid value from 105 to 113-8; saponification number 
113*6 to 119-2, and from 6 to 13 per cent, distils below 250 C. 
From these figures the following deductions as to composition are 
made: turpentine, 6 to 1 3 per cent.; colophony, 65-2 to 67-9 per 
cent.: and rosin oil, by difference, 19-1 to 28-8 per cent. 

There is some possibility of confusing the genuine Larch or 
Venetian with these spurious products, yet there are several distinct 
differences. The Venetian turpentine invariably contains more than 
15 per cent, of oil of turpentine, the acid value varies from 65 to 75, 
and the saponification number from no to 125. 

The rosin oil can be detected by dissolving 5 -grammes of the 
sample in 20 c.c. of 95 per cent, alcohol, adding a few drops of phe- 
nolphtalein and sufficient of a 10 per cent, solution of potassium 
hydroxide to render alkaline. In case of genuine Venetian turpen- 
tine a clear solution results, while the solution of an artificial pro- 
duct becomes turbid, and, on standing, oily drops of rosin oil separate. 

L. F. K. 

ALBUMIN MANUFACTURE IN CHINA. 

In the Chamber of Commerce J. (Nov., 1900, p. 225) it is stated that 
the albumin industry established at Hankow lately has made substan- 
tial progress. The white ot the egg is employed in numerous indus- 
tries, but is principally employed in the manufacture of leather. All 
kinds of eggs are employed in the manufacture of albumin, but ducks' 
eggs are richest in white and, therefore, most in demand. The eggs 



Am A J P °rii;woL rm *} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 199 

are broken, the white separated from the yolk, the latter poured into 
gigantic reservoirs, mixed with salt to prevent fermentation, thor- 
oughly agitated, and shipped in barrels. The egg white is exposed 
to the air in open casks, in well-heated rooms, until it attains a cer- 
tain degree of fermentation. Then it is drawn off by means of taps, 
placed into small open zinc vessels and allowed to stand some time; 
subsequently it is dried at a higher temperature, which transforms 
the egg albumin into dry friable cakes. In this form the article is 
packed into cases and shipped. At present five firms are engaged 
in this industry, three German, one Austrian and one French, who 
work up, in the aggregate, from 300,000 to 310,000 eggs daily. 

L. F. K. 



PHENYL- ETHYL ALCOHOL IN ROSE BLOSSOMS. 

Ordinary rose oil as usually made never possesses the true odor 
of the rose. Many attempts have been made to obtain the true 
natural odor of the rose by means of the volatile solvents. It 
was found by H. Walbaum (Ber., 1900, 33, 2299) that an oil ob- 
tained in this way from the fresh leaves consisted for the greater 
part of phenyl-ethyl alcohol, while geraniol is the principal constitu- 
ent of oil distilled with water, from fresh leaves. On extracting 90 
kilos of the dried rose leaves by means of ether, distilling the ex- 
tract in steam, then shaking the distillate with ether and evaporat- 
ing the ethereal solution, there was left a brown oil which consisted 
for the most part of phenyl-ethyl alcohol. See also Ber., 1900, 33, 
1720, and Chemist-and Druggist, 1900, 56, 961. L. F. K. 



ROSE OIL, GERMAN. 

It has been found that German and Bulgarian rose oils consist 
essentially of geraniol and odorless hydrocarbons (Bertram and 
Gildemeister, Jour, prakt. Chetn., 1894, 49 » Tiemann and 

Schmidt {Ber., 29, 923) also found citronellol in Bulgarian oil. 
Mixtures of the above do not possess the odor of rose oil, conse- 
quently there must be other odoriferous constituents present. FL 
Walbaum and K. Stephan [Ber., 1900, 33, 2302) determined to in- 
vestigate this matter and for this purpose carefully fractionated, 
partly by steam and partly under diminished pressure, 1 1 kilos of 
German rose oil and examined the several fractions. This investi- 



200 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am '^p"if'wSi arm ' 

gation has established the presence of the following new constituents 
in German rose oil : normal nonylic aldehyde, citral, /-linalool, nor- 
mal phenyl-ethyl alcohol and /-citronellol. It should be noted also 
that there were indications of other constituents in this oil. The 
pertinent observation is made that an explanation is lacking for the 
presence of only a trace of the phenyl-ethyl alcohol in ordinary 
rose oils and the large quantities of the same alcohol in extracted 
oils. L. F. K. 

PREPARATION OF TERPIN HYDRATE. 

Keutmann [Pharm. Ztg., 43, 296) finds that on mixing one part 
of hydrogen peroxide (per cent. ?), two parts of nitric acid and 
eight parts of oil of turpentine, then allowing the mixture to stand 
a few hours, a copious crop of terpin hydrate crystals will be 
formed. L. F. K. 

THE PREPARATION OF AN EXACT STANDARD ACID. 

C. Longuet Higgins (Joum. Soc. Client. Ind., 19, 958) reviews 
the subject in a very satisfactory manner, and the reader is referred 
to the original communication for details. The method worked out 
by this author is similar to the one first presented by Mr. G. T. 
Moody, 1898, Jour. CJiem. Soc, 73, 658, and consists in dissolving a 
given weight of pure dry hydrochloric acid in a definite weight of 
water. L. F. K. 

CONSTITUENTS OF WEST INDIAN SANDALWOOD OIL. 

Hugo von Soden and Wilhelm Rojahn (Chem. Centr., 1900, 1274; 
Pharm. Zeit. y 1900, p. 878) separate amyroi into components. Of 
these the alcohol C 15 H 25 OH is present in larger proportion, possesses 
boiling point, 299 ; specific gravity, 0-987 at 15 , and a rotation of 
-f- 36 . The second alcohol appears to have the composition 
C 15 H 23 .OH and to be optically inactive. 

From West Indian sandalwood oil, 01 per cent, of amyrolin, 
C 14 H 12 3 , has been isolated; it crystallizes from methyl alcohol in 
stout crystals, is colorless, odorless and tasteless; melts at 11 7°; 
dissolves in hot alcohol, giving the solution a blue fluorescence and 
in alcoholic potash solutions with a yellowish-green fluorescence. 
Amyrolin appears to be an aromatic compound of the character of 
a lactone. 



Am Aprn?i9oi arm '} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 201 

PHARMACY LAWS AND LEGISLATION. 
Contributed by Professor J. H. Beai,, Scio, O. 

Under this title it is designed to give each month a brief resume 
of proposed and accomplished pharmacy legislation, and of deci- 
sions of importance to pharmacy boards and pharmacists. On 
account of space limitations, proposed legislation cannot be more 
than briefly mentioned, but bills enacted into law will be discussed 
and their principal features pointed out. Pharmacy boards and 
members of legislative committees and others are requested to send 
copies of such measures and news of this kind either to the editor 
of this Journal or to Prof. J. H. Beal, Scio, O. 

MINNESOTA STATE BOARD OF PHARMACY REPORT. 

The citizens of Minnesota are fortunate in having a fairly good 
pharmacy statute, and a Board of Pharmacy that is more than 
fairly good, in fact one of the most efficient boards in the United 
States, the sixteenth annual report of which is a model of what 
pharmacy board reports should be. 

The report shows 591 pharmacists enrolled on experience at the 
time the law was passed, 714 pharmacists enrolled by examination, 
and 169 assistant pharmacists. 

During the year the board conducted forty-one prosecutions to a 
successful issue. Thirty-eight were for failure to keep a registered 
pharmacist in charge of the store, the fine being $50 in each case. 
Two were for failure to expose certificate of registration, with a 
fine of $10 each. In one case, cause of complaint not stated, the 
fine assessed was $150. The total of fines assessed was thus $2,070, 
which, with the costs added, shows it to be rather expensive to 
violate the pharmacy law in Minnesota. 

The report also contains the minutes of the several meetings of 
the board for the year, the lists of questions asked, and an illus- 
tration showing the portable dispensing cabinets used in examining 
students in compounding and prescription work. 

The finances of the board are in flourishing condition, the cash 
balance on hand at the close of 1900 being nearly twice that at the 
end of the preceding year. 

NEW YORK. 

Proposed pharmacy legislation is a live topic in New York State 
at present, a number of measures affecting pharmacy having been 
already introduced into the legislature. 



202 Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. { Am Ap r U ii,'i9oi armr 

Prior to the last session of the legislature, New York was afflicted 
with four distinct pharmacy laws, one for Erie County, one for 
Kings County, one for New York City, and one for the remainder 
of the State. After many futile efforts, the pharmacists of that 
State succeeded in procuring the enactment of a statute covering 
the entire State, and repealing the old ones. 

It was not to be expected that a measure which attempted to re- 
concile so many conflicting interests could be permanently satisfac- 
tory, nor indeed was this the result. The present measure, while 
in many respects an improvement over the old condition of four 
separate laws and boards of pharmacy, still leaves much to be 
desired, and the present agitation must be expected to continue 
until either an entirely new measure has .been enacted or until the" 
present law has been amended into a more satisfactory shape. 

Among the more important of the measures introduced up to 
date are the following : 

The Donnelly Bill seeks to amend the law so as to permit all 
licensed druggists of the eastern section to participate in the elec- 
tion of the members of the board for that section, and also provides 
that registered assistants may become licensed druggists upon fil- 
ing an affidavit as to the possession of the necessary experience ; 
that the surplus left after paying the expenses of the board shall be 
paid into the State Treasury ; authorizes the State Controller to 
examine the books of the board, etc. 

The Costello Bill aims to amend the law by extending the lists 
of drugs which may be sold by country merchants, and requires the 
board of pharmacy to issue permits to compound medicines, fill 
prescriptions and sell poisons, to such retail dealers in general 
merchandise as shall satisfy the Board of Pharmacy as to their 
competency for such purposes. 

The Weeks Bill makes it " a misdemeanor for any person, firm or 
corporation to sell or offer for sale any adulterated or altered drug, 
medicine, pharmaceutical preparation or chemical substance, " 
under a penalty of not less than $25 nor more than $100 for each 
offence. The bill is said to be specially aimed at the sellers of 
adulterated borax. 

The Bell Bill is supposed to be aimed at Christian scientists, 
osteopaths and similar fakirs, and enlarges the definition of what 
shall be considered as the practice of medicine, so that " Any per- 



Am Ap r"i,'i9or m '} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 203 

son shall be regarded as practicing medicine within the meaning of 
this act who shall profess to heal or who shall give treatment to 
any other person by the use of any remedy, agent or method what- 
soever, whether with or without the use of any medicine, drug, 
instrument or other appliance, for the relief or cure of any wound, 
fracture or body injury, infirmity, physical or mental, or other 
defects or disease. This is not to be construed as prohibiting the 
manufacture, sale or use of any proprietary or patent medicine 
where no diagnosis is made by the maker or seller thereof; or the 
giving of temporary relief in an emergency by a registered phar- 
macist or any person, or the domestic administration of family 
remedies." 

One of the numerous measures has already been passed, and 
awaits either the Governor's signature or his veto. This is the 
" Military Code Bill," and amends the law of 1900 which gave to 
pharmacists of the National Guard the rank of first lieutenant. 
The bill is said to have been pushed through the legislature by the 
surgeons and other officers of the National Guard, who are opposed 
to admitting pharmacists to rank because of social reasons. 
Whether this be true or not, the measure is a direct affront to the 
profession of pharmacy, and it is difficult to see how any self- 
respecting pharmacist can hereafter accept an appointment in the 
National Guard of the Empire State. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

The Cloutier Bill seeks to amend the present law regulating the 
granting of liquor licenses to registered druggists by providing that 
the fact that a druggist has been convicted of a violation of the 
liquor law shall not operate as a forfeiture of his license, nor permit 
the pharmacy board to revoke his certificate of registration as a 
pharmacist. 

Among other bills is one to increase druggist's liquor license 
from $1.00 to $500, one making only one signature necessary in 
recording sales of liquor, one- requiring members of the Board of 
Pharmacy to be graduates of a college of pharmacy, and one requir- 
ing the use of preservatives in food or drink to be stated on the 
label. Another bill amends the present law against adulterations, 
and still another prohibits the substitution of one article when 
another is called for. 



204 



Editorial. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1901. 



MISSOURI. 

Bills have been introduced in the Senate and House to amend 
the present law so that physicians cannot register upon diplomas 
in medicine. 

NEW JERSEY. 

The New Jersey Legislature is wrestling with a bill to amend the 
present pharmacy statute by defining more clearly what shall con- 
stitute the unlawful practice of pharmacy, giving the State Board 
authority to employ counsel, enlarging the scope of examinations, 
and empowering the Board to employ inspectors for the purpose of 
detecting violations of the law. 

One bill makes it unlawful for any person in the State to refill 
any bottle, and another prohibits the adulteration of drugs. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

In this State bills have been introduced by Senator Snyder and 
Representative Stubb to amend the pharmacy law by " making 
additional regulations in regard to the practice of pharmacy, and 
the sale of medicines and poisons, enlarging and defining the 
powers of the State Pharmaceutical and Examining Board, and 
imposing penalties for violation." 

The bills, if enacted, will make almost an entirely new pharmacy 
law for the State. 

REPEAL OF THE STAMP TAX. 

It is estimated that the repeal of the special tax on proprietary 
medicines will save $4,000,000 annually to the drug trade of the 
United States. The law takes effect July 1st, until when medicines 
must bear the same stamps as heretofore. The fact that the repeal 
was forced in the face of the most determined opposition is a strik- 
ing evidence of the force which the pharmaceutical profession of 
the United States is capable of exerting when working with any 
approach to unanimity. 

EDITORIAL. 

PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE. 

At the Montreal meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, Joseph Jacobs proposed (see Proc, 1896, p. 347) that measures 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



Editorial. 



205 



be taken by the Association to insure an exhaustive and accurate 
compilation of every law and every legal decision that bears upon 
the practice of pharmacy and the relation of the pharmacist to the 
public, the physician and State. He further suggested that this be 
recorded under the title of "Laws and Comments" and kept separate 
from other matters pertaining to education. His idea was the estab- 
lishment of a department on Progress in Pharmaceutical Jurispru- 
dence, similar to the department on Progress in Pharmacy. Others 
since that time have also referred to this need. 

The reports of the Secretary of the Section on Education and 
Legislation of the A.Ph.A. must necessarily be more or less in the 
nature of statistics, as the office is seldom held by any one person for 
more than two years, and just about the time that he is competent to 
make a digest of such an important question his office is turned 
over to his successor, who again must serve an apprenticeship as his 
predecessors have done. These statistics are no doubt of value, and 
yet it was evidenced in the discussion at the last meeting (see Proc, 
1900, pp. 283, 284) that there may be errors in the compilation owing 
to complications in the reports received from the secretaries of the 
various boards, and like many other statistics may really not give 
the information that is in accord with the facts. It therefore seems 
that what is most needed at the present time, when the pharmacists 
of the country are being roused to an appreciation of the value 
and power of organization and the possibilities of its effect upon 
legislation, is that some one who is competent for such a work shall 
present from time to time, as may be deemed necessary, a succinct 
account of the progress in Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence, this report 
to include amendments of old statutes and the enactments of new 
ones as they are made, and the recording of various court decisions 
of a nature affecting pharmacy, and all other matters relating to 
pharmacy laws and legislation ; also a discussion of bills which are 
likely to be modified in their passage, if passed at all, and the criti- 
cism of individual statutes after they are enacted into laws. 

The editorial management of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
has not heretofore devoted much space to the matter of Pharmaceu- 
tical Jurisprudence, because the subject is one requiring the direction 
of an expert of unusual ability and training. It must be conceded 
that unless such a work, as outlined, is accomplished by an authority 
much harm can be done a cause requiring a strong hand for its 



206 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



successful direction. The excellent work that has been done during 
the last five years in the American Pharmaceutical Association has 
been crystallized out largely under the direction of Prof. J. H, 
Beal, Scio, O. Beginning with his paper (Proc, 1896, p. 319) on 
" A Comparative Exhibit of Pharmacy Laws in the United States," 
and extending to his " Draft of a Model Pharmacy Law " (Proc, 
1900, p. 284), Professor Beal has shown a remajkable grasp of the 
situation and has come as one whose influence is universally conceded 
to be beneficent to the cause of pharmacy legislation. Professor 
Beal has had an experience as a retail pharmacist, a training in 
law, a familiarity with the different methods of education, and a 
wide personal experience in securing legislative enactments, all of 
which qualify him to do just such work as is needed at this time to 
benefit the public, the State, the physician and the pharmacist. 

It is with pleasure that we announce that Professor Beal has con- 
sented to present from time to time, as may seem necessary, to our 
readers a critical survey ot the present status of pharmaceutical laws 
4 and legislation. It is particularly desirable that the secretaries of 
the various State Boards, the chairmen of the various committees 
appointed by local, State or national associations to consider new 
pharmacy laws or amendments to old pharmacy laws and that others 
who can in any way contribute in correspondence or in any other way ? 
address Professor Beal or the editor of this Journal, in order that 
nothing of importance shall fail to be recorded and that the pharma- 
cists of the different States may profit by the actions of the others. 
As Professor Beal . said (Proc, 1896, p. 345) on another occasion, 
4t The existence in forty States of as many different laws of the 
same subject will yield approximately the same volume of experience 
in one year that could be gained in forty years with one legislative 
body. Moreover, it enables us to compare the merits of different 
enactments working side by side, under nearly the same conditions." 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The sixth of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1900-1901 was held on Tuesday, 
March 19, 1901. Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler presided. The meet_ 
ing was one of the most successful of the year in attendance and in- 
terest manifested in the various matters presented. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
April, 1901. J 



PJiarmaceutical Meeting. 



207 



Prof. Virgil Coblentz, of the College of Pharmacy of the city of New 
York, who is well known as a writer, teacher and expert in pharmaceu- 
tical and industrial chemistry, presented a paper on " Recent Devel- 
opments in the Study of the Relationship between Chemical Constitu- 
tion and Physiological Action of Organic Compounds." The speaker 
said that there is a close relationship between chemical constitution 
and physiological action, as shown by the fact that certain changes in 
chemical structure or constitution cause like changes in the physi- 
ological action of similar bodies; and, furthermore, that the addi- 
tion of certain groups to compounds of different action produces 
bodies of similar physiological action, or are alike rendered inactive. 
(1) The methylating of different alkaloids of different physiologic 
action produces compounds which paralyze all the motoric nerve 
terminals like curarin. (2) The introduction of the carboxyl or the 
sulphonic acid groups into bodies of well-defined toxic properties 
results in a marked diminution or total destruction of their action, 
as, for example, morphine sulphonic acid in dose of 5 grammes is 
harmless. (3) Bodies containing a tertiary nitrogen, and possessing 
slight or no toxic properties, become very poisonous through reduc- 
tion and formation of an imido group. Thus pyridin is more toxic 
than collidin. (4) The introduction of hydroxyl groups into aliphatic 
bodies modifies their action, this decreasing with their increase in 
number. Thus the presence of this group in caffeine destroys its 
effect. The influence of the hydroxyl group is observed in the vari- 
ous derivatives of morphine, as codeine, dionin, peronin and heroin. 
(5) The replacement of a hydroxyl by an alkyl rest renders the entire 
body chemically and pharmacologically more resistant to oxidation 
in the system. Thus the introduction of an oxyethyl group into caf- 
feine gives the latter an additional narcotic action. (6) The introduc- 
tion of chlorin into aliphatic compounds produces bodies of a more or 
less narcotic action, whereas, if the substituted body belongs to the 
aromatic series, active antiseptics result, (j) Iodine imparts to all 
bodies of both series strong antiseptic properties. (8) The researches 
of Loew seem to show that bodies with a double linkage are more 
toxic than the corresponding saturated ones. 

In referring to the relationship between taste and chemical con- 
stitution, Professor Coblentz said that the hydroxyl and amido groups 
are taste generators, and that the presence of a carboxyl group pro- 
duces in all cases a sour taste. The natural glucosides are bitter, 



208 



Pliarmacentical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



because they are mostly phenol derivatives. Disagreeable tastes are 
remedied usually by the conversion of the substance into an insoluble 
compound, which is then split up by the secretions in the intestinal 
canal. 

The author, in closing, referred to the intestinal antiseptics, anti- 
pyretics, anaesthetics and proprietary combinations. The paper will 
be published in full in a later issue of this Journal. 

In the discussion which followed, Professor Sadtler said that if it 
were so easy as Professor Coblentz had indicated to make the com- 
pound desired, it would help to clear up such questions in litigation 
as involved the question whether or not the product is an inven- 
tion. In reply to Wallace Procter as to whether the processes are 
not intricate, Professor Coblentz said that in some cases the process 
is exceedingly simple, as in the production of cocaine from ecgo- 
nine, whereas in others it is difficult. He further said that many 
compounds which readily break up in a test-tube do not on a manu- 
facturing scale, and vice versa. The results which will be obtained 
cannot always be determined in advance. He said that there was a 
great amount, of difficulty in this country to carry on this kind of 
work, and that there were a number of reasons why such work could 
be carried on more advantageously abroad than here ; for one thing 
tax-free alcohol offers advantages to foreign manufacturers ; also 
they are willing to employ from 50 to 100 chemists; to wait for 
results ; and are satisfied with negative as well as positive results ; 
the former being not infrequently more valuable to them than the 
latter. 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert said that he had found difficulty in preparing 
sterilized solutions of cocaine and at the same time preventing their 
hydrolysis. Mr. Gordon said that inasmuch as distilled water was 
slightly alkaline, he had prepared sterile cocaine solutions with 
slightly acidified distilled water. Dr. Wendell Reber said that as a 
local anaesthetic to mucous membranes eucaine B deservedly holds 
a high place, and is widely used. Moreover, the recent experience 
of surgeons has demonstrated its almost perfect adaptability to the 
production of complete insensibility of the body below the waist line 
by injection of its solutions into the spinal column. He wished that 
Dr. Coblentz had said something about the synthesis of holocain and 
its relation to the rest of these synthetics. To the eye surgeon holo- 
cain is the nearest approach, so far, to the ideal local anaesthetic for 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1901. J 



PJiarmacentical Meeting. 



209 



four reasons: (1) Its solutions may be boiled and remain stable (a 
point of immeasurable superiority over cocaine). (2) It is cheaper 
than cocaine. (3) It produces practically no dilatation of the pupil. 
(4) It does not loosen the epithelium with which the front surface of 
the eye (the cornea) is paved as does cocaine ; and, finally (5), its 
point of greatest superiority, it possesses distinctly antiseptic proper- 
ties, and is therefore also its own preservative when in solution. This 
renders it an ideal agent for the after-treatment of cinders and other 
non-penetrating foreign bodies in the eye. Its one disadvantage is 
that because of its extreme toxicity when internally used, it cannot 
be introduced under the skin or into the cavity of the spinal col- 
umn, as can cocaine and eucaine B. For such purposes it is dis- 
tinctly inferior to cocaine, and especially in spinal puncture to eu- 
caine B. 

Mr. F. W. E. Stedem said that in his work in urinalysis he had 
experienced considerable trouble in determining sugar when the 
patient had been taking various of the synthetics. Professor 
Coblentz commended the phenylhydrazine test for the detection of 
sugar in urine where the newer synthetics had been administered. 
Mr. F. T. Gordon employs the customary fermentation test. Pro- 
fessor Moerk said that there were several works in which the authors 
treated of the influence of synthetics on the usual tests employed 
in such work. Dr. E. Spaeth in his work considers a large number 
of synthetics, with means for detecting them in urine. 

Professor Kraemer referred to the important work which is be- 
ing developed in this country by both plant and animal physiolo- 
gists in showing the relationship between the radicals, or especially 
tons j of certain chemical compounds in solution to plant and animal 
functions ; and said that Dr. Jacques Loeb had recently shown, for 
instance, that there could be no heart beat unless sodium ions were 
present, and on this basis had shown the value of sodium chloride 
solutions in prolonging and saving life. He has even gone further 
and shown the important role that potassium and magnesium ions 
play in carrying on certain fundamental life processes. 

Mr. Lyman F. Kebler presented a paper on " The Physical and 
Chemical Examinations of Oils of Sandalwood, Lavender and 
Thyme," in which he stated that the amount of some one import- 
ant constituent was of more significance than physical tests. This 
paper will be published in full in a later issue of this Journal. 



210 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am Ap O iui90 h i arm ' 

Professor Coblentz said that in an examination that he had made of 
oils of bergamot and lavender he had found no relationship to 
exist between the ester content and aroma ; in fact the inverse ratio 
seemed to hold. He said that perfumers judged these oils by odor 
and had not found the chemical tests to check the results based on 
odor ; that the Italians were particularly adept in raising the ester 
value of these oils without increasing their aroma. 

In the absence of the donor, Professor Sadtler exhibited a jar 
which had been presented to the College by Mr. Howard B. French, 
and which was used formerly in transporting olive oil across 
the Egyptian deserts on the backs of camels. It was interesting 
on account of it being a kind of container that is seldom, if ever, 
seen at the present time. 

Mr. W. E. Ridenour presented a' specimen of a bezoar, which was 
taken from the stomach of a Texas steer. Mr. Wiegand presented, 
in behalf of W. C. Wescott, Atlantic City, a decimal platform scale. 

An interesting note was furnished by Mr. W. E. Ridenour on the 
value of the carat as expressed in the metric system. He said that 
some time ago he was called upon to weigh a diamond and to state the 
weight in jeweler's terms, carats and fractions. It was necessary to find 
the equivalent in the metric system, as his weights were of the latter, 
and in looking the matter up found the following clipping from the 
Mining and Scientific Press, October 27, 1900: " The weight by 
which diamonds and precious stones are calculated is : 4 grains = 
1 carat; 157^ carats — 1 ounce, Troy. A fine diamond, perfectly 
white and pure, weighing 1 carat is worth $100 ; 2 carats, $400 ; 4 
carats, $1,100; 5 carats, $1,750." 

The diamond weighed -327 gramme, and according to the above 
data he reported its weight to be ij^ carats. His report was made 
in the presence of the diamond salesman, who became indignant, as 
he had claimed the weight to be 1 carat \ — -Jg- and The dia- 

mond was subsequently taken to several jewelers and the weight of 
1 carat i- — and J T was verified in each case. Mr. Ridenour 
then weighed several 1 carat weights and found them all to weigh 
•205 gramme, being 055 gramme lighter than stated in the 
Mining and Scientific Press. This was subsequently confirmed by 
Mr. Henry Troemner, Philadelphia; so therefore 1 carat = -205 
gramme == 3 T 2 ^ grains. 

H. K. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 

MAY, iqoi. 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM H. M. GORDIN. 

( Concluded from p. 168. ) 
NUX VOMICA. STANDARD METHOD. 

This drug is very difficult to exhaust completely. After trying 
several neutral, as well as acid menstrua, the following method 
was found to work well. Though in this method acid is used, the 
method can nevertheless be used as a standard, it being well known 
that the strychnos alkaloids are not easily affected by dilute acids. 

Ten grammes of drug in No. 60 powder were moistened in a screw 
top jar with 5 c.c. of a menstruum containing 75 per cent, alcohol 
and 2 per cent, phosphoric acid. The jar was then covered and 
set aside for forty-eight hours. The drug was then put in a small 
percolator, the jar washed out several times with the same men- 
struum, the washings poured on top of the drug and more of the 
same menstruum added till the liquid reached the lower orifice 
(about 23 c.c. menstruum was used). The percolator was then 
closed and set aside for twelve hours. The percolation was then 
continued very slowly with a menstruum containing 75 per cent, 
alcohol and about one-quarter of I per cent, phosphoric acid till 
about 200 c.c. were obtained. The first 10 c.c. were received into 
a 100 c.c. measuring flask and the rest concentrated in vacuo, first 
at about 45 C.,and then at ordinary temperature till the percolate 
was reduced to about 60 c.c. The concentrated extract was then 
added to the reserved portion, the vessel in which the concentra- 
tion took place washed with water and the whole made up to 100 
c.c. This was shaken about one-half hour with talcum powder, 

(211) 



212 Contributions from H. M. Gordin. { Am -May^S. arm ~ 

filtered, and from 20 c.c. of the filtrate (= 2 grammes of drug), 
after making alkaline with ammonia, the alkakoids were shaken out 
three times with a mixture of three parts of ether and one part 
chloroform, using 30 c.c. of this mixture each time. After distilling 
off the ether-chloroform, the alkaloids were taken up with a little 

N 

chloroform, then 20 c.c. acid added, and the last trace of chloro- 

40 

form removed by a current of air. The final estimation was then 

N 

made alkalimetrically, using — alkali for residual titration and 

40 

Mayer's reagent as precipitant. The dregs in the percolator were 
tested for alkaloid as described above. None were found either by 
reagents or by taste. 

The amount of acid consumed by 2 grammes of the drug 

40 

assayed by this standard method was found to be 7-2 c.c. = 3-27 
total alkaloids (taking the mean factor of strychnine and brucine). 

Having assayed the drug by this method, method A was applied, 
continuing the boiling for six hours, but the results were far below 
those obtained by the standard method, but method B, after reduc- 
ing the drug to a very fine powder (about No. 100), gave results 
approaching very near those obtained by the standard method. 

Two assays were then made by method B, digesting 4 grammes 
of the finely powdered drug with 50 c.c. of modified Prollius' 
fluid, shaking (in shaker) four hours, drawing off 25 c.c. (= 
2 grammes drug), and shaking out with acid water. The acid 
solution was made alkaline with ammonia, and the alkaloids 
shaken out three times with a mixture of two parts chloroform and 
one part ether, using 30 c.c. of this mixture each time. The ether- 
chloroform was distilled off completely, the residue taken up with 

20 c.c. J^L H 2 S0 4 and a little chloroform, and the chloroform re- 
40 

moved by blowing air into the flask. The estimation was finished 
in the regular way. 

Method Used £ ^ C ° nSUmed Percentage of 

ivietnoa Lsea. by 2 Grammes. Total Alkaloids. 

Standard 7*2 c.c. 3*27 

B 6-9 c.c. 3*14 

B (duplicate) 6*8 c.c. 3*09 

The results obtained by method B are a little lower than those 
obtained by the standard method, but they are the best I was able 



Am Ma^i9oi arnJ '} Contributions from H. M. Gordin. 213 

to obtain from several other methods. Possibly by further trials 
another method might be found, the results of which will approach 
those obtained by the standard method better than those obtained 
by method B. 

CINCHONA BARK. 

After several trials the method given below was found to give 
good results. As in the case of nux vomica, an acid menstruum 
had to be resorted to, no neutral menstruum with or without gly- 
cerine giving complete exhaustion. As acetic acid did not improve 
much the exhaustion, diluted hydrochloric acid was taken. The 
assay was made with a view of estimating the total alkaloids as well 
as the ether soluble alkaloids. As alkalimetric factor of ether solu- 
ble alkaloids, the mean diacid factor of quinine and cinchonidine 
N 

was taken, which for acid is 0-003 85. 1 

40 

THE STANDARD METHOD. 

Ten grammes of cinchona bark in No. 60 powder were moistened 
with 5 c.c. of a mixture containing 50 per cent, alcohol and 2 per 
cent, hydrochloric acid, and the extraction finished in the same way 
as that of nux vomica, using hydrochloric acid instead of phosphoric. 
After concentration in vacuo, the liquid was made up to 100 c.c, fil- 
tered, and 25 c.c. of the filtrate (2-5 grammes drug), after making 
strongly alkaline with sodium hydrate, were shaken out three times 
with a mixture of three parts ether and one part chloroform, using 
30 ex. each time. The ether-chloroform was shaken up with a lit- 
tle calcined magnesia, filtered into a tared flask, the vessel and filter 
well washed with ether-chloroform, and the liquid completely 
removed by distillation. After drying the flask at 130 C. for one 
hour, it was cooled in desiccator and weighed. This gave the total 
alkaloids in 2-5 grammes of drug. 

To the flask containing the total alkaloids, 10 c.c. absolute ether 
and a few grammes coarse clean quartz was added and the flask 
shaken in a horizontal plane till all the adhering matter was rubbed 
off by the quartz from the walls; the liquid was then filtered through 
a small dry filter into another flask, the first flask, the quartz and 
the filter washed three times with absolute ether, using 5 c.c. each 



As will be shown in a subsequent paper. 



214 Contributions from H. M. Got din. {^ m '^;^ Tax ' 

time, and the ether completely distilled off. The residue of the 
ether soluble alkaloids was now taken up with a little chloroform 
N 

and 40 c.c sulphuric acid, the chloroform removed by a current 

40 

of air from foot bellows and the alkaloids estimated alkalimetrically, 
N 

using — alkali for residual titration, and a 2 per cent, solution of 

40 

iodine in potassium iodide as precipitant. The completeness of ex- 
haustion was proved by testing the dregs in the percolator, as 
described above. 

Using this method as a standard, several other more expedient 
methods were tried. None gave as good results when compared 
with the standard as method B. Two assays were then made by 
method B, using 10 grammes 1 of the same bark reduced to a very 
fine powder for each assay, digesting with 100 c.c. modified Prol- 
lius' fluid, drawing off 25 c.c. (= 2-5 grammes of drug) and shaking 
out with acid water. The acid solution was then shaken out with 
light ether-chloroform and the assay finished exactly as in the 
standard method. The results were as follows: 

Total Alkaloids To AcId Coasumed P™™*^ , 

Method Used. from 2-5 Grammes. by 2-5 Grammes. Total. Kther Soluble. 

Standard . . . 0*1702 gramme 23*2 c.c. 6*8i 3*57 

B 0*1682 gramme 23-4 c.c. 6*73 3*60 

B (duplicate) . 0*1693 gramme 23*3 c.c. 6*76 3*58 

As method B gives practically the same results as the standard 
method, this method B should be adopted for the assay of cinchona 
bark. 

IPECAC. 

This is another drug which is extremely difficult of exhaustion. 
The following method was found to give the best results: 

Ten grammes of drug in No. 60 powder were shaken two days in a 
shaker with 100 c.c. of a menstruum containing 50 per cent, alcohol 
and 2 per cent, acetic acid, the whole was then thrown into a perco- 
lator, returning the first parts to the percolator till the percolate 
came out clear, and the percolation continued with 50 per cent, 
alcohol containing about one-quarter of 1 per cent, of acetic acid, till 
exactly 600 c.c. were obtained. 150 c.c. of the percolate (=2*5 

1 If the drug is of a poor quality, 20 grammes should be taken for the assay 
and both the menstruum and the aliquot part doubled. 



t 



Am ^- ]9 p 5. arm -} Contributions from H. M. Got din. 215 

grammes) was made alkaline with ammonia and shaken out four 
times with a mixture of four parts ether and one chloroform, using 
200 c.c. of this mixture each time. The ether-chloroform was dis- 
tilled off completely, the residue taken up with about 10 c.c. of 
acidulated (1 per cent.) water, and the liquid filtered into a small sep- 
arator, washing the vessel from which the ethereal liquid was distilled 
and the filter repeatedly with small quantities of acidulated water. 
The alkaloid was now shaken out with heavy ether-chloroform (1 ether, 
2 chloroform) and ammonia, and the ether-chloroform completely 
distilled off. The residue was taken up with a little chloroform 
N 

and 20 c.c. sulphuric acid, and after the removal of the chloro- 

40 

form by a current of air, the assay was finished alkalimetrically, 
using Mayer's reagent as precipitant. The dregs in the percolator 
were tested for alkaloid as usual, but none was found. 

Using this as a standard, I assayed the drug by many different 
methods, but no method gave as good results as those obtained by 
the standard method. Those obtained by method B, after reduc- 
ing the drug to a No. 100 powder, came nearest to those obtained 
by the standard. 

~ Acid Consumed percentage of 
Method Used. by 2*5 Grammes. Alkaloid. 

Standard . 11*5 c.c. 2*92 

A .................. 9'6 c.c. 2 43 

B . io*2 c.c. 2*59 

It will be noticed that 000635 was taken as the factor of emetine 

N 

for each cubic centimetre of — acid. This is based upon the as- 

40 

sumption that the formula of emetine is C 30 H 40 N 2 O 5 (Kunz Krause, 
Arch. d. Pharm., 225, 461 : 232, 466) and that the salts of emetine 
correspond to the formula CggH^NoCh 2A where A is one molecule 
of a monobasic acid. As this formula is not yet accepted all around, 1 
the above factor will possibly have to be slightly changed. But as 
in the present case determinations were only made with a view of 
comparing the results obtained by the standard method with those 
obtained by the simpler methods, it is immaterial what factor we 
use provided it be the same in all cases. The only fact that re- 

1 Lefort and Wurz, An. Chitn. Phys. (5), 12, 247 ; Glenard, ibid., 8, 233 ; Paul 
and Cownley, Pharm. J. (3), 24, 6r. 



2i6 Contributions from H. M. Gordin. { Am M I a ° y ur i 9 ^' > arrr - 

quires to be proved is that emetine, like most other alkaloids, can 
be exactly estimated by my alkalimetric method. 1 Though this 
could be admitted a priori, for the reason that emetine is precipi- 
tated by Mayer's and Wagner's reagents from extremely dilute 
slightly acid solutions, it was thought best to bring experimental 
proof of the exactness of the alkalimetric estimation of this alka- 
loid. For the establishment of this fact also it is immaterial what 
the real formula of emetine is. All that we need to prove is that 
if we standardize our acid and alkali with definite amounts of this 
alkaloid, and in this way deduce a factor for our standard liquids, 
this factor will give exact results with other quantities of the same 
alkaloid. 

N \ 

A dilute (about — ) solution of sulphuric acid was standardized 

40 / 

against a dilute solution of KOH, using phenolphtalein as indi- 
cator, so that the acid and alkali corresponded exactly cubic centi- 
metre per cubic centimetre.. 0-0926 gramme of emetine (Merck's) 
was now dissolved in 50 c.c. of this dilute acid contained in a IOO c.c. 
measuring flask. An excess of Mayer's reagent was added, and the 
flask filled up to 100 c.c. After a few shakings the precipitate sep- 
arated out completely and the supernatant liquid became perfectly 
transparent. The liquid was now filtered, and in 50 c.c. of the fil- 
trate the excess of acid determined by means of the alkali. It was 
found that the 0-0926 gramme emetine consumed 14 c.c. of our 
acid. Hence 1 c.c. of our acid was equivalent to 0*0066 gramme 
of our emetine. 

Two samples of the alkaloid were now weighed out and the 
amounts estimated exactly as above, using the factor 0-0066 for 
each cubic centimetre of acid. 

Our Acid Our Acid Emetine by 

Emetine Taken. Taken. Consumed. Factor 0066. 

(1) .... 0*1829 75 c.c. 27*6 c.c. 0*1822 

(2) .... 0*1071 30 c.c. 16*4 c.c. 0*1082 

We see that the alkalimetric method gives as good results with 
emetine as with quinine, 2 cinchonidine, 2 morphine, atropine, cocaine, 
strychnine, hydrastine, caffeine and acid salts of berberine. 3 



1 The application of the method to the cinchona alkaloids I shall show in 
my next paper. 

2 Will be shown later. 

3 This will be shown in another paper. 



Am Ma"'iSh rm '} Contributions from H. M. Got din. 217 

II. ASSAY OF CONIUM SEED OR LEAVES. 

The assay of this drug presents considerable difficulty. Owing 
to the volatility of confine even at ordinary temperature, its solu- 
tions in immiscible solvents cannot be evaporated without loss, and 
as the alkaloid is not completely precipitated by Mayer's or Wag- 
ner's reagents, it cannot be estimated by my general method. The 
method which I have found to give excellent results is a modifica- 
tion of the method of Cripps, 1 and its details are as follows : 2 

Put 20 grammes of finely powdered conium into a 300 c.c. 
glass-stoppered bottle, pour in 200 c.c. of a previously prepared 
mixture of one volume of chloroform and three volumes ether, 
shake about five minutes, add 10 c.c. liquor potassa, shake fre- 
quently during four hours, and set aside over night. Pipette off 
100 c.c. of the clear liquid into a 300 c.c. flask, add 10 c.c. of a 2 
per cent, solution of oxalic acid in alcohol and mix well. Distil 
off the liquid completely, removing the last traces by blowing aif 
into the flask while keeping it on the water-bath. Let cool, add 10 
c.c. absolute alcohol, warm gently and cool again. Filter the alco- 
holic solution into a wide beaker, washing the flask, and filter 
three times with 5 c.c. each time of absolute alcohol. Evaporate 
the alcohol almost completely from a warm water-bath, add 10 c.c. 
water and pour into a 25 c.c. measuring flask, cool, and fill up to 
the mark with water. Add about 2 grammes talcum, shake well 
and filter through a small dry filter. Pipette off 12 5 c.c. (= 5 
grammes drug) into a 100 c.c. separator, add 25 c.c. petroleum 
ether (boiling below 6o° C. and leaving no residue on evaporation) 
and 5 c.c. of a 10 per cent, solution of KOH. Shake well and set 
aside until the liquid separates into two layers. Draw off lower 
layer into a 50 c.c. separator, add to it 20 c.c. petroleum ether, and 
shake. After separation into two layers, draw off lower layer into 
a beaker and pour contents of second separator into the first one. 
Return the aqueous liquid to the smaller separator and shake it 
again with 20 c.c. petroleum ether. Draw off aqueous layer and 
pour the petroleum ether from the second into the first separator. 

1 Pharm. J. Trans. (3), 18, 13, 511 ; Allen, " Commerc. Org. Anal.," Vol. 
Ill, part II, 1892, 176. 

2 Later on I intend to test the exactness of this method by comparing its 
results with those obtained by some standard method as given in the previous 
paper. 



21 8 Contributions from H. M. Gordin. { Am -^/;^ xm - 

Test a few drops of the aqueous liquid, after acidulating, with 
Wagner's reagent. If no reaction, reject it. If a reaction is ob- 
tained, shake the liquid again with 20 c.c. petroleum ether in the 
second separator, reject aqueous liquid and transfer the petroleum 
ether from the second to the first separator. Now add about 05 
gramme MgO to the petroleum ether and shake well about fifteen 
minutes. Filter into a 300 c.c. flask, washing separator and filter 
repeatedly with petroleum ether and keeping funnel covered with 
a watch-glass. Add 50 c.c. of a perfectly clear saturated solution 
of HC1 gas in absolute ether, 1 mix well and distil off the solvent 
from a warm water-bath completely, removing last traces by 
means of a current of dry air. Now add to the flask 25 or 30 c.c. 

5. AgN0 3 and then 5 c.c. 10 per cent. HN0 3 . Put on water-bath,. 

and when the supernatant liquid becomes clear, cool the flask, 
transfer its contents into a 100 c.c. measuring flask, and make up 
the whole to 100 c.c. Filter, add to 50 c.c. of the filtrate 5 c.c. test 
solution of ferric alum and titrate the excess of silver nitrate with 

N' 

— potassium sulphocyanate in the usual way. 
40 

N 

The number of cubic centimetres of AgNO s consumed by the 

40 

5 grammes drug multiplied by 0-0635 gives the per cent, of coniine 
in the drug. 

III. ASSAY OF FLUID EXTRACT CINCHONA. 

In a previous paper 2 I have given a general method for the 
assay of fluid extracts. As given there, the assay of fluid cinchona 
gives only the total alkaloids, but as it seems desirable to have a 
method that would show both the total and the ether soluble alka- 



1 If water be present in the ether, the ethereal solution of HC1 will be turbid, 
and when the ether is distilled off from the coniine hydrochloride, the acid 
becomes concentrated in the last aqueous portions and colors the alkaloid 
greenish-red. If ether containing some water be saturated with gaseous HCL. 
and the solution set aside for a few hours, all the water will settle down, taking 
along most of the HC1 ; if the ether be now poured off from the aqueous layer 
and again saturated with HC1, it will be perfectly clear and free from water. 
The HC1 is best generated by dropping commercial hydrochloric acid from a 
dropping funnel into concentrated acid and washing the gas by passing it 
through a small quantity of sulphuric acid. 

2 Arch. d. Pharm., 1900, 340 ; Proceed. A. Ph. A., 1900, 125. 



Am May?i9oi. arm '} Contributions from H, M. Gordin. 219 

loids, I propose the following method which has given me very good 
results : 

Put 10 c.c. of the fluid extract into a 50 c.c. measuring flask and fill 
up to the mark with a 2 per cent, solution of sulphuric acid. Add 
about 1 or 2 grammes powdered talcum, shake vigorously a 
minute or two and filter through a dry filter. By means of a 
pipette or a burette transfer 25 c.c. (= 5 c.c. extract) into a separating 
funnel having a capacity of about 125 to 150 c.c. Add into the 
separator 40 c.c. of a mixture of three volumes of ether and one 
volume of choloroform, then add a considerable excess of a 10 per 
cent, solution of potassium hydrate, and shake well a few minutes. 
Set aside until the mixture has separated into two layers. There 
is generally no emulsion at all. Should there be one, the addition 
of a little more potassium hydrate will generally destroy it. Draw 
off the lower layer into a second smaller separating funnel, add to it 
about 20 c.c. of the same ether-chloroform mixture and shake again 
a few minutes. After separation into two layers, draw off the 
lower layer into a beaker and carefully pour the ethereal liquid 
from the smaller into the larger separator. Return the aqueous 
liquid to the smaller separator and shake out once more with about 
20 c.c. of above ether-chloroform mixture. When the liquids have 
separated into two layers, draw off the lower layer, which can now 
be rejected, and carefully pour again the ethereal liquid from the 
second into the first, larger separator. Now add into the separator 
1 gramme of calcined magnesia, and shake until the ethereal 
liquid, upon a few minutes' standing, separates out crystal clear. If 
it does not become perfectly clear, add a little more magnesia and 
shake. Now filter through a dry filter into a light tared flask, 
washing the separator and the filter repeatedly with ether, and dis- 
til off the ethereal solvent completely, taking care to prevent loss 
by spurting. 1 Dry the flask for two hours at I30°C, and after 
cooling in desiccator, weigh. The weight multiplied by twenty 
gives the per cent, of total alkaloids in the extract. 

For the estimation of ether soluble alkaloids, add into the flask a 
few grammes of clean coarse quartz and then 10 c.c. of stronger 
ether, then give the flask a circular motion in a horizontal plane 
till all adhering matter is detached from the sides of the flask. Now 



This can be done by laying the flask on its side. 



220 



Oxygenated Petrolatum, 



Am. .lour. Pharrc. 
May. 3901. 



filter the ethereal solution into a small flask, washing the quartz 
and the filter three or four times with stronger ether, using 5 c.c. 
each time. Add to the ethereal solution 20 or 25 c.c. 
N 

of — H 2 S0 4 , mix carefully by gentle rotation, and distil off the 
10 

ether completely, removing the last traces by a current of air. 
Cool and transfer the acid solution to a 200 c.c. measuring flask, 
washing the distilling flask repeatedly with water. Add to the 
measuring flask an excess of Wagner's reagent, make the liquid up 
to 200 c.c. and shake till supernatant liquid is perfectly clear but 
dark red. Filter off 100 c.c, decolorize with enough sodium thio- 

N 

sulphate solution and titrate excess of acid with potassium hy- 

100 

drate, using phenolphtalein as indicator. The number of cubic centi- 
N 

metres of _ acid consumed by the 5 c.c. of the extract multiplied by 
10 

0-308 1 gives the percentage of ether soluble alkaloids in the extract. 
Laboratory of 

The Wm. S. Merrell Chemical Company, 
Cincinnati, O. 



OXYGENATED PETROLATUM. 
By M. I. WiivBKRT. 

For several years a proprietary preparation has been on the mar- 
ket known by and sold under the trade-marked name " Vasogen." 
This article is claimed to be " a more or less oxygenated mineral oil 
that combines readily with active medicaments, for which it acts as 
an ideal vehicle, facilitating their absorption and intensifying their 
activity." The claims made by the manufacturers in favor v of this 
preparation, its usefulness and advantages, are so numerous and 
sweeping that the American agents have been able to create quite 
a demand for several of the preparations of Vasogen, despite the 
almost prohibitory price asked for them in this country. 

In Germany this and similar preparations of mineral oils seem to 
be better known and more extensively used. Quite a number of 
articles have appeared, from time to time, in the medical journals of 
Germany, reporting on the use and advantages of oxygenated vase- 



1 This factor is obtained by taking the mean diacid factor of quinine and 
cinchonidine ; the exactness of the factor will be shown in my next paper. 



Am. Jour. Piiarm. ) 
3Iay, 1901 . J 



Oxygenated Petrolatum. 



221 



line as a base and vehicle for active drugs. The writer's attention 
was especially attracted by an article, contributed to the Fharmaceu- 
tische Centralhalle (1900, ^p. 631), by G. Roch, in which the author 
describes " Vasogen " and its physical properties, and also gives a 
formula for making an article that is nearly identical in appearance 
and in many of its other qualities. The formula given by Roch is 
as follows: Liquid paraffine, ico; oleic acid, 50; aqua ammonia, 
Ph. Ger., 25 ; alcohol, 10. Mix in a flask or beaker and heat on a 
water-bath, stirring constantly, until the liquid is perfectly clear and 
transparent. The resulting product is practically a solution of an 
ammonia soap in liquid paraffine. 

A preparation oi this kind seemed to offer so many possibilities 
for practical application that the writer was induced to make some 
experiments with a view 7 of still further simplifying the formula, so 
as to avoid, if possible, the rather tedious process of boiling. The 
following formula was finally adopted as giving a satisfactory pro- 
duct with little or no possibility of failure, even in the hands of the 
veriest tyro: Liquid paraffine, 100; oleic acid, 50 ; spirits of am- 
monia, U.S. P., 25. Mix. The resulting mixture is a yellow, oily 
liquid that readily dissolves iodine, salol, salicylic acid and many of 
the alkaloids, mixes readily with chloroform and the essential oils, 
and makes a stable emulsion with water in almost any proportion. 
The alcohol remaining in the preparation does not seem to be a 
disadvantage, or to interfere in any way with the properties of the 
compound. For these reasons it has not been deemed necessary to 
get rid of it. 

It has been the practice, at the German Hospital, to designate 
distinctive compounds and substitutes for proprietary preparations 
with a more or less original and descriptive title, the object being 
to facilitate the writing of orders or prescriptions during the busy 
hours of the day, and to avoid, if possible, any violation of the ex- 
isting patent or trade-mark laws of the country. Following this 
established precedent, the name or title decided on for this mixture 
was a combination of the initial parts of the words petrolatum and 4 
oxygen, and it is as " Petrox" that we shall refer to this compound 
in the remaining portion of these remarks. 

Petrox, in addition to its solvent action on many of the more ac- 
tive medicinal compounds, also facilitates the absorption of these 
drugs when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. The exten- 



222 



Oxygenated Petrolatum. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1901. 



sive employment of a number of the possible compounds has 
demonstrated their usefulness in quite a variety of ways. To enu- 
merate some of these, we may say that, as a simple lubricant for 
massage, this combination offers the advantage of being smoother 
and more slippery than many simple oils, more cleanly than starch 
or talcum, and in addition to this, any excess is readily washed 
away with soap and water. 

As a liniment, it makes a good vehicle for the administration of 
such drugs as chloroform, camphor, turpentine or any of the vola- 
tile oils. As an inunction, it facilitates the absorption of such 
active remedies as iodine, creosote, guaiacol, ichthyol and salicylic 
acid. As a local application it is useful, and makes an excellent 
vehicle for such drugs as iodoform, beta-naphthol, sulphur, tar and 
carbolic acid. In addition to this, it may be used as a vehicle for the 
internal administration of such drugs as iodine, guaiacol, creosote 
and many other more or less caustic and irritating drugs and com- 
pounds. 

When any of these preparations are to be taken internally, the 
patient should be directed to put the required dose of the petrox 
compound into a bottle with the required amount of water or other 
liquid, and give the mixture a vigorous shake, so as to thoroughly 
incorporate or emulsify the active ingredient or drug with the 
liquid. 

In addition to this liquid petrox, a solid form, to be used as an 
ointment base, is readily made by substituting a hard petrolatum 
for the liquid. For this solid preparation sufficient heat must be 
applied to melt the petrolatum, the oleic acid is then added, and 
just before the mixture has cooled sufficiently to set, the spirit of 
ammonia is added, and the whole mass is then stirred until cold. 
This mixture answers admirably for ointments where the absorption 
of the active medicinal ingredient is the chief object sought, and, 
therefore, it may be used to advantage with such drugs as mercury, 
potassium iodide, sodium salicylate and many others. 

There are interesting possibilities in any or all of these combina- 
tions and the base itself is sufficiently inexpensive to warrant the 
making of a quantity by the pharmacist, and in turn calling the 
attention of his neighboring physicians to its possibilities, advan- 
tages as a vehicle for the external and also internal administration 
of many active drugs. 

February, 1901. 



Am May!"S arm '} Oil of Sandalwood, Lavender and Thyme. 223 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL EXAMINATIONS OF OIL OF 
SANDALWOOD, LAVENDER AND THYME. 

By Lyman F. Kkbi.br. 

The quality of an essential oil is influenced in many ways, the 
locality in which the plant is grown, nature of the soil, humidity of 
the air, drought, elevation, cultivation, methods of distillation, etc. 
For example, lavender oil prepared from flowers grown in the lower 
mountainous regions of the Alps is inferior to that distilled from 
flowers collected at an elevation of 5,000 feet, and the oil obtained 
from flowers cultivated in England is of a much different quality 
than that made from the wild alpine flowers. Prolonged distillation 
undoubtedly has a marked influence ; oxidizing some products and 
decomposing others. Mr. H. Laval, 1 in a very interesting and in- 
structive paper on lavender oil, deals, in part, with the various 
distillation methods employed, and according to his observations it 
would not be surprising to meet with as many qualities of oil, from 
the same locality, as there are methods of distillation employed. 

In order to differentiate between good and poor oils, the nasal 
organ as well as physical and chemical methods are resorted to. 
A well trained and experienced nose is probably very difficult to 
dispense with in selecting oils for certain kinds of preparations. 
We are, however, coming more and more to determine the value of 
an oil by the amount of the most essential constituent contained in 
it. Just as the per cent, of morphine determines the value of opium, 
or quinine that of calisaya bark, or strychnine nux vomica, so the 
amount of cinnamic aldehyde determines the value of oil of cassia, 
and linalyl acetate and santalol are valuable factors in determining 
the quality of oils of lavender and sandalwood, respectively. But 
even here we have conflicting opinions; for example, one source of 
information tells us that the higher the per cent, of ester the better 
is the oil, from another source we learn that an extended investiga- 
tion shows that an oil containing from 25 to 30 per cent, of ester is 
superior to an oil containing from 35 to 40 percent, or over. There 
are certainly good reasons for such differing views. The high test- 
ing ester oil may have had its aroma injured in some way as by 
distillation or careless keeping, or certain esters may have been 
added to an inferior oil to bring up the per cent, of ester. Again, 



1 1886, J. de Pharm. et de Chim., 5, 13, 593. 



224 Oil of Sandalwood, Lavender and Thyme. { Am M J a " t r i 9 oi harini 

some of the celebrated English lavender oils contain but a low per 
cent, of ester, which would indicate that the ester is not the only 
factor to be considered in selecting an oil. In fact it happens 
occasionally that the nose and the per cent, of ester are entirely at 
variance with each other on oils obtained from the same locality. 

During the past year the writer has had occasion to examine a 
goodly number of the above oils and herewith gives the results of 
his work. 

OIL OF SANDALWOOD. 

This oil is probably looked on with more suspicion than any 
other. It is claimed by some that in order to be sure of getting 
the genuine article it was necessary to resort to manufacturing it 
themselves. The writer's experience has been that reliable manu- 
facturers handle the genuine article. That an oil is pure can readily 
be determined, for the physical and chemical constants have been so 
thoroughly worked out that there cannot be much doubt of their 
reliability ; these are, specific gravity at 15 C, 97 to 0-978, readily 
soluble in five volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, optical rotation from 
— 17 to 19 at 25 C. in a 100 millimetre tube, santalol at least 90 
per cent. 

Sample No. 1, in the table following, was made by the writer from a 
wood that yielded 5-5 per cent, of oil, and it can readily be seen that 
the constants obtained fall well within the above limits. The 
methods for obtaining the above constants are simple and easily 
available, except the one for estimating the santalol, which will be 
given here. 

Into a flask, provided with a reflux condenser, place 20 grammes 
of the oil, add an equal volume of acetic anhydride (not anhydrous 
acetic acid) and 2 grammes of fused sodium acetate; then gently 
boil for about two hours. Wash the mixture first with water, then 
with a solution of sodium hydrate, then with water again ; finally 
dry the resulting oil with anhydrous sodium sulphate. Of this dried 
product, place from 2-5 grammes into a flask provided with a reflux 
condenser, add an excess of normal alcoholic potassium hydrate, and 
boil for half an hour. Ascertain the amount of alkali consumed by 
titrating back the excess, with normal sulphuric acid. From the 
data thus obtained the amount of santalol is readily calculated 
by the following formula: 

P = a X 22-2 

s — (ax 0042) 



Am May?iFoif rm '} Oil of Sandalwood, Lavender and Thyme. 225 

P == santalol; a = number of c.c. of normal alkali consumed ; and 
s = the amount in grammes, of the acetylized oil, used for saponifi- 
cation. 

The following equations represent the reactions involved: 

C 15 H 25 OH + (C 2 H 3 0) 2 = C 15 H 25 O.COCH 3 + CH 3 C0 2 H 
Santalol -f- acetic anhydride = Santalol acetate -f- Acetic acid. 

C^H.^O.COCHg + KOH = C 15 H 25 OH + CH 3 C0 2 K. 
Santalol acetate -|- Potassium = Santalol -f Potassium 
hydrate. acetate. 

The samples of oil examined gave the following results : 



Number. 


Specific Gravity. 
15 C 25 C. 


Per Cent, 
of Santalol. 


Optical 
Rotation. 


Solubility in 
70 Per Cent. Alcohol. 


Santalol 
Esters. 
Per Cent. of. 


1 


0-9767 


0-9724 


97-16 


-17 15' 


1 in 5 


3'o6 


2 


0-9727 


°'97°7 


93'64 


— i5° 16' 


1 in 5 


4-10 


3 


0-9747 


o - 9739 


91-70 


-14° 56' 


1 in 5 


2'93 


4 


0*9666 


0-9601 


90-12 




1 in 5 


1-48 


5 


0-9716 


0-9685 


92-87 


-17° 2' 


1 in 5 


1 "43 


6 


0*9626 


0*9600 


75 00 


- 7° 4' 


1 in 5 


2*67 


7 


0-9721 


0-9681 


96-34 


— 16 36' 


1 in 5 




8 


0-9713 


0-9678 


94-53 


-16 56' 


1 in 5 


3-6i 


9 


9734 


0*9696 


90-87 


-13° 48' 


1 in 5 l A 





Remarks. — No. 6 is undoubtedly adulterated. Nos. 3, 4 and 9 
fall below the standard, yet the analyst would hardly call them 
adulterated, but rather of secondary quality. The percentage of 
ester does not appear to be a deciding factor with these. ' 



OIL OF LAVENDER. 



An examination of four samples gave the following results : 



Number. 


Specific Gravity 
at 15 C 


Solubility in 
70 Per Cent. Alcohol. 


Optical 
Rotation. 


Per Cent, 
of Ester. 


1 


0-8985 


1 in 3 


—6° 6' 


25-70 


2 


0*8989 


1 in 3 


-2° 54' 


34-36 


3 


0-8892 


1 in 3 


-5° 9' 


31-42 


4 


0-8830 


1 in 3 


-3° 4i' 


28-29 



The above samples all represent oils of good quality. 



226 Oil of Sandalwood, Lavender and Thyme. { Am May?iSi arm " 

According to Gildemeister and Hoffmann, lavender oils are divided 
into two classes, those containing at least 36 per cent, of esters and 
those containing from 30 to 36 per cent, of esters. This classification 
includes only the finest oils from certain localities. The same 
authorities say that an oil containing less than 30 per cent, of esters 
is mostly adulterated. This latter statement is probably too sweep- 
ing, because it is well known that oil of lavender is met with that 
contains as low as 10 per cent, of esters, yet is not adulterated and 
ranks extremely high in quality. 

The method employed for estimating the esters is described in the 
latter part of the above process for determining santalol, and the 
chemical reaction is represented by the following equation : 

C 10 H 17 O.COCH 3 + KOH = C 10 H 17 OH + CH 3 COOK. 
Linalyl acetate -j- potassium = linalool -f potassium 
hydrate acetate. 

The molecular weight of linalyl acetate is 19-6, and the per cent, 
of ester, x, can readily be calculated by the following formula : 

19-6 I 

X = '2 



y represents the number of cubic centimetres of semi-normal alkali 
used in saponifying z grammes of oil. 

OIL OF THYME. 

There appears to be little genuine oil of thyme on the market, but 
can be obtained if desired. Most of it seems to be adulterated with 
turpentine. This is especially true of the white, which seldom con- 
tains as much as 5 per cent, of phenol bodies. Genuine oil of thyme 
has been found to possess the following properties : soluble in from 1 
to 2 volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol, specific gravity 900 to 0-935 
at 1 5 C, and the content of phenol bodies varies from 20 to 30 per 
cent. Several oils examined of late gave the following results : 



'■} Oil of Sandalwood, Lavender and Thyme. 227 



NO. 


Kind. 


Specific Gravity 
at 15 C. 


Solubility in 
80 Per Cent. Alcohol. 


Per Cent, of 
Plicnol Bodies. 


Optical 
Rotation . 


I 


White 


0.877 


Insol. in 20 volumes 


2-55 




2 




o-83i 




'20 " 


4*26 




3 


» 


0-863 


<< < 


' 10 " 


None 


— 


4 




0-8964 


Sol. 


' 2 " 


4' 


- 3° 48' 


5 


<< 


0-8935 


Insol. ' 


10 " 


27- 


-3° 48' 


6 


Red 


0*907 


Sol. ' 


' 2 " 


25'56 


- i° 24' 


7 




o'88o 


Insol." ' 


'10 " 


8-73 




8 




0-893 




1 10 


18-81 


— i° 6' 


9 


«< 


0-916 


Sol. 


1 1% " 


30-16 


— 2° 


10 




0-9231 


Insol. ' 


10 " 


19-00 




11 




0.9084 


Sol. 


' 2 " 


14' 


+ 1° 48' 


12 




.0-9074 




2 " 


24- 


— 1° 30' 



No. 10 was an extremely muddy looking oil. While attempting 
to estimate the per cent, of phenol bodies in No. 3, it was noticed 
that the volume of the oil increased by 2 per cent, rather than de- 
creased. When M white thyme " is called for, almost anything must 
be expected. The data for Nos. 4 and 5 are so different from any 
ever examined that strange queries arise in one's mind. No. 5, 
27 per cent, phenol bodies, yet insoluble in ten volumes of 80 per 
cent, alcohol; contrast with this the corresponding data of No. 4, 
and observe that the gravities and optical rotations are practically 
the same. How can this be harmonized? 

Of the red oils Nos. 6, 8 and 12 can be considered genuine, but 
8 and 10 must be rejected with reserve. 

The per cent, of phenol bodies was estimated by partially filling a 
100 c.c. nitrometer with a 5 per cent, solution of sodium hydrate, 
then introducing 10 c.c. of the oil to be examined, shaking well for 
five minutes, and finally setting aside for twenty-four hours. The 
drops adhering to the nitrometer can be, in part, loosened by rotat- 
ing or tapping the nitrometer. When the solution has become clear 
the non-phenol oil can readily be read off and the percentage calcu- 
lated. 

Laboratory of 

Smith, Kline & Fren:h Company. 



228 



Animal Parasites in Man. 



Am. .lour. Pharm^ 
May. 1901. 



TECHNIQUE FOR THE RECOGNITION OF CERTAIN 
ANIMAL PARASITES IN MAN. 

By Iv. Napoleon Boston, M.D. 
Bacteriologist to the Philadelphia Hospital, Demonstrator in charge of Clinical 
Laboratory, Medico-Chirurgical College. 

Ancliylo stoma Duodenale, — The condition produced by this para- 
site, when present in the intestinal canal of man, is known as brick- 
makers' disease, or tropical anaemia. Ova of this parasite are 
found in the feces of infected pefsons, and their detection is readily 
accomplished in the following manner : To a small portion of a 
recently voided stool, sufficient water is added to produce a cloudy 
liquid, when the stool and water are thoroughly mixed. A portion 
of the mixture is placed into a test tube and either centrilugated, or 
allowed to stand for a few hours. A portion of the sediment thus 
collected at the bottom of the tube is lifted by means of a pipette, 
and a drop of it placed on the center of a slide, when it is covered 
by a second slide or a large coverglass. The specimen is now 
ready for examination and should be studied under a lens, where 
the ova appear as small, round, opalescent bodies. Individual ova 
may be studied under a higher power lens — A- to i {Fig- /)• These 
ova are well preserved when mounted in cast medium 1 or in 
glycerine. 

Alter the administration of certain drugs, the adult worm appears 
in the feces as a silky, slightly curved thread (Fig. i) whose color 
is not constant. The parasite's detection is facilitated by adding 
water to the feces and stirring to effect a perfect mixture which is 
then poured into a clear glass dish 10 x 12 x 3 inches, which is 
then set on either a light or dark surface. A thin spread of diluted 
feces is in this way produced, and affords a favorable field upon which 
to find the parasite. 

The adult worms you see in the small bottle have been pre- 
served in 70 per cent, alcohol. These specimens shown under the 
microscopes, were first placed in alcohol, and later in glycerin for 
twenty-four hours, from which they were mounted in cast medium. 
Glycerine jelly is also a valuable mounting medium for animal 
parasites. 

The anchylostoma is known to be the cause of a large percentage 



Formula for cast medium, Journal, April, 1900. 



* 



Am May r ;i9o h if rm- } Animal Parasites in Man. 229 

of deaths occurring in tropical districts, and is of especial interest 
since Surgeon B. K: Ashford (United States Army 1 ) has shown it to 
be most common in Porto Rico, and other of the West Indies. 

Tape Worms. — Segments of these parasites are commonly passed 
with the stool, and their study and general characteristics differ in 
no way from where the parasite is expelled as a result of thera- 
peutic measures. The freshly voided segments are first washed in 
water and then placed in 70 per cent, alcohol for twenty-four hours, 
when they are transferred to xylol for twenty-four hours and then 
mounted as follows: A portion of a segment is placed on a slide, 





Fig. i. — Anchylostoma duodenale. (1) Natural size; (2) head and neck (B. 
U, %)\ (3) tail (B. L., %); (4) ova (B. L., / 6 ). 

and teased to shreds. After a short exposure to the air (five 
minutes) a drop of Canada balsam is added and on it a coverglass 
placed. Prepared in this manner the ova are readily seen through 
a ft lens, and when viewed under a y§ lens, both their outline and 
and structure are apparent. Staining is accomplished by Dela. 
field's hematoxylin and other dyes, but adds little, if anything, to 
the specimen's value. Study of the segment in its entirety is most 
interesting, but scarcely necessary in clinical work. It may be accom- 
plished by placing a segment between two slides and clamping them 



l New York Med. Jour., April 14, 1900. 



230 Animal Parasites in Man. { Am M^£i arm ' 

tightly together. Under a 2 /?> ^ ens the segment may be studied, 
showing the uterus stuffed with ova. 

To Detect the Head. — This being the portion of the parasite's 
study wherein most failures are experienced, and to which most 
importance is attached, I shall cons'der under the following heads: 
(1) Empty the bowels, by means of salines, so that no undigested 
food remains in the alimentary tract ; (2) the administration of a 
vermicide ; (3) follow in four to six hours by another saline ; (4) when 
it is observed that the worm is beginning to escape from the rectum, 




FiG. 2. — Tapeworm. (1) Natural size of segments; (2) head and neck (B. 

%)\ (3) ova (B. Iv., Ye). 

the patient is directed to occupy a comfortable seat where the worm 
can pass into a clean vessel containing water; (5) all important is it 
that the patient sit on one commode from the time he observes that 
the worm is diminishing in size, until the entire worm is passed ; 
(the nearer the head, the smaller are the segments), when within a 
few inches, 10 to 12, of the head the worm appears as a pale slightly 
flattened thread and its segments are not distinct ; (6) the head is 
the last portion of the worm to be passed, and as long as any part 
of the parasite is protruding from the rectum the probabilities are 
that the head has not yet escaped. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 1901. J 



Animal Parasites in Man. 



231 



Given a specimen collected in this manner, add to it a quantity of 
water, stir gently with a glass rod, after which it will be seen 
that the worm falls to the bottom of the vessel, when decant 
one-half, or more, of the liquid, which is replaced by clean water. 
This washing is repeated until the worm is cleansed. The worm, 
with the water surrounding it, is now transferred to a clear glass 
dish 10 x 12x3 inches, which is placed on a white surface (towel) 
and all large segments are removed by a glass rod, drawing them 
over the edge of the dish, when they are allowed to fall into a sec- 
ond dish containing water; care being taken not to break the 
parasite. 

After all large segments are removed, the head is usually readily 
detected, by the naked eye, floating amongst the remaining thread- 
like portions of the parasite. In searching for certain small para- 
sites a hand-glass may be found of service. The head is transferred 
to 50 per cent, glycerine and preserved for further study. In mount- 
ing parasite heads, a slide provided with a concavity of sufficient 
depth to accommodate their thickest portion, is most satisfactory. 
They are well preserved when mounted in Farrant's medium, cast 
medium, glycerine and glycerine jelly {Fig. 2). 

lcenia Echinococcus (Dog Tape Worm). — Here the problem is 
somewhat different, as man is the intermediary host, and in him 
develops the head, or scolex of the parasite only. Each head is 
provided with a crown of hooklets, and many free hooks are often 
seen in connection with shreds of finely granular, yellowish mem. 
brane (Fig. j). Hooklets, scolices and membrane from the cysts of 
the echinococcus are occasionally found in sputum, pus from 
abscesses, the fluid of cysts, feces and urine. Hooklets are 
best studied under a y§ lens, while the heads may be detected 
under a much lower power. It is these findings which enables one 
to recognize the parasite, and the hooks may be the only evidence 
present. In the study of this parasite a low power of illumination 
is necessary, and the skilful manipulation of both Abbe condenser 
and iris diaphragm afford great assistance. Products of the echino- 
coccus may be mounted in any of the above mounting mediums. 

Trichina Spiralis. — The larvae of this parasite appear in the mus- 
cular tissue of man after the ingestion of uncooked, infected pork. 
They make their appearance early in the diaphragm, frontal, and 
muscles of the leg. The material to be studied is collected by the 



232 



Animal Parasites in Man. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 01. 



physician in the following manner : The site of incision is over the 
outer head of the gastrocnemius muscle, and after this area is surgi- 
cally cleansed the parts are anaesthetized by injecting a solution of 
cocoaine hydrochlorate. First inject the skin and then the deeper 
structures down to the sheath of the muscle. When anaesthesia is pro- 
duced an incision is made dividing all tissues to the muscle's sheath, 
which is grasped by a rat-tooth forceps and incised, after which a 
small portion of the muscle is dissected and placed in a vessel con- 
taining water. Glycerine and alcohol arrest all movements of the 
parasite. The wound is now closed and dressed antiseptically. A 
small piece of this tissue is placed on a slide and teased, by means 
of fine needles, until most of its fibres appear to be separated. The 




Fig. 3.— T. echinococcus. Scolex Fig. 4. — Trichina spiralis in muscle 
and hooklets (B. from outer head, left gastrocnemius. 

Twenty-first day of disease (Queen, %). 



addition of a few drops of water to the specimen renders the teasing 
process less difficult. The slide is now viewed under a low power 
{%), and if trichinae are present their recognition is easy (Figs. 4. 
and 5); however, a very low illumination is required. After a few 
weeks the trichina become incapsulated by the patient's tissues, 
when they appear as small solid bodies showing a parasite tightly 
coiled in their centre. Trichina are also well preserved by any 
mounting medium containing glycerine. 

Distoma Hcematobia (Bilharz). — The adult parasite is probably 
located in the veins of the bladder, and there deposits its ova which 
find their way into the bladder or bowel, and appear in the urine 
or stools. Bilharz's parasite is a common cause of bloody urine in 



Am. .Tour. Pharaj. 
May, 1901. 



Animal Parasites in Man. 



233 



certain geographical districts. To detect the ova allow the urine 
to stand until all blood clots are collected at the bottom of the tube; 
(2) lift a portion of this sediment into a pipette and place a drop on 
the centre of a slide; (3) tease the clots as fine as possible, and 
evaporate nearly to dryness ; (4) add a drop of cast medium, or 
glycerine, to the centre of the specimen upon which place a cover- 
glass and spread the medium by additional pressure. The specimen 
should be placed on a flat surface for twenty-four hours while the 
mounting medium hardens, after which time a permanent ring may 
be added. For rapid diagnosis the specimen may be mounted in 
water. Detection of these ova is best accomplished by the lens 
{Fig. 6). Individual ova may be studied under a higher power, when 




Fig. 5. — Trichina spiralis. Eighth Fig. 6. — Bilharz's parasite. (i)Ova 
week of disease. (B. L., %); (2) ova (B. Iv., Ye). 

it is often possible to distinguish the contained embryo which varies 
in its appearance with the age of the egg. Influenced by tempera- 
ture, these embryos are freed from their shell in from a few hours 
to several days after they are passed with the urine. The most 
immature ova are about inch in length and -g-J^- inch in 
breadth, while fully matured ovum measures inch in length 
and -g-l-g- inch in breadth. The study of ova in feces needs no 
special explanation. 



Th£ Voi,atii,e Oil, OF Buchu, according to Kondakow and Bachtschiew, 
consists of (1) a mixture of limonene and dipentene (10 per cent.); (2) inen- 
thone (60 per cent.); (3) diosphenol, (20 per cent.); (4) resinous matter, (5 
per cent.). — Ph. Zeit., 1901, 194.. 



234 Photographic Development by Gas Light. { Am Ma" m h if rm * 

PHOTOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT BY GAS LIGHT. 
By Wiwam S. Weakeey, P.D. 

Before entering upon the practical part of this subject, it might 
be well to first consider the basis upon which we work to obtain 
certain definite results. These results come about by the chemical 
action of light rays upon the photographic dry plate, which consists 
of a glass plate or celluloid (films) coated with a silver bromide 
gelatin emulsion. 

Upon exposure to light the silver bromide particles in the plate 
are more easily converted by the reducing solution (developer) into 
metallic silver than those which have not received this exposure. 
We find that by too long a development, or by using too strong a 
developer to start with, the unexposed silver bromide is also 
changed ; for this reason development or the reduction of the silver 
bromide can only be carried on to a certain point. 

The next subject to be considered is the use of the developer or 
reducing agent which brings about this change. These agents may 
be divided into two classes, namely, slow and rapid; an example of 
the former class we find in hydrochinone, and of the latter we find 
in pyrogallol. In using a rapid developer exposures must be cor- 
respondingly correct, for if they are not the reducing solution acts 
too quickly upon the unchanged silver bromide and hence a fog, 
or as expressed by Professor Nipher, 1 the zero point is ap- 
proached, if not already reached. With a developer like hydro- 
chinone in its normal alkaline combinations we have a typical slow 
developer whose rapidity is materially increased by replacing the 
sodium carbonate by potassium or sodium hydrates. This de- 
veloper not only enables one by its delay in reducing the silver 
bromide to judge an over-exposure and remedy it by potassium 
bromide, but also assists quite materially in stopping the develop- 
ment at the proper time, thus preserving details. 

The author of this paper had his attention called to the fact that 
Prof. Francis E. Nipher, of the University of Washington, was 
trying to turn our former ideas of the principles of photography 
upside down, and at the suggestion of Professor Kraemer the sub- 
stance of Professor Nipher's paper was investigated and some 



1 " Positive Photography with Special Reference to Eclipse Work." Pre- 
sented to the Academy of Science of St. Iyouis, October 15, 1900. 



Am Ma"'iSi arm '} Photographic Development by Gas Light. 235 

original experiments carried out, with the principles therein laid 
out as the basis. 

We have in the sensitive film, three stages or conditions, namely : 
the negative, zero, and positive conditions. 

With the negative stage our plate is exposed the normal time, 
which depends upon six things. 

(1) On the weather. 

(2) On the brightness of object to be taken. 

(3) On the time of day and season. 

(4) On the amount of light transmitted by the lens used. 

(5) On the size of aperture. 

(6) On the sensitiveness of the plate. 

These six conditions with the dark room fix the basis upon which 
negative photography is produced, the failure to take any one of 
these conditions into consideration will mean failure either one 
way or the other, i. e., undertimed or overtimed; the former condi- 
tion meaning a thin and contrasting negative, the other a dense and 
non-contrasting negative or fog; this fog, when perfect, is our zero 
point, or where the negative merges into the positive condition. 

Then an over-exposed negative may be an under-exposed positive, 
but cannot be an over-exposed positive. This sufficiently over- 
timed negative or positive must now be developed in the light, so 
as to carry it farther and farther away from the zero condition ; 
therefore, the nearer the zero condition is approached, the stronger 
the light must be during development, so as to carry it farther 
away from this condition. 

The application of positive photography is obvious when we 
consider the liability of over-exposure, especially in such important 
work as eclipse or microscopic photography ; think for a minute of 
the occurrence of an eclipse which perhaps may not be seen again for 
centuries, and the application of this new process will be apparent. 
Its value is inestimable when we consider that the ordinary nega- 
tive is almost invariably over-exposed for fear that it will be thin 
and lacking in detail, which condition in a negative is not desired ; in 
fact it becomes all but useless, and were it over-timed and devel- 
oped as a negative the mere fact that potassium bromide would 
have to be used in large quantities especially in greatly overtimed 
plates the corresponding result would be lack of detail, or that con- 
dition which was most sought for is destroyed to a greater or less 



236 Photographic Development by Gas Light. { Am Ma^Joi. arm ' 

degree. Any professional or thoughtful amateur photographer 
will see the application. 

In the experiments which were carried out the aperture was set 
at eight, the lens used was B. and L.'s double rapid rectilinear lens. 
All exposures made were in bright sunlight, with rapid plates. 

After exposure the plate is taken into a room free from day- 
light and is developed about 8 inches below the mantel of a Wels- 
bach light or between two other strong lights, whether electric, oil 
or acetylene. The developer should be kept ice cold to obtain the 
best results. In transferring the plates from the holder to the 
developing tray it is advisable to remove them in the shadow or 
better underneath the developing table and quickly transfer them to 
the developer in the tray. 

The plate before entering the developer is of a yellowish color, 
and if exposed sufficiently shows very faint outlines of the object 
photographed. This image disappears upon entering the developer 
and then reappears as a reddish-brown image, gradually turning to 
the normal grayish-black color of the ordinary negative. These 
positives can be reduced in the ordinary way with potassium ferri- 
cyanide and hyposulphite of soda. 

A set of exposures was made as follows : 

1 3^ second. Normal exposure for negative. 

2 1 minute. 

3 3 minutes. 

4 4 minutes. 

5 30 minutes. 

6 60 minutes, 180,000 times normal exposure for negative. 

The above were developed with the following formula : 

SOLUTION NO. I. 

Ounces. Grammes. 

Water 25 1,000 

Hydrochinone . . < 3 126 

Sodium sulphite cryst x / 2 21 

SOLUTION no. 2. 

Water * * 25 1,000 

Sodium carbonate cryst 6 252 

Mix the two solutions in equal parts, dilute with three to five 
times its bulk of water. If a few drops of a 10 per cent, solution 
of potassium bromide be added it will give brilliancy to the plate 
but will not assist in improving detail. 



^ m Mayy'i9oi arm "} Liquid Carbonic Acid Gas. 237 

The appearance of the above exposures upon development was 
as follows : 

1. Faint image appeared gradually fading and leaving a fog. 

2. Image appeared, but upon further development became very 
slightly foggy. 

3. 4, 5 and 6 showed very little difference in density or detail. 



LIQUID CARBONIC ACID GAS. 

HOW IT IS MADE AND PUT UP FOR SODA FOUNTAIN USE. 

By Frederick T. Gordon. 

How many druggists are there who know how the liquid gas 
they are now using for charging their soda water is made, or how it 
is put into the heavy iron "tanks" in which they have it delivered 
to them ? Now that this liquid gas is rapidly supplanting the old 
way of making gas in the cellar from various materials or even the 
buying of soda water already charged, there is every reason why the 
druggist should know the ins and outs of his supply if he would be 
able to talk intelligently on it to the inquiring customer. And this 
is easy to do, too, for the whole operation of making the gas, lique- 
fying it and filling the fountain tanks, is very simple and easily 
understood. 

Liquid carbon dioxide is now as much a matter of commerce as 
is carbonate of soda, and there are a number of firms in this country 
making it, from many different materials and in many different 
ways. The manufacture of the gas may be classed under three 
general processes : Driving off the C0 2 by heat from various car- 
bonates, such as limestone, dolomite, etc.; this is a process that is 
confidently stated by authorities to be the one that promises the best 
returns in the future ; formation of the gas by the interaction of 
acids on carbonates is another, the most common of which are the 
use of marble and sulphuric acid and bicarbonate of soda and 
sulphuric acid ; while the collection of the gas formed in breweries 
by fermentation or from burning coke or coal is a process that is 
rapidly assuming great importance. Considerable C0 2 is now 
collected from the natural spring waters at different points, the 
largest manufactory of this kind being at Saratoga Springs, New 
York. 



238 Liquid Carbonic Acid Gas. {^'^;wF m ' 

In this country the collection of gas formed by fermentation in 
the process of brewing has, as yet, assumed little importance, but 
when the use of liquid carbon dioxide becomes more general as the 
motive power of machinery there is little doubt that the valuable 
by-product now being wasted will be carefully collected by the 
brewers. 1 The same wilful waste of valuable source of power is 
also notable in the vast coking industry of this State, thousands of 
tons of gas going to absolute waste every day in the coke fields, 
just as in former days tar was considered as not being worth collect- 
ing. But when the use of liquid gases as a source of power is made 
practically possible by improvements in liquid-gas engines we may 
look to see this " by-product " as carefully and jealously saved as is 
now the tar from gas works. Another fact to be borne in mind is 
that when we make use of the gas from combustion, collected and 
liquefied from the stacks of our factories' countless chimneys, we 
add to the amount of power possible from coal an economy of 
material and energy of incalculable amount. 

At the present time, the uses of liquid carbon dioxide are chiefly 
for refrigerating purposes and for charging soda water, so there is 
not sufficient demand for special inventive genius as yet; indeed, so 
limited are these uses and so keen the competition that were it not 
for the "by-products" of manufacture it is possible that the drug- 
gist would not yet have this convenient means for making his soda 
water. The value of these by-products is what makes the cost of 
liquid gas so small, if it were made and sold simply by itself the cost 
would be many times greater than it now is. As chemistry makes 
further strides, we may look for even cheaper gas, as more and more 
by-products are made use of, the most likely sources being the gas 
from the burning of limestone to make lime and the collection of the 
gases of fermentation. The subject of these by-products is too large 
to be taken up in this short paper, being almost a review of a dozen 
different industries in itself. 

By whatever process it be made, the liquid C0 2 intended for 
charging soda water must be purified before it is fit for use, there 
usually being more or less impurities in it that render it unsafe in 
its crude state. This purification is also of importance in reducing 

1 Large quantities of liquid C0 2 are now imported chiefly from Germany, in 
tubes holding 200 or 300 pounds. This is collected from breweries there and 
liquefied for commercial uses and exports. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



Liquid Carbonic Acid Gas. 



239 



the cost of liquefaction, a pure dry gas being liquefied with less 
trouble and cost than a wet impure quality. Usually, the gas is 
generated in large iron retorts or tanks, when made by chemical 
action, or in specially made tank-like retorts when made by the 
action of heat on carbonates ; from these it is pumped through coils 
of pipes surrounded by water through the " purifiers " and " driers " 
to the first compressor. The "purifiers" are large tanks full of 
water through which the gas bubbles up just as in the familiar 
wash-bottle for gases of our laboratories, and is pumped off as it 
comes through to the " dryer." The best grades of liquid gas are 
washed four times by being passed through as many separate tanks 
of water. From the purifiers, the gas is made to pass either 
through sulphuric acid or over calcium chloride to remove all 
moisture, this interfering seriously with the compression ; in this 
part of the process there are several trade secrets as to the way and 
materials used. 

After having been washed and dried, the gas, still in its normal 
state, is pumped to the first compressor, where it is condensed 
under a pressure of about 200 pounds to the square inch ; from this 
it passes through coils of pipe immersed in a freezing mixture of ice 
and salt to absorb the heat of compression and comes to the second 
compressor at a temperature little above o° Centigrade. The 
amount of heat generated in the compression of gases is amazing to 
the unitiated ; to absorb it and cool the gas requires a large quan- 
tity of ice daily. In the second compressor, the gas is brought to a 
compression of 540 pounds to the square inch, the pipes of which 
are also surrounded by a freezing mixture, and passes into a coil of 
pipe immersed in the same. The gas is still in a gaseous form, but 
now physical effects begin to play their part and cause it to liquefy 
by its own expansion. The end of the final coil of pipes is con- 
nected directly with the " tank " or cylinder in which the liquid gas 
is sold to the druggist. The process by which these tanks are filled 
is extremely interesting and simple. 

If you will examine a tube of liquid gas you will see screwed 
into the top a piece of heavy brass pipe, with a valve for opening 
or closing the tube at the top (worked by a wrench) and a threaded 
tube on one side. The pipe connecting with the soda founts is 
screwed on to this threaded bit of pipe on the side. Inside of this 
brass pipe, the bore turns at right angles to the bore of the side 



240 



Liquid Carbonic Acid Gas. 



Am.. Jour. Pharmu 
May, 1901.. 



opening, at the bottom this bore terminates in a small piece of pipe 
closed at the bottom and having numerous very minute perfora- 
tions. The valve by which the tube is opened or closed is a long 
piece of metal, terminating in a needle-like point, which, when 
screwed down on the valve seat, closes the opening just below 
where the side bore issues out. In this arrangement lies the whole 
secret of the liquefaction of the gas. The gas is let into the tank 
through the side opening at a pressure of 540 pounds, it escapes 
inside through the minute openings at the bottom of the bore in 
the form of a fine spray, and by this sudden expansion lowers the 
temperature so greatly and rapidly that the incoming gas is at once 
liquefied and trickles down the sides of the tank. The process is a 
continuous one, the compressed gas being supplied until the tube 
is full, shown by the reading of the pressure gauge outside being 
the same as at the last compressor, 540 pounds, for as fast as the 
gas is permitted to flow into the tube and escape through the per- 
forated bit of pipe it liquefies itself, the compression being of course 
kept up at the initial degree. During this process the tubes are 
surrounded by a freezing mixture to aid in the condensation of the 
gas by absorbing any heat from compression in the supply pipes. 

In some factories, the tanks, tubes or cylinders, all names for the 
container of the liquid gas, are partially exhausted of air before fill- 
ing; in others the air is left in, of course making a slight difference 
in the amount of liquid gas the tube can hold. Another important 
point to the druggist is the dryness of his liquid gas ; very often, 
especially where the liquid gas is sold at a low figure, the gas is 
not dried before compression, and there is often a quart or more of 
water found in every tube filled with wet gas. This freezes as soon 
as the gas begins to be drawn off and sometimes creates a great 
deal of trouble by collecting in the exhaust pipe in the form of 
solid ice, or fine crystals, and blocking up the outlet; hence the 
druggist should insist upon receiving only liquid gas that has been 
well dried before it is liquefied, to save annoyance and loss in pay- 
ing for a pound or two of water and ice at the price of liquid gas. 

The ordinary size of tanks contains from twenty to twenty-two 
pounds of liquid C0 2 , but there are other sizes that contain almost 
double the amount. The old style tank was made of cast steel and 
could susta 11 a pressure of 3700 pounds to the square inch; the 
newer tanks are made of a mild steel that can stand a pressure of 



Affi M ay?ifo 1 ]f rm "} Liquid Carbonic Acid Gas. 241 

15,000 pounds. When the tanks are taken out of the freezing mix- 
ture and come to the temperature of surrounding air, the pressure 
of the gas inside is about 900 pounds to the inch in winter and 1 100 
in summer, and there is also a varying development of pressure 
inside when the gas is being drawn off for use. Under almost all 
circumstances, these tubes of liquid gas are perfectly safe to handle 
and will stand a great amount of jolting, yet there are conditions 
when the critical temperature of the liquid gas is passed and it 
assumes the gaseous form inside the tube, and then a seemingly 
slight cause or weakness in the steel will cause a disastrous explo- 
sion. It is well to be on the safe side and to handle these tubes 
carefully and not to open the valve too suddenly, a gradual opening 
until the pressure gauge stands at the desired pressure being safest. 
The small size cylinders are about y% to y 2 an inch in thickness of 
their steel walls and weigh, when filled, from fifty to seventy pounds. 

It is of course understood that the process I have just mentioned 
is the particular one used in the Philadelphia plant I visited ; there 
are other methods, of later date, by which greater economy of time 
and material are achieved, the method of the Liquid Gas Company, 
for instance ; but the essential principle is the same, the escape 
of G0 2 from fine orifices under pressure. In this plant I mention, 
an average of 15 horse-power working for 10 hours produces from 
fifty to eighty tubes full of liquid gas, according to the speed with 
which the compressors are run. These figures will differ greatly 
from those of more modern plants. 

It must be borne in mind, when considering these figures, that 
when the gas is brought under a pressure of 540 pounds at 0° 
Centigrade and allowed to flow into the cylinders through the 
specially devised arrangement described above that it in great part 
liquefies itself by its expansion. 

This, of course, is because the gas escaping suddenly from a great 
pressure to that of the atmosphere requires a great deal of heat in 
its expansion and this heat it takes from the gas immediately follow- 
ing it, thus bringing the temperature down low enough to cause its 
liquefaction under the pressure it is sustaining. This principle is 
now widely used in the liquefaction of all gases, such as air, hydro- 
gen, etc., it being practicable to liquefy air by allowing it to escape 
from minute openings under high pressure into the open atmos- 
phere. 



242 Correspondence. { Am j^jJSf* 1 - 

The process whereby the water in the founts is charged with the 
gas is too familiar to the druggist to be of interest here, so this 
article will be concluded with the advice to the druggist to discard 
his old style marble-dust generators as soon as he can and use the 
cleaner, surer and more economical liquid carbon dioxide and get 
the most sparkling pungent soda water through his draught tubes. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PROCTER MEMORIAL. 1 



In response to a letter from the editor of this Journal concerning 
the feasibility of establishing a research laboratory as a memorial 
to the life and work of Professor William Procter, Jr., by the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association at its semi-centennial in 1902, the 
following are some of the replies which have been received : 

Dear Sir : — I am very glad to see that the proposed establish- 
ment of a research laboratory upon the fiftieth anniversary of the 
A. Ph. A. is finding more and more favor. When I wrote you some 
months ago I should not have had the courage to advocate so much 
of an undertaking, but now I should like to have a good effort 
made for it. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. A. B. Prescott. 

Dear Sir : — I earnestly favor the establishing of a research labora- 
tory by the American Pharmaceutical Association. No better step 
could possibly be taken. There can be but very little progress for 
pharmacy except through the laboratory, and for the representative 
pharmaceutical association of the United States to recognize this 
fact and act accordingly would be to the profit and honor of the 
association and the profession of pharmacy. I hope the matter 
will be brought forward in a practical shape at St. Louis and wisely 
passed on. 

Indianapolis, Ind. J. N. Hurty. 

Dear Sir: — I am just in receipt of yours of the 1st ult., in ref- 
erence to the establishment of a research laboratory. I do not 
know that I can add anything in regard to this matter beyond what 



x For editorials and other correspondence on this subject, see this Journal, 
November, 1900, and February, March and April, 1901. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



Correspondence. 



243 



was given in the Report on the Revision of the U.S. P. at the 1898 
meeting. 1 This covers'it all, and I have had no reason to change 
my mind. It would certainly be of great value to all interested 
branches if such a thing could be brought about. And possibly, 
if sufficient funds could be had to establish such a laboratory, 
means could be obtained by a system of charges, fees and published 
information to those who contributed to its establishment to main- 
tain it. 

The establishment of such a laboratory would go far in placing 
pharmacy on the road to that higher plane we are striving for. 

It would seem to me that by a united effort on part of the 
A.Ph.A., sufficient pressure could be brought to bear on Congress 
to aid in its establishment. 

South Bend, Ind. Leo Eliel. 

Dear Sir : — Absence must be my excuse for not promptly an- 
swering yours of the 4th, respecting the establishment by the 
A.Ph.A., of a research laboratory as a memorial to the late Professor 
Procter. 

To properly equip, build and endow such an institution would, in 
my judgment, require about two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) 
— say building and ground, $25,000, apparatus and furniture, in- 
cluding books, $5,coo, leaving $170,000 to be invested at 3 per 
cent., yielding an annual income of $5,100. I do not believe any- 
thing approaching this sum can be obtained. 



1 In the Report of the Committee on Revision of the U.S. P. of the A.Ph.A , 
it is stated that : 

"Your Committee further recommends the establishment of a scientific 
laboratory, employing chemists and pharmacologists by the year, to carry on 
investigations on the lines indicated by the National Committee. Such a 
laboratory would be of great benefit to the pharmacists and physicians of this 
country, as well as a great credit. 

" It is the opinion of this Committee that a laboratory with all the modern 
equipments on a fairly large scale should be established at Washington, where 
the assistance of the Government chemists, library and facilities could be 
had ; such laboratory to have facilities for the working of four or more chem- 
ists under the guidance of one of them as director, and for the working of one 
pharmacologist, who should have a separate but adjoining room to the chemi- 
cal laboratory, and work conjointly with them under the guidance of the gen- 
eral director. If the Revision Committee has not sufficient money at its dis- 
posal and cannot obtain it, no doubt the pharmacists and manufacturing 
establishments of the country will make up the deficiency." — [See Proc. 
A.Ph.A., 1898, p. 225.— Ed.] 



244 Pharmacy Laivs and Legislation. { Am May?i9oi arm ' 

In considering this question, a proper regard should be had for 
the reputation of American pharmacy, as well as the honor of Pro- 
fessor Procter. 

Whatever is undertaken should be clearly within the limits of 
our ability to do well and thus reflect credit on pharmacy while 
honoring one of its patrons. The disgrace which would attend 
failure in such an effort would be intensified rather than assuaged 
by ascertaining when too late, that our endeavors were aimed too 
high. 

My suggestion, if one is permitted, would be to appoint the 
strongest committee possible ; embracing all phases of pharmacy, 
and give this committee full power, first to solicit subscriptions and 
second, afterwards to decide on the character of the memorial. 

Washington, D. C. W. S. Thompson. 



PHARMACY LAWS AND LEGISLATION. 

Contributed by Prof. J. H. Beat., Scio, O. 

(Under this title it is designed to give each month a brief resume of proposed 
and accomplished pharmacy legislation, and of decisions of importance to 
pharmacy boards and pharmacists. On account of space limitations, proposed 
legislation cannot be more than briefly mentioned, but bills enacted into law 
will be discussed and their principal features pointed out. Pharmacy boards 
and members of legislative committees and others are requested to send copies 
of such measures and news of this kind either to the editor of this Journal, 
or to Prof. J. H. Beal, Scio, O.) 

The flood of proposed pharmacy legislation still continues ; the 
state legislature that has not at least two or three pharmacy bills 
pending is decidedly out of fashion. 

NEW YORK. 

New York still continues to be the storm centre of proposed 
pharmacy legislation. Among the measures which have not been 
previously reported in these columns, are the following : 

As a result of the disastrous explosion in the drug warehouse of 
Tarrant & Co., of some months ago, a bill has been introduced into 
the Assembly to amend the present law regulating the storage of 
explosives. The measure was prepared by a committee of the 
drug section of the Board of Trade and Transportation, and pro- 
hibits the storage of the substances specified in any building part 



Am May!iwi arm '} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 245 

of which is used for dwelling purposes, or in excess of the amounts 
specified, except in such places and in such manner as may be pre- 
scribed by the Fire Commissioner. 

The Thornton Bill which strikes out the annual registration 
feature of the present law has passed the Senate, and is now in the 
lower branch of the legislature. 

The Smith Bill, introduced by Assemblyman Smith, would per- 
mit druggists to register without examination on making affidavit 
of three years' experience. 

The bill introduced by Senator Malby proposes to exempt phar- 
macists of the various state institutions from the provisions of the 
pharmacy law, probably on the ground that public office being a 
private snap, such a little thing as ignorance of one's duties should 
not be permitted to interfere with political appointments. 

From the Pharmaceutical Era we copy the following : " A 
Buffalo man claims to have discovered a wonderful remedy for 
rheumatism, and in virtue of this discovery he feels that he should 
be entitled by law to practise medicine without passing the regular 
medical examination and fulfilling the other requirements laid 
down, and he has induced a State Assemblyman to introduce a bill 
for his relief in this respect. Another bill, which has been killed, 
however, was to permit an individual to practise veterinary surgery 
without fulfilling the requirements demanded by law." 

The Costello Bill has been amended so as to deprive it of some 
of its more offensive features by the addition of the following new 
matter : " The Secretary of any division of the State Board of 
Pharmacy, having within his territory any such village or place, 
shall, whenever the necessity therefor is shown to exist, grant to 
some resident therein, who has had experience in dealing in drugs, 
medicines and poisons, a permit to compound medicines, fill prescrip- 
tions and sell poisons for a period not exceeding one year, and on 
payment of a fee not exceeding $300. Such permit shall be limited 
to the village or place in which such person resides, and may be 
limited to one or more of certain kinds or classes of poisons." 
The places or villages referred to are not to exceed 1,000 in popula- 
tion. 

A notable bill, introduced by Assemblyman Morgan, provides 
that apprentices within one year of the beginning of their appren- 
ticeship, shall appear before the Board and submit to an examina- 



246 Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. { Am -May'i9oif rm * 

tion which shall show mental fitness equivalent to thirty-six counts 
chosen by the Board of Pharmacy from those required by the re- 
gents of the University of the State of New York from students in 
law, medicine and dentistry. Certificate of good character is also 
required. 

Graduates of high schools, academies, colleges of pharmacy or 
other institutions recognized by the Board are to be registered as 
apprentices without examination. The fee for the apprentice's 
certificate is fixed at 50 cents. 

ARKANSAS. 

The manufacturers of alum baking powders who have been so 
thoroughly chevied by the cream of tartar people, are alleged to 
be resposible for the following bill which has been introduced into 
the legislature of the State of Arkansas : " Whereas, bitartrate of 
potash (cream of tartar) as used in combination with bicarbonate of 
soda for aerating or leavening or preparing farinaceous foods, does, 
by its chemical reaction, leave in such foods 9 per cent, tartrate of 
potash and soda (commercial strength) in combination or in such 
quantities as is believed to impair and undermine the health of 
many people who use it ; therefore, 

Be it enacted, etc., that the chemical known as bitartrate of pot- 
ash (cream of tartar) shall not be sold or offered for sale either in 
combination with bicarbonate of soda or separately, for the purpose 
of aerating, leavening or preparing farinaceous foods, or used by 
venders of food products for aerating, leavening or preparing such 
food products." 

The penalty for violation is fixed at $500 and six months im- 
prisonment. 

ILLINOIS. 

The bill proprosed by the Committee on Legislation, amending 
the pharmacy law, has been introduced into the House of Repre- 
sentatives by Mr. Purdunn. The principal features of the bill are 
the provisions making examination fees non-returnable in case of 
failure, the prohibition of adulterations, and the appropriation of 
$10,000 for the expenses of the board. 

Other bills are as follows : 

A bill requiring proprietary medicines to be labelled with the 
formula of their constituents. 



Am May!'i9oif rm "} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 247 

The Mueller Bill prohibiting the use of injurious substances in 
food preparations. 

The Galligan Bill amending the present label law. 

The Hunt Bill regulating the working hours of drug clerks in 
cities of 500,000 or more inhabitants. 

The Helminiak Bill regulating the sale of baking powders. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

The pharmacy bill in Pennsylvania has been defeated by the 
decisive vote of 155 to 12, its defeat being due almost entirely to 
dissensions among the druggists of the State. 

It is also reported that a bill has been enacted which does away 
with the triennial registration feature of the old law, and also with 
the requirement of exposure of the certificate of registration. This 
is regrettable if true, as experience has amply demonstrated the 
fact that a pharmacy law is next to unenforceable without these 
provisions. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

The Cook Bill, mentioned in the April number, and which sought 
to increase the liquor license of druggists from $1.00 to $500, has 
been defeated. 

A petition has been presented to the legislature of the State for 
a law to permit all druggists who were entitled to registration at 
the time of the passage of the original pharmacy act to register as 
drug sellers, but not to compound prescriptions, without examina- 
tion. 

It is to be hoped that no such vicious measure will ever be per- 
mitted to become law. If the men for whose interest it is intended 
were too careless to register when they had the opportunity, and 
are still too ignorant to pass an examination in pharmacy, they are 
certainly too careless or too ignorant to be safe dispensers of drugs 
and medicines. 

MAINE. 

A bill has been introduced into the Maine Legislature granting 
druggists the right to sell liquors for medicinal, chemical and 
mechanical purposes, with certain restrictions designed to prevent 
an improper use of the privilege. 



248 Pharmacy Laws arid Legislation. \f^x^;^ Tm ^ 

MICHIGAN. 

A bill to prevent the improper sale of liquors by druggists, and 
providing for an assistant Secretary of the Board of Pharmacy, has 
passed the Senate. 

MISSOURI. 

The measure amending the Missouri Pharmacy Law so as to 
prevent the registration of physicians as pharmacists without 
examination has been made law. 

The amendment, for a copy of which we are indebted to Dr. H. 
M. Whelpley, is as follows : 

Section i. Section 3037 of chapter 23 of the Revised Statutes 
of 1899, relating to druggists and their licenses, is hereby amended 
by striking out the words " Provided, that nothing in this chapter 
shall be construed to require any physician duly authorized to 
practise medicine in this State to submit to an examination as a 
condition precedent to a license as a pharmacist, but that the same 
shall be issued upon presentation of his diploma as a physician," so 
that the said section, as so amended, shall read as follows : 

Sec. 3037. It shall be unlawful for the proprietor of any store 
or pharmacy to allow any person, except a registered pharmacist, to 
compound or dispense the prescriptions of physicians, or to retail 
or dispense poisons for medical use, except as an aid to or under the 
supervision of a registered pharmacist. Any person violating the 
provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and, on conviction thereof, shall be liable to a fine of not less than 
$25 nor more than $100 for each and every offense." 

It is regrettable that the pharmacists of Missouri did not make 
use of this opportunity to procure the enactment of the form of 
law approved last year by the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion. 

The following, known as the Griffin Bill, has, according to the 
National Druggist, from which we copy, been introduced into the 
Missouri Legislature. 

Sec. 3018a. In all prosecutions, either upon indictment or infor- 
mation, for the sale of intoxicating liquor under what is known as 
the dramshop act, and in all prosecutions for the sale of intoxicat- 
ing liquor without license, it shall be sufficient for the State to 
show the sale of such intoxicating liquor, and if the defendant 



Am, May r ,*i9M? rm "} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 249 

admits such sale, it shall devolve upon him to show that he sold such 
intoxicating liquor legally ; and it shall be no defense for the defend- 
ant to show that he was doing business under a merchant's license, 
or that he was a registered pharmacist, a druggist, or the proprietor of 
a drug store, unless he shall show that such sale, if made, was made 
in conformity to the provisions of the lazv concerning merchants or 
druggists. 

As a druggist would necessarily admit a legal sale of liquor, he 
would stand prima facie convicted of crime under this section, and 
would be open to endless blackmail and persecution if it should 
become a law. 

MINNESOTA. 

The Hillmond Bill, which has the support of the prohibition in- 
terests, makes it a misdemeanor for a physician to prescribe more 
than two " apothecary ounces " of distilled, vinous, or malt liquors 
for any one person in any one day. If th>s should become a law, its 
effect would be to render illegal the use of alcoholic liquors in the 
class of cases in which they are of most benefit, while it would have 
little or no effect upon the improper use of liquor by those who are 
determined to possess it. 

TENNESSEE. 

The following curiosity, known as the Wickham Bill, has been 
introduced into the legislature of the State of Tennessee : 

" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of 
Tennessee, that it shall be a misdemeanor for any person or persons 
to sell or give away within the State of Tennessee, any morphine or 
any preparation or mixtures containing the active property or 
principle of morphine, except on the written prescription of a prac- 
tising physician, and said prescription is not to be refilled, except 
at the instance of the physician giving the prescription, who shall 
give written permission to the party to whom prescription was 
given, to have same refilled ; provided, that nothing in this act 
shall apply to the wholesale dealer in supplying the retail dealer, 
or to the retail dealer who may sell to practising physician. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that any person or persons vio- 
lating the provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and on conviction shall be fined not less than $10, nor 
more than $500, and imprisoned in the county jail where the person 



250 Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. { Am -ia"'i9M? rm * 

or persons reside at the time of commission of said offense, not less 
than thirty days nor more than ninety days imprisonment, only in 
the discretion of the court. 

The expression, " active property or principle of morphine," and 
in the 2d Section," imprisoned in the county jail where the person 
or persons reside at the time of commission of said offence," are 
excellent examples of the use of language to conceal thought, and 
are samples of the careless phraseology in many of the existing 
pharmacy laws. 

Decisions of Interest to Pharmacists. 

lawfulness of combinations to maintain prices sustained. 

The suit of the Los Angeles, California, cutters against the Re- 
tailers' Association and the jobbers of that city, for $50,000 
damages received because of an alleged unlawful combination to 
prevent the plaintiffs from procuring goods, has been decided in 
favor of the defendants. The court in its opinion follows the line 
of recent decisions and maintains the principle that the producers or 
sellers of an article have the right to fix the price at which the 
same may be sold, and to refuse to supply the same to others who 
will not agree to maintain such prices. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF DRUGGISTS FOR POISONOUS PRESCRIPTIONS. 

A recent police court decision at Cleveland, Ohio, is of interest to 
pharmacists. 

The case was as follows : A physician gave a druggist's clerk a 
verbal prescription to put up a certain quantity of tincture of 
aconite, to be labeled " ten drops in a glass of water and then a tea- 
spoonful every hour," which was done. The mother of the child 
gave it first the ten drops in a glass of water, and an hour later a 
teaspoonful of the pure tincture, resulting of course in the death of 
the patient. The clerk who put up the prescription was arrested 
under the law given below. 

The Ohio label law, divested of superfluous verbiage, declares 
that when any dealer shall sell any drug or medicine an indiscrimi- 
nate or careless use of which would be destructive to human life, he 
shall affix to each bottle or package a label in red ink, bearing the 
name of the drug, skull and cross bores, the words caution and 
poison, and the names of at least two of the most readily obtainable 



Am M£?ri£i. arm '} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 251 

effective antidotes. It contains no clause exempting physicians' 
prescriptions from the law. 

Judge Fiedler, before whom the hearing was had, decided in favor 
of the defendant, the following being the salient points of his 
decision : 

" The relation between the druggist and his customer is two-fold : 

" (1) When he sells an article purely and simply, where his pro- 
fessional skill is not brought into account, as, for example, where a 
customer purchases 15 cents worth of tincture of aconite. In this 
case we have a purely commercial transaction, that is, a sale, and 
Section 4354-64 applies. 

"(2J Where a customer brings a prescription, or, as in our case, 
the prescription is left by the physician, and the customer calls 
for the medicines, a different relation exists between the parties 
in this latter case. There are the three parties necessary, the 
physician, druggist and purchaser. The physician examines his 
patient and decides what shall be used — the patient has no 
choice in the matter whatever — he takes what is given him. He 
relies upon the skill of the physician, and, having received his 
prescription, he relies upon the druggist to follow the directions 
therein set forth. He must have confidence in the ability of each 
of them, that of the physician to diagnose the case and that of the 
druggist to execute the directions of the physician in compounding 
and dispensing the drugs, chemicals and poisons into a medicine. 
When once compounded or dispensed, these drugs, chemicals and 
poisons lose their identity. They are not so much aconite, mor- 
phine, alcohol, water or whatever the ingredients may be ; it is a 
medicine and nothing but a medicine. 

"The physician must be the best judge of the proper remedy and 
must know how that remedy should be applied. He directs the 
druggist what to use and in what proportions, and he tells him just 
how that compound should be used. It is an extremely delicate 
and dangerous operation, and any variation, even in the slightest 
degree, from the directions so given, may, and in most cases of dan- 
gerous illness undoubtedly would, prove fatal. In the case before 
us it did prove fatal. For the performance of this service the drug- 
gist charges as any other professional. This is no more a sale of 
that medicine, as the law contemplates a sale, than it is a sale when 
a lawyer charges his client for writing a letter or a contract. His 



252 Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. { Am M£y^ 9 P oi arm ' 

charge is not for the paper or material used, but for his professional 
services. 

" Technical words, when used in referring to a technical subject,, 
are to be given the meaning which they have when applied to the 
particular art or science with reference to which they are used, i. e. t 
their technical meaning. So an act relating to commerce is inter- 
preted according to the vocabulary of merchants, and it naturally 
follows that an act relating to druggists and physicians must be in- 
terpreted according to their vocabulary. (23 Ency. of Law, 324.) 

" In the vocabulary of druggists this was clearly not a sale, but 
was a dispensing, and when a medicine is composed of several in- 
gredients it is a compounding. 

" In the opinion of the court this was not a sale of any drug or 
chemical or poison within the meaning of Section 4354-64, and the 
defendant is accordingly discharged." 

As some higher courts have construed the subject differently in 
similar cases, it will be the part of wisdom of Ohio pharmacists to 
see that at the next session of the Legislature the poison statute is 
amended so as to remove all chance for ambiguity. 

PRACTICE OF MEDICINE DEFINED. 

The Council of the Ontario Medical Society employed an' informer 
to detect cases of counter prescribing, and on the evidence thus 
procured brought cases against several druggists, one of them being 
King vs. Lee and others. The magistrate deciding against the de- 
fendants, an appeal was taken before Judge McDougall, who 
reversed the magistrate's decision with costs upon the prosecution. 
The main points of Judge McDougall's opinion are as 'ollows : 

" The conviction only sets out one act as occurring on a named 
day. I have already discussed very fully in Reg. vs. Whalen (not 
reported) what must be shown to amount to a practising of medi- 
cine. The single act of prescribing medicine to one person on one day 
will not amount to a practising of medicine. The conviction charges 
that the defendant, on the date named in the conviction, prescribed 
for Minnie Warring and others contrary, etc. Upon looking at the 
testimony there is no evidence of the defendant on that day or at any prior 
date having prescribed for any one. Evidence of acts of practising 
antecedent to the date named in the conviction might, no doubt, be 
given to establish a practising, and possibly evidence of acts of prac- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



253 



tising subsequent to the. date laid in the conviction but before the 
date of the information, might be given as establishing or tending 
to establish a practising of medicine. These acts, however, must 
be sufficiently proximate in point of time to afford evidence of prac- 
tising rather than tending to establish the commission of a separate 
offence. (Apothecaries vs. Jones, I. Q. B. D., 893). 

Under the case of Reg. vs. Spain, 19 Ont, 315, and the cases 
therein cited, it has been held that it is necessary that the convic- 
tion should set out the particular act or acts by the defendant 
which constitute the practising. The present convictions do not do 
so, and in this particular they are therefore defective." — Canadian 
Pharmaceutical Journal. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The seventh of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 19CO-1901 was held Tuesday, 
April 16, 1 90 1. Mr. James T. Shinn, a well-known member of 
the College, presided. The meeting was different in one or two 
particulars from the majority of meetings, and as interesting as any 
that have been held this year. 

The first speaker was Dr. L. Napoleon Boston, a well-known bac- 
teriologist and physician in Philadelphia, who read an interesting 
paper on " Technique for the Recognition of Certain Animal Para- 
sites in Man " (see page 228). In connection with this paper the 
speaker exhibited a number of microscopic slides of these parasites 
in different stages of development. Professor Lowe said that the 
paper of Dr. Boston was of practical importance, and in comment- 
ing upon the subject of tape worms said, that he had given some 
attention to their removal and that he believed that the taenifuge 
was not so important as the manner of treatment. 

In view of the interest that has been aroused in the subject of 
expert testimony by Professor Lloyd's treatment of the strychnine 
test with sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassium, Mr. Kebler 
read a paper on "An Examination of the Chemical Tests for 
Strychnine." The speaker gave a brief review of the general meth- 
ods for recovering the alkaloids from organic mixtures. In refer- 
ence to color reactions, he said that these were influenced by the 



254 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



concentration and purity of the substance, and that they served 
simply as useful guides to be considered in connection with other 
properties. Where the substance occurs in sufficient quantity to be 
crystallized, the speaker considered the microscopical examination 
one of the most reliable of tests for establishing its identity. 

Mr. Freeman P. Stroup, Instructor in Chemistry in the College, 
made, at the request of Professor Kraemer, an examination of some 
powders which were submitted him by Professor Lloyd, the compo- 
sition of which was as follows, although this composition was not 
known at the time the tests were made, with the exception of No. I : 
(i) Mixture of hydrastine, I part, and morphine, 9 parts. (2) Mix- 
ture of No. 1, plus 10 per cent, of strychnine. (3) Mixture of hydras- 
tine, 1 part, and morphine, 9 parts. (4) Mixture of No. 1, plus 25 
per cent, of strychnine. (5) Mixture of No. 1, plus 50 per cent, of 
strychnine. (6) Mixture of No. 1, plus 10 per cent, of strychnine. 
(7) Mixture of No. 1, plus 25 per cent, of strychnine. 

The tests were carried out on crucible lids, and, as nearly as pos- 
sible, under the same conditions, and a sample of pure strychnine 
was tested under the same conditions in order to note similarities or 
differences in behavior. 

In each case eight drops C. P. sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1-84), weigh- 
ing approximately '230 grammes, was placed upon crucible lid, and 
to it was added a small portion (-oio to -012 grammes) of the pow- 
der to be tested, and stirred around with a glass rod until dissolved. 
A fragment of potassium bichromate size of pin head (about -006 
gramme) was then dropped in and moved about with glass rod. 
In the case of the strychnine a violet-blue streak followed the 
bichromate, whether the crystal was moved rapidly or slowly, but 
the color was transient, changing in one or two seconds to yellow 
or orange. 

In the case of all the others, if the crystal was moved rapidly 
the streak was greenish-yellow, changing rapidly to purplish- 
violet, while a slow tracing with the crystal produced the pur- 
plish-violet streak at once. The shades produced were not strictly 
identical, but so nearly alike that a description could not be given 
that would give a definite idea of their differences. No. 3 and No. 
4 had a sort of blue-grayish cast, and No. 1 gave the deepest shade, 
being practically a purple. In the case of No. 5 the purplish color 
disappeared after about an hour, and thereafter the moving of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



255 



crystal showed the same color effects as was shown in the test for 
pure strychnine. 

After four hours three or four drops of sulphuric acid and a some- 
what larger crystal of bichromate were added to each test, produc- 
ing after a time a gradual change of the purplish colors of Nos. 2, 
3, 4, 6 and 7 to violet brown in the case of Nos. 2, 3 and 4, and 
light green in the case of Nos. 6 and 7 ; but in none of these five 
cases could any indication of the presence of strychnine, either by 
streak or after-color, be detected. Mr. Stroup also tested these 
powders before the audience at the close of the meeting. 

Prof. F. X. Moerk spoke of the influence of one alkaloidal body 
upon another and as interfering in giving definite characteristic reac- 
tion. He spoke of the use of solvents as in Dragendorff's scheme for 
separating the alkaloids and showed how it could be applied in the 
examination of the above powders. He also referred to the old acid 
color tests for the identification of fixed oils and said that owing to the 
recent improvements of the oils the bodies which had given these 
reactions were removed and therefore color tests were now con- 
sidered to be of less value. The last of these to be abandoned was 
the test for oil of sesame with hydrochloric acid and sugar. On the 
whole it was the opinion of Professor Moerk that these tests are 
valuable so far as they go, but that all other tests must be used. 

Mr. Beringer spoke of the difficulties in the examination of post- 
mortem material, and referred to the influence of ptomaines in 
modifying color reactions as many of these closely simulate the 
alkaloids and other substances. In nearly all cases of this kind 
Mayer's reagent will give a reaction, but the substance cannot be 
isolated on account of the smallness of the quantity present. He 
mentioned the following alkaloids as being closely simulated by 
ptomaines : Colchicine, atropine, strychnine, etc. He spoke of a 
musty sample of corn-meal which yielded a ptomaine giving the 
reaction and physiological symptoms of strychnine. This body was 
subsequently broken up into a body resembling nicotine and another 
one like strychnine. 

F. T. Gordon referred to a post-mortem case in which what was 
supposed to be six or seven grains of strychnine were isolated, 
but which was found upon investigation to be a ptomaine. He 
thought that an important point had been overlooked in this con- 
troversy, and that was if we did not know the composition of the 



256 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -May?i?o h i arm * 

mixture (Lloyd's) would we not be inclined to look upon it as being 
strychnine. 

In commenting upon the use of the microscope in the examina- 
tion of substances in small quantities, Professor Kraemer said that 
as a result of experiments which he had carried out there were 
certain difficulties in the work which prevented the uniform crystal- 
lizing of the same substance. He had found that on crystallizing 
solutions of alum in watch crystals the crystals separate in three 
or four different forms apparently of the same system, although he 
thought that even the system of crystallization might be different 
but had not investigated this point as yet. It is well known that 
calcium oxalate occurs in the monoclinic and tetragonal system. 
In other words, microscopic physical conditions must be taken into 
account in work of this kind. 

William S. Weakley, Instructor in Botany and Pharmacognosy in 
the College, gave a paper and demonstration on " Photographic 
Development by Gas Light." (See page 234). 

Frederick T. Gordon read a paper on " Liquid Carbonic Acid 
Gas." (See page 237). 

Mr. Stedem exhibited a device made by Dr. William P. Grady 
for making the cold contact nitric acid test for albumin. H. K. 



THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL, COMMENCEMENT. 

The exercises connected with conferring the degrees of Doctor of Pharmacy 
and Pharmaceutical Chemist were held in the Academy of Music, Wednesday 
evening, April 17th. Prayer was offered by Rev. Kerr Boyce Tupper. The 
degrees were conferred by the President, Howard B. French. The following 
received the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy : 



Name. 

Alden, Harley Roscoe, 
Anstock, Arthur David, 

Barnett, Eldridge Ewing, 
Bell, Robert Nevens, 
Benner, Frederick James, 
Boesch, Theodore Karl, 
Boltz, Paul Kline, 
Borrowes, George Henry, 
Boyson, Theophilus H., Jr. 



Subject of Thesis. State. 
Assay of Spiritus sEtheris Niirosi, Maine. 
Substitution in Pharmacopoeial 

Formula, Pennsylvania. 
L iquor Potassii A rsenitis, U. S. P. , New Jersey. 
Keratinized and other Enteric Pills, Nebraska. 
Russian and American Pharmacy , Pennsylvania. 
Ancient History of Pharmacy, Pennsylvania. 
Pharmacology of Jaborandi, Pennsylvania. 
Pharmacy, Pennsylvania. 
Digitalis, New Jersey. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1901. J 



Name. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Branin, Manlif Lewis, 
Brenner, Frederick Arthur, 
Cather, Frank Leslie, 
Collins, Lane Verlenden, 
Cone, Earl Hobart, 
Converse, Howard Romaino 
Davis, William Brown, 
Doan, Chester Clayton, 
Dunn, Kdwin Alfred, 
Eckels, Paul, 
Eddy, Roswell Martin, 
Eppler, George Theodore, 
Fegley, Florence Augusta, 

Fegley, John Stauffer, 
Fischer, Adolph Gustave, 
Fisher, George Calvin, 
Fleming, Samuel Clarkson, 
French, Rolland Hall, 
Garber, Eltner F. Weaver, 
Goodyear, Harry Jacob, 

Gruel, John Edward, 
Harris, William K. Garfield, 
Harbord, Kittie Walker, 
Hassinger, Samuel Reed, 

Haydock, Mabelle, 

Highfield, Herbert Monroe, 
Hill, George Price, 
Hires, Lewis Moore, 
Hoffert, Charles Edward, 

Hoffman, Ira Calvin, 
Houston, Franklin Paxson, 
Hubler, Guy Garfield, 
Jetton, James Stuart, 
Klopp, Edward Jonathan, 
Knerr, Charles George, 
Kraus, Otto Louis, 
Lacy, Burdett Seldon, 
Leib, Wilbur John, 
Lewis, Fielding Otis, 
Liebert, Louis Williams, 
Luddy, James Darrah, 
Luebert, Frederick George, 



Subject of Thesis. 

^Cochineal, 

Synthetic Remedies, 

Disguising the Taste oj Castor Oil, 

Nickel, 

Bottled Ammonia, 
, Strophanthus, 
Pimpinella Anisum, 
Oleum Ricini, 
Magnesium Carbonate, 
Nicotian a Tabacuni, 
Spirit us JEtheris Nitrosi, 
Sod ii Chloridum, 

Official Medicinal Plants of Lehigh 

County, 
Oleum Morrhuce, 
Tijicture of Ferric Chloride, 
Substantial Powder Folder, 
Eriodictyon, 
Seidlitz Poiuders, 
Cultivation of Tobacco, 
An Antidote to Gelsemium 

Sempervirens, 
Gelatin Capsules, 
Thymol Iodide, 
Berberis Aquifolium, 



257 

State. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Illinois. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Oregon. 



Analysis of one thousand Prescrip- 



tions, 
The Bacteriological 



Pennsylvania. 



Examination 



of some Clinical Thermometers, Pennsylvania. 

Potassa et Calx Sulphurata, Ohio. 

Atropa Belladonna, Pennsylvania. 

Vaccine Virus, New Jersey. 

Milk Sugar and its uses in Phar- 
macy, Pennsylvania. 

Maple Sugar, Pennsylvania. 

Antitoxin, Pennsylvania. 

Phosphorus, Pennsylvania. 

Ginseng, Tennessee. 

Refined Cocoanut Oil, Pennsylvania. 

Potassii Nitras Pennsylvania. 

Coal lar, Connecticut. 

Manaca, Pennsylvania. 

Glonoimim, Pennsylvania. 

lecoma Radicans, Kentucky. 

Rhamnus Purshiana, Pennsylvania. 

Rhus Toxicodendron, Pennsylvania. 

The Examination of Commercial 



Hypochlorites, 



Pennsylvania. 



258 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharro. 
May, 1901. 



Name. Subject of Thesis. 

McClurg, Benjamin Hoffer, Emulsions, 
McDermott, Robert Joseph, Borax, 

MacFadden, Warren Lester, A Resin-free Syrup of Senna, 



Macphee, John James, 
Mauger, Harry Fillman, 
Michels, Victor Clyde, 
Murphey, Edwin Mason, 
Musser, Guy Musselman 

Nauss, George Hill, 



Pflieger, Adam William, 
Post, Arthur Edward, 

Pursel, Robert Clayton, 
Raser, William Heyl, 
Reynolds, Clarence Hyatt, 



State. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsj'lvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Nova Scotia. 
Pennsylvania. 



Gossypium Herbaceum, 
Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 
Loss of Moisture in Lnorganic Salts, Illinois. 
The U. S. P. Products of the Pine, Mississippi. 
The Modification of Milk as of in- 
terest to Pharmacists, Pennsylvania.. 
Acacia, Pennsylvania. 
Picking, Jacob Sylvester, Jr. Elixir Ferri Pyrophosphatis Quin- 
ines et Strychnines, Pennsylvania. 
Pilocarpus Pennatifolius, Pennsylvania^ 
Tinctura Opii Deodorati {with 

Paraffin) Pennsylvania. 
Sanguinaria, Pennsylvania. 
Tr. Opii Deodorati {by Benzin) Pennsylvania. 
N. A. Hemlock and Tanning Pro- 
cess, Pennsylvania^ 
Asafcetida, Pennsylvania. 
Rhamnus Purshiana, Pennsylvania. 
Copaifera Officinalis, Pennsylvania. 



Rhoads, Luther K., 
Rinker, William, 
Roberts, George William, 
Rogers, Walter Clyde, 
St. Jacques, Gaston, 
Saul, Irvin Ellsworth, 



Relation of Physician and Druggist, Pennsylvania. 



Tinctures ofB. P. and U. S. P. 
Unguentum Aqucs Roses, 



Schmerker, Adolph A. Beyer, Tincture of Myrrh 
Schneider, Emil Sebastian, Tannin and its Extraction, 



Schooley, Joseph Griggs, 
Shafer, Clarence Eugene, 
Shannon, Byron Guest, 
Shoults, Robt. Grafton, P.C. 
Skillman, Lionel Gilliland, 
Slocum, Charles Eben, 
Spears, Edward Gibson, 
Steever, William Forsaith, 
Stoudt, Irwin Sylvester, 
Stout, Benjamin Franklin, 
Strathie, Alexander John, 
Texter, Charles Henry, 
Tingle, John Beard, 
Urffer, Samuel, 
VanGilder, Levi Morton, 
Watson, Herbert James, 

Wilkinson, Harry, 
Wolfer, William Conrad, 
Wolfinger, John Philip, 
Ziegler, Charles Harry, 



Gossypium Herbaceum, 
Malt and its Preparatio?i, 
Perfumes in the Drug Store, 
,Examination of Acacia, 
Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis, 
Aurum, 

Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, 
Glyceritum Rhois Glabrce, 
Capsules, 

The Twentieth Century Pharmacist, 

Acidum Salicylicum, 

Horse Chestnut, 

Llour of Sulphur, 

Lron, 

Diph th eria A n titoxin , 

Color Standards of the Vegetable 

Drugs of the U. S. P., 
Surgical Antiseptics, 
Antipyrin, 
Erythroxylon Coca, 
Syrupus Ferri Lodidi, 



Canada. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

California. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

England. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 

Delaware. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 



Am, May?i9 P oi arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 259 

The following received the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist: 

Name. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Bender, Arthur Clarence, The Saponin of the Root of Phyto- 
lacca Decandra L., Iowa. 
Brookes, Virginia Cade, The Mesquite, Texas. 
Graham, Willard Rice, Pumpkin Seed Oil, Pennsylvania. 
Headings, Prestie Milroy, Glycerin, Pennsylvania. 
Penrose, Thomas William, Distilled Water, Pennsylvania. 
Pollins, Harry G. Lomison, The Preparation of Ointments, Pennsylvania. 
Ryan, Thomas Andrew, Adeps Bezoinatus, Pennsylvania. 
Scott, Henry William, Assay of Zinc Ore, Pennsylvania. 

The Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry was awarded to the following: 

Andrews, Willard CrandalJ, P.D.; Cavanaugh, Frank Arthur; Ehrnan, Joseph 
William, Ph.G.; French, Rolland Hall; Smith, Frank G. D., Ph.G.; Staley, 
Frederick Walton; Winters, Olas Earl. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Dean of the Faculty made the announcement 
that among the prizes offered this year was one to the class as a whole. This was 
the President's cup offered by the President of the College, Howard B. French, 
in commemoration of the eightieth anniversary, and is intended also as an incen- 
tive to study to each of the individual members of the class. It is to be held in 
trust by this class nntil a succeeding class attains a higher grade of scholarship. 

The Valedictory was delivered by Hon. Charles F. Warwick, who gave a 
short resume of the history of the College and referred to some of the condi- 
tions existing in pharmacy and medicine in the early part of this century and 
compa-ed them with thos2 of to-day. This was followed with some ver}- whole- 
some and pertinent advice to the members of the graduating class. 

The Procter Prize of a gold medal and certificate for highest grade of 
scholarship and meritorious thesis was awarded to Irvin E. Saul and presented 
by the President, Howard B. French. 

The Wieeiam B. Webb Memorial Prize of a gold medal and certificate, 
offered by Mrs. Rebecca T. Webb for the highest general average in the 
examination of the committee, operative pharmacy and specimens, was 
awarded to Edwin M. Murphey and presented by William J. Jenks. 

Chemistry Prize, a prize of $25 in gold offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 
for knowledge of quantitative chemical analysis, was awarded to Earl H. Cone. 

Materia Medica Prize, a prize of $25 by Prof. Clement B. Lowe, for the 
recognition of rare drugs, was awarded to Lionel G. Skillman. 

Pharmacognosy Prize, a prize of $25 by Prof. Henry Kraemer for the 
best thesis on the Pharmacognosy of vegetable drugs, was awarded to Herbert 
J. Watson. 

The Maisch Prize, a prize of $20, offered by Mr. J. H. Redsecker, of 
Lebanon, Pa , for histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded to Lionel G, 
Skillman and presented by Joseph L. Lemberger. 

Operative Pharmacy Prize, a prize of $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington for the best examination in operative pharmacy , was 
awarded to Edward J. Klopp, the presentation being made by James T. Shinn, 

Theoreticae Pharmacy Prize, a prize of a fine Troemner agate prescrip- 
tion balance, offered by Mahlon N. Kline, for the best examination in theory 
and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to Irvin E. Saul. 



260 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A VaTi9oi iarm ' 

COMPLIMENTARY SUPPER OF THE FACULTY. 

The professors' farewell supper to the graduates was given on Tuesday even- 
ing, April 16th, in the Museum of the College. Many of the officers and 
trustees of the College were present, as also other invited guests. The supper 
having been served, the remainder of the evening was devoted to toast-making 
and other matters of interest. The President's cup, which has already been 
alluded to, was presented on this occasion. It is of silver, and is in the form of 
a loving cup, being 12 inches in height and 7^ inches in diameter, and is in- 
scribed in an appropriate manner. The cup was received on behalf of the 
class by Victor C. Michels. 

A very gratifying feature of the occasion was the presentation to the College of 
a portrait painting of the late Charles August Heinitsh, on behalf of his friends 
of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, by Joseph L. Lemberger, 
who gave a brief but impressive sketch of the life and character of Mr. 
Heinitsh. 

This was succeeded by another interesting presentation, viz., a portrait of the 
late Dr. Edward R. Squibb, which was presented on behalf of his family by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington. Professor Remington having enjoyed a long personal 
acquaintance with Dr. Squibb, spoke in a manner befitting his work and at- 
tainments, and his influence on pharmacy and medicine. The President ac- 
cepted both of these presents on behalf of the College, and said that there was 
no more fitting place for them than the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Professor Remington, as Dean of the Faculty, acted as toast-master, and 
toasts were responded to by the members of the Faculty and Instructors, some 
of the members of the College and Board of Trustees, and by many of the 
members of the graduating class. 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 

In connection with the other exercises of Commencement Week, a bacca- 
laureate sermon was delivered to the graduates on Sunday, April 14th, by Dr. 
C. E. Stevens, Rector of Christ Church, Second and Market Streets. Incident- 
ally it may be mentioned that this church is one of the most interesting struc- 
tures in Philadelphia, retaining the architectural appearance of the early 
colonial time, and having been the place of worship of Franklin and the early 
Presidents of the United States. 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

The thirty-seventh annual meeting of the Alumni Association was held in 
Alumni Hall, on Monday afternoon, April 15th, with the President, Theodore 
Campbell, in the chair. 

Following the annual address of the President, in which a number of recom- 
mendations were made relative to the interests of the Association, reports from 
the Treasurer, Secretary and Editor of the Alumni Report were read. Re- 
ports were also received from the several standing committees of the Association. 

The following is the list of officers elected for the ensuing year : President, 
John H. Hahn ; First Vice-President, Wm. G. Nebig ; Second Vice-President, 
Albert Oetinger ; Recording Secretary, Wm. E. Krewson ; Treasurer, C. C. 
Meyer ; Corresponding Secretary, J. M. Baer ; Board of Directors : O. W. Os- 
terlund, F. P. Stroup, Nicholas F. Weisner, Herman Dilks, Jr., and^L> S. 
King. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



Annual Meeting. 



261 



The thirty-seventh annual reception of the Association was given to the 
graduating class, on the evening of the same day, in the College Museum. 

Introductory remarks having been made by the President, the Secretary 
called the roll of members elected during 1900-01. An address to the new 
members was then delivered by Jos. L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa. 

The several prizes offered by the Association were presented as follows : 

The Alumni gold medal to the member of the graduating class receiving 
the highest general average, was awarded to Irvin Ellsworth Saul, the presen- 
tation being made by the President, Theodore Campbell. 

The Alumni prize certificates to the members of the class receiving the 
highest averages in each of the branches, were awarded as follows, Mr. Mah- 
lon N. Kline making the presentation: In Pharmacy, to Irvin Ellsworth 
Saul ; in Chemistry, to Edwin Mason Murphey ; in Materia Medica, to Lionel 
Gilliland Skillman ; in General Pharmacy, to Rolland Hall French ; in Oper- 
ative Pharmacy, to Edward Jonathan Klopp ; in Analytical Chemistry, to 
Frederick George Luebert ; in Pharmacognosy, to Howard Romaino Converse. 

The Alumni silver medal was awarded to David Wilfong Ramsaur, of 
Palatka, Fla., for the best general average in the second }^ear examination. 

The Alumni bronze medal was awarded to Chester Augustus Billetdoux, of 
North Adams, Mass., for the best general average in the first year examination. 

The class oration was given by Theodore K. Boesch ; the poem by Fielding 
O. Lewis ; the history, by James S. Jetton, and the prophecy, by Alexander J. 
Strathie. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE COLLEGE. 

The annual meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was held on March 25, J 901, at the College, 145 North Tenth Street. 
Forty-one members were present, the President, Howard B. French, presiding. 
The minutes of the quarterly meeting held December 31, 1900, were read and 
approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the meetings in January, 
February and March were read by the Registrar, W. Nelson Stem, and 
approved as read. 

The annual meeting being the occasion for reports of the officers and Stand- 
ing Committees, these were given in the following order : 

Committee on Publication by H. N. Rittenhouse, who among other things 
called attention to the fact that all bills for the past year have been paid, and 
there is a cash balance to the credit of the committee. There has been an 
observance of economy in several respects. 

During the year a number of problems have been considered by the com- 
mittee, and while no radical measures have been attempted everything in the 
direction of a wise economy has been realized. The number of unsold 
volumes on hand is about 1,600, covering the period from 1829 to date. 

Editor's Report, by Henry Kraemer. Alluding to the beginning of the new 
century, the editor gave a retrospective view of the Journal and followed 
with a consideration of the problems of the present and giving some sugges- 
tions in regard to the future. 

Librarian's Report, by Thomas S. Wiegand. This report states that 210 
volumes have been added during the year, besides a large number of pamphlets. 



262 



Annual Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1901. 



The library has bseu consulted much more daring the past year than for 
several years past. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings, by Henry Kraemer. These meet- 
ings have been held regularly during the College year. The programs have 
been full of interesting and valuable matter, and in this respect have been as 
successful as could be desired. 

Curator's Report, by Joseph W. England. He reports the museum in good 
condition, and has received a number of accessions during the year. The 
working collection of official drugs and preparations placed in the reading 
room has been in daily use by a large number of students, and has proven of 
great value to them. 

A new feature of the annual meeting was the report of the President, giving 
concise information as to the affairs of the College. There has been a slight 
decrease in the College debt from the previous year. . 

There has been established during the year the Keasby and Mattison schol- 
arship, making a total of six scholarships now available. 

The property has been well cared for and kept fully up to its past standard. 

The adoption of an amendment to the By-Laws creating a Committee on 
Nominations, it is believed will prove of material advantage to the College. 

The President alluded to the kind consideration shown him during the year, 
and concluded by'stating that the continued success and prosperity of the Col- 
lege depends upon the active co-operation of all the members. 

Delegates were appointed as follows : 

American Pharmaceutical Association, at St. Louis, September 16, 1901 — 
Prof. Henry Kraemer, William L. Ciiffe, William Mclntyre, J. H. Redsecker 
and Prof. C. B. Lowe. 

To the Pennsyvania Pharmaceutical Association at Harvey's Lake, June 18- 
20, 1901 — Mahlon N. Kline, Harry L. Stiles, B M. Boring, Joseph W. Eng- 
land and C. A. Weidemann. 

Fred T. Gordon offered the following resolution, which was adopted : 

' ' Resolved, That the professors of the College recommend to the students the 
queries of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association as suitable subjects for 
theses, and that this be referred to the Committee on Theses for action." 

The election of officers, Trustees and Standing Committees being next in 
order, William Mclntyre and Henry C. Blair, third, were appointed tellers, who 
reported the following as being elected : 

President, Howard B. French ; First Vice-President, William J. Jenks ; Sec- 
ond Vice-President, Dr. R. V. Mattison; Recording Secretary, Dr. C. A. 
Weidemann ; Corresponding Secretary, Dr. A. W. Miller ; Treasurer, James T. 
Shinn ; Librarian, Thomas S. Wiegand ; Curator, Joseph W. England ; Editor, 
Prof. Henry Kraemer. 

Trustees for three years : Prof. Samuel P. Sad tier, William L. Ciiffe and 
Joseph L. Lemberger. Committee on Publication : Henry N. Rittenhouse, 
Prof. Samuel V . Sadtler, Wallace Procter, Prof. Henry Kraemer, Joseph W. 
England, Prof. Joseph P. Remington and Dr. R. V. Mattison, Committee on 
Pharmaceutic ,1 Meetings— Dr. R. V. Mattison, Prof. Joseph P. Remington, 
Prof. C. B. Lowe, F. W. E. Stedem, Prof. Henry Kraemer. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Secretary. 



t 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JUNE, i go i. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE STUDY OF THE 
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMICAL CONSTI- 
TUTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION 
OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 
By Prof. Virgin Coblentz. 

The object of this paper is to present, in as concise a manner as possible, 
the outline of a few selected topics bearing upon this subject. At a future date 
a more complete presentation of this subject will be made. Those interested 
in modern synthetics will find a general resume of the subject in the Journal of 
the Society of Chemical Industry , Vol. xvii, No. 8. 

The long well-known fact that certain relations existed between 
physiological action, molecular weight and isomorphous inorganic 
bodies led to a similar study of organics. This subject received its 
direct stimulus by Fischer's discovery of Kairine in 1882, followed 
by the accidental discovery of the antipyretic properties of acetan- 
ilid in 1887. 

A proof that a close relationship exists between chemical consti- 
tution and physiological action is shown by the fact that certain 
changes in chemical structure or constitution causes like changes in 
the physiological action of similar bodies; further, the addition of 
certain groups to compounds of different action produces bodies of 
similar physiological action or are alike rendered inactive. 

According to Crum Brown and Fraser the methylating of differ- 
ent alkaloids of different physiological action produces compounds 
which paralyze all the motoric nerve terminals like curarin. 

The introduction of the carboxyl (COOH) or the sulphonic acid 
(SO3H) groups into bodies of well denned toxic properties, results 

(263) 



264 Developments in Organic Compounds. /Am - Jonr - Pharm - 



June, 1901. 



in a marked diminution or total disappearance of their action, as 
for example 

Benzole C 6 H 6 Benzoic acid QH-COOH 

OH 

Phenol C 6 H 5 OH Para-phenol sulphonic acid C 6 H/ 

X S0 3 H 

Phenyl sulphonic acid C 6 H 5 — O — SO s H 

7 OH 

Ortho-phenol carboxylic acidC 6 H ' 

X COOH 

Naphtalin C 10 H S Naphtoic acid C 10 H 7 COOH 

Ammonia NH 3 Glycocoll GH 2 NH 2 COOH 

OH Morphin sulphonic acid 

Morphin C 17 H / .OH 



NO— OH C, y H M 



XO— S0 3 H 



(May be given in five times the morphin dose.) 
OH 

tvt Ui. 1 11 r tt \ a non-toxic derivative of toxic 

Naphtol yellow C lQ H 4 ^- (N0 2 ) 2 Martiu , g yeUow 

SO3H 

It is immaterial if the sulphonic acid group is united to a carbon 
or oxygen. 

The toxicity of the organic acids decreases with the increase of 
carboxyl groups, as from formic and acetic acids to tartaric and 
citric acids. The toxic characters of oxalic acid [(COOH) 2 ] are due 
to the double 

Co 
Co 

carboxyl group which in effect resembles the dicyanogen 

Cn 



The stability of the carboxyl and sulphonic acid groups serves to 
protect these derivatives from breaking up in the system and exert- 
ing toxic action. That certain groups lose their specific action 
through simple changes in the molecular structure is explained 
physiologically in that certain cell groups of the organism exert a 



A'u. Jour. Phirm. 
June, 1901. 



} Developments in Organic Compounds. 



265 



selective influence upon exposed groups of the molecule, thereby 
anchoring the entire complex in certain tissues where they break 
up and exert their action. This is especially noticeable through 
changing terminal or exposed groups when the action fails entirely, 
although the nucleus remains intact, 

The theory of Loew, 1 which aims to explain the chemical consti- 
tution of living protoplasm, claims that all substances which in 
great dilution react with aldehyde or amido groups, are toxic to all 
forms of lite, and the greater the reactive ability of a substance with 
reference to these groups, the greater its activity and toxicity. 
Such bases as hydroxylamine 



N 



H- 

OH 



and diamid H 2 N — NH 2 which react readily with aldehydes and 
ketones are active poisons for plants and animals. Phenylhydra- 
zine (C 6 H 5 MH — NH 2 ), which is especially reactive towards alde- 
hydes (R — CHO), and the Keto (R — CO — R) groups is on the 
same ground a violent blood poison. 

Bodies containing a tertiary nitrogen and possessing slight or no 
toxic properties, become very poisonous through reduction and for- 
mation of an imido group. 



H. 



H 3 C 



CH 



H, 



H. 



Ho 



N N NH 

Collidin Pyridin Pipendin 

Thus pyridin is more toxic than collidin, and piperidin more than 
either of the others. 

Tetrahydro quinolin is far more energetic than quinolin, likewise 
pyrrol 

HC = CH 

^ NH Pyrrol 

; = ch 



is more poisonous than pyridin. 



1 Die chemische Energie der lebeuden Zellen. 



266 Developments in Organic Compounds. { Am "j U n U e?i9oi arm * 

Loew explains this by the increase of reactive ability towards the 
aldehyde groups of the protoplasm. This theory is supported by 
the observation that bodies with labile amido groups increase in 
toxicity when a second amido group is introduced. This decreases, 
however, when the amido (NH 2 — ) group is converted into an 
imido ( — NH) group. Thus the phenylene diamines 

7 NH 2 
C H / 

X NH 2 

are more toxic than 

X NH 2 

toluidin, also when one H of the amido group in anilin (C 6 H 5 NH ) 
is replaced by an acid radical as acetyl (CH 3 CO) or benzoyl 
(C 6 H 5 CO) as in acetanilid (C 6 H 5 NHCH 3 CO) or benzanilid 
(C 6 H 5 NHC 6 H 5 CO) these bodies react less readily than anilin with 
aldehydes. 

Our greatest difficulty is accountable to our fragmentary knowledge 
of the selective powers of the human organs and tissues, which 
has been only partially established through histological staining 
and toxicological experiments. Loew's views enlighten us only 
upon certain groups of bodies which react with aldehydes and 
amido groups. 

INFLUENCE OF HYDROXYL GROUPS. 

The introduction of hydroxyl ( — OH) groups in aliphatic bodies 
modifies their action, which decreases with their increase in num- 
ber. Thus the narcotic alcohols and aldehydes the harmless gly- 
cols, glycerols and aldols, still more marked is the change exemplified 
in the polyhydric alcohols, as heptol, mannitol, etc. The presence 
of this group in caffeine practically destroys its effect. These groups 
so affect the stability of a compound that its decomposition in the 
system is readily effected. The replacement of one H in the benzole 
ring increases its reactive ability and convulsive action, decreasing 
with an increase in number, but toxic action in another direction 
increases accordingly, from phenol (C 6 H 5 OH) to resorcinol 
■ (C 6 H 4 (OH)oi-3.) to phloroglucin (C 6 H 3 (OH) 3 r3'5), chronic convul- 
sions result through action upon the spinal cord. Toxicity and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
JuDe, 1901. 



Developments in Organic Compounds. 



267 



physiologic action depend largely upon the relative position of the 
replacing groups. 

In general, substitution lessens the toxic characters of phenols, 
provided the entering groups are not toxic — for example, salicylic 
acid, gallic acid, sulfocarbolic acid. 

The hydroxyl group is intimately associated with the toxic 
action of morphin, which, through its narcotic characters, differs 
from all other opium alkaloids, its action being chiefly upon the 
nerve centers of the brain. Upon closing these OH groups through 
the replacement of one or both of the hydrogens by alkyl or acid 
radicals, the narcotic characters disappear, where, on the other 
hand, a spinal excitant (tetanic action) is developed, increasing with 
the number of alkyl radicals introduced. Thus codein produces 
like morphin (but in lesser degree) narcosis followed by an elevated 
reflex excitability which, if the dose is sufficiently large, develops 
tetanic convulsions. Dionin (ethyl ether of morphin) is more active 
than codein. Other members of this class are Peronin (benzyl 
morphin) and Heroin (di-acetyl morphin). These substances, while 
less active for relieving pain, exert a sedative effect on the unstriped 
muscles of the bronchi and reduce the disposition to cough, hence 
are of value in phthisis, bronchitis, asthma, etc. 

/OH 

Morphin C 17 H 17 . 



^NO 
OH 



OH 



Codein C 17 H 17 



Lionin C 17 H 17 



Peronin C 17 H 17 . 



Heroin C 17 H 17 . 



NO . OCTL 



OH 

^NO 
,OH 

NO 

,0 



OC 2 H 5 

OC 6 H 5 CH 2 
- CH3CON. 



NO . O — CH q CO 



Methyl morphin. 



Ethyl morphin. 



Benzyl morphin. 



Di-acetyl- morphin . 



The most toxic alkaloid of opium is Thebain, which, accord- 
ing to Stockmann, aside from its narcotic action in small doses, is 
identical in tetanic effect to strychnin. 



268 



Developments in Organic Compounds. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



/ 



och 3 



C 17 H 



15- 



Thebai'n. 



NO . OCH3 



Pyrocatechol (C 6 H 4 (OH) 2 i.2.) through conversion into guaiacol 



develops an irritating action on the spinal cord. 

Observations prove that it is not the hydroxyl groups in them- 
selves nor always the terminal groups that determine solely the 
action of a substance, but the character and complexity of the mole- 
cule. However, these groups assist in bringing the entire molecule 
into action with certain chemical compounds in the organism. 
When the reactive group which exerts the selective action of the 
compound in the organism is slightly altered or covered, then under 
conditions we can prevent the action of the entire compound. 
Between such terminal groups as hydroxyl or methoxyl and certain 
nerve centers or points in the organism where chemical substances 
react, definite chemical relations must exist. Through changes in 
these terminal groups we are able to move the point of attack of 
the substance or to render it absolutely inactive, but as long as it 
remains active, the fundamental characters of its action (although 
frequently modified) always manifest themselves, as for example 
the alkaloids and their derivatives. 



The replacement of a hydroxyl by an alkyl rest renders the entire 
body chemically and pharmacologically more resistant to oxidation 
in the system. Alkyl groups, more especially the ethyl, impart a 
narcotic effect. This narcotic and analgesic action is independent 
of the chemical character of the substance, it being a specific prop- 
erty of this group alone. The methyl group exerts a like effect, 
but much weaker and less certain. Higher alkyl rests present no 
advantages over the ethyl. Thus, through the introduction of an 
oxyethyl group into caffeine (ethoxycaffeine) an additional narcotic 
action is developed. 

Disulfones which contain ethyl ( — C 2 H 5 ) groups are active, and 
the intensity of effect evidently depends upon the number of such 
groupings contained in the molecule. 




INTRODUCTION OF ALKYL RESTS. 



Am j J u n U e^'i9oi arm '} Developments in Organic Compounds. 269 
A disulfone containing 'but. one ethyl group 
CH 3v /SOo.CHg 

CH./ X S0 2 .C 2 H 5 
Ethyl-methyl-sulfone-di-methyl-methane 

produces an effect only half as intense as that of one containing 
two such groups as sulfonal, 

CH S0 2 .C 2 H 5 

CH./ X S0 2 C 2 H 5 
Diethyl- sulfone-di-methyl-methane. 

Again, sulfonal is less active than trional, containing three ethyl 
groups. 

CH 3 ^ y S0 2 . C 2 H 5 

Diethyl sulfone-methyl ethyl-methane. 

Tetronal (C 2 H 5 ) 2 C(S0 2 C 2 H 5 ) 2 ) containing four ethyl groups is more 
markedly sedative than hypnotic. An interesting fact is that para- 
phenetol carbamid (Dulcin) 

(co/ ) 

V \ N H — C 6 H 4 OC 2 H/ 

is sweet, while the methyl derivative is tasteless. The ethyl group 
has a certain fixed relationship to the nervous system, as shown by 
most bodies containing the ethyl radical. Ehrlich has found that 
ethylated colors stain the nerve cells, while those containing methyl 
groups failed. 

CHLORIN. 

In general the introduction of chlorin in aliphatic compounds 
produces bodies of a more or less narcotic action where active anti- 
septics result if the substituted body belongs to the aromatic series. 
Too extensive a substitution will develop unpleasant caustic action. 
The introduction of bromin does not yield compounds of any 
greater antiseptic value than those produced by iodin. 

Iodin imparts to all . bodies of both series strong antiseptic prop- 
perties, promoting resorbtion and granulation. The substituted 



270 



Developments in Organic Compounds. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



iodin should be in a sufficient unstable condition so that under in- 
fluence of the secretions it will be slowly liberated. 

The toxic effect of aliphatic chlorinated products stands in direct 
ratio to their narcotic action ; the more chlorine introduced the 
greater the toxicity, when otherwise no change in stability and 
physical relationship has occurred. Thus methylene chlorid 
(CH 2 C1 2 ) is less toxic than chloroform (CHC1 3 ) and is a lighter anaes- 
thetic. On the other hand, tetra chlor methane (CC1 4 ) is far more 
dangerous than chloroform. The simpler aldehydes, as formalde- 
hyde (HCHO) or acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO) are of an irritating 
nature. This character disappears upon the introduction of chlorin, 
attaining a maximum hypnotic effect in the tri chlor-substitution 
product (chloral CG 3 CHO). The antiseptic effect of the benzole 
derivatives increases with addition of halogens ; thus para-chloro- 
phenol 



are all active antiseptics, the latter being the most active. 

The iodin substitution products play a still more important part 
among the antiseptics, as, for example iodoform (CHI 3 ), iodo cresol 




trichloro-phenol 




and tri bromo-phenol 




OH 



Traumatol C 6 HI 3 / 



OH 



CH 3 



tri-iodo cresol 



Losophan C 6 HI. 





Am ju°ne'iwi arm '} Developments in Organic Compounds. 



271 



DOUBLE LINKAGE. 

According to Loew, " bodies with double linkage are more toxic 
than the corresponding saturated ones." 

For example, Dr. Miessner has shown that those engaged in the 
preparation of allyl alcohol 

CH„ 

II 

CH 

1 

CH 2 OH 

suffer serious toxic symptoms, while the corresponding saturated 
propyl alcohol 

CH 3 
I 

CH, 
I 

CH,OH 

is non toxic. 

The trebly linked di-iodo-acetyliden 

CI 
CI 

is an energetic poison, likewise allylamin (CH 2 = CH — CH 2 NH 2 ) 
also vinylamin (CH 2 = CH . NH 2 ). 

The same influence is noticeable in the non-toxic singly linked 
alkyl groups of cholin as compared to the very toxic doubly linked 
in neurin. 



Cholin (CH 3 ) 3 N< 

Neurin (CH,) 8 N/ 
Allyl mustard oil 



CH 2 — CH 2 OH 
OH 

/CH = CH 2 
N OH 



Tri- methyl- oxy. e thy I 
ammon-hycL rcxid 



Iri- methyl-vinyl- 
am mon-hydroxid. 



CH 2 
II 

CH 

CH 9 — NCS 



acrolein 



272 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



CH 

II 

CH 
I 

CHO, 

and crotonic aldehyde (CH 3 — CH = CH — CHO) are all more 
toxic than the corresponding saturated groups. 

{To be continued.) . 



THE STORY OF THE PAPAW. 
By F. B. Kilmer. 
" The slim papaya ripens its yellow fruit for thee." — Bryant. 

Grant Allen tells us that no plant can be properly understood 
apart from its native place. Therefore, we begin our study of the 
Catica Papaya in its tropical home. 

The Carica Papaya is accredited as indigenous in Central 
America. Observations and correspondence lead me to conclude 
that it has become acclimated in the hot regions of three continents. 
The zone of most abundant growth seems to lie between the iso- 
thermal lines of 77 , wherever soil and rainfall are favorable. It is 
grown by cultivation north and south of these lines. (The papaw 
is seen as far north as Jacksonville, Fla., and in Southern California.) 

In these tropical lands, where every tree or plant has its peculiar 
legends and myths, the views of the natives upon plant life are con- 
sidered unscientific and valueless, but I have found that, when 
stripped of the terms of superstition, some of their observations, 
compared with our scientific knowledge, are not far apart. Their 
apparent veneration for trees and plants is based upon intimate 
association, wherein they have come to a knowledge that plants eat, 
drink, marry, propagate, care for their offspring and bestow bless- 
ings or curses upon all living things, including man. This is about 
all that anybody can know about them. 

Many trees are famous in these lands, none more so than the papaw. 
Conflicting stories as to its powers and properties are due somewhat 
largely to the fact that different species, or variations in species 
possessing varying characteristics, are found in these localities. 

Quite universal is the knowledge of the unique property that has 
given to this tree its world-wide lame, viz.: the power of its milky 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
June, 1901. 



Story of the Pap aw. 



273 



juice to soften and dissolve* tough meat. The statement has passed 
current in our journals that the emanations from this tree will dis- 
solve and digest albumin, and that it is the custom of natives to 
hang meat and chickens in the branches of a tree to render them 
tender and edible. The natives often go farther than this ; they 
state that if male animals browse under the papaw tree, they 
thereby become emasculated. If we compare this statement with 
the alleged property of the roots as a generative tonic, we shall 
have a marvellous combination of an aphrodisiac and an anaphro- 
disiac in the same plant. 




The Carica Papaya grows prolifically between isothermal lines of 77 ; is grown 
by cultivation between the lines of 70 . 



It is needless to urge that such stories are exaggerations of the 
pepsin-like properties ot the fruit. 

The native uses of the papaw are numerous and varied. The 
bark is used in the manufacture of ropes ; the fruit is edible, and, 
according to local conditions, may be sweet, refreshing and agree- 
able, or in other localities it is sickly, sweet and insipid. The fruits 
find a large consumption by the natives, and are considered very 
nutritious. 

At the corner ot a sugar-cane field where the ragged canes bend 
over in a wild green, brown and yellow tangle, there will be stand- 



274 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



ing a papaw tree, and if the time of the papaw has quite come, 
beneath the tree will be assembled a half dozen negroes. 

The ripe fruit is eaten as we eat melons. Salt enhances the 
flavor, and some users add sugar. The melons must be perfectly 
ripe when eaten raw, as the green fruit contains a strongly marked 
acrid principle. The color of the ripe fruit is more or less that of 
our very yellow muskmelon. The sweetness of its resinous, pulpy 
juice clings to the tongue and remains prevalent for some hours. 

The natives enjoy the flavor, while the stranger has to acquire the 
liking. Excellent preserves are made of the ripe frnit, which, for 
this purpose, is boiled down in sugar and candied (like citron). 

At the sugarhouses slices of the papaw are often seen seething 
in hot syrup. The slices of melon combined with some acid fruit is 
made into native tarts, which articles correspond more or less to 
what we call " pies." The fruit is also stewed and served on the 
table. The green fruit is made into plain and spiced pickles, which 
are highly esteemed. 

The fruit, just before ripening, is peeled and sliced, macerated in 
cold water, with frequent changes of the water for some hours ; the 
then macerated fruit is dropped into boiling water, boiled sharply 
and then served as a vegetable. 

In every tropical village one will find a market place set apart 
where the native products are bought and sold, and in such a place 
by the roadside, under the shade, are the market women in their 
quaint baskets or bowls, the traveller finds an astonishing and puz- 
zling variety of green and yellow colored fruits and vegetables. 
The papaw is always there in abundance, and a most frequent cry 
of the sellers is, " Aqui estan las Mameo," or " Ca qui ule papaya 
ca qui ule.'' 

As an article of food one finds the papaw prepared in a score of 
ways, making a variety of edible dishes, which, from the native 
standpoint, would be expressed in our language as " wondrous and 
nutritious delicacies." 

A plant so universally distributed and possessed with such varied 
properties, naturally takes an important place in the native materia 
medica. In the native parlance, " It makes him much well." 

The seeds are reputed as anthelmintic 1 and emmenagogue; they 
are also used as a thirst quencher, form component parts of a drink 
used in fevers, as well as being used as a carminative. Syrups, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



Story of the Papaw. 



275 



wines and elixirs made from the ripe fruit are expectorant, sedative 
and tonic. 

A malady which the natives call the " cocoa bag," is a trouble- 
some tropical disease, reputed to be hereditary and contagious; at 
all events, it seems to lurk in the blood of persons of otherwise 
apparently good health and habits. Suddenly the victim becomes a 
mass of offensive sores, debilitated, etc. The native doctors add the 
papaw fruit to the diet drinks used in this disease, and succeed in 
moderating its violence, at least. To the sores a paste made with 
the papaw milk as one of the constituents is also applied. 

The slight pimples accompanying the first stages of the yaws 
soon spread into ulcerous sores that cover the entire body. Here, 
too, the claim is made that a slice of the papaw rubbed over the 
pimples will abort them. It is also claimed that the ulcers may be 
cleaned in a similar fashion. 

I witnessed a most striking cleansing of a black foot in which the 
chiga had bored and laid its eggs, producing a mass of foulness 
beyond description. Here a paste of the papaw milk was pushed 
into the seething mass and kept there for forty-eight hours. It was 
then flushed, curetted, and antiseptics were applied. A clean wound 
which readily healed, resulted. 

The green leaves or slices of the green fruit of the papaw are 
rubbed over soiled and spotted clothes, and by its power of dissolv- 
ing stains, papaw has acquired the name of " melon bleach." The 
leaves or a portion of the fruit are steeped in water and the treated 
water is used in washing colored clothing, especially black, the 
colors are cleaned up and held fast. 

The seeds are eaten as a delicacy. They have quite an agreeable 
taste, something on the order of the water-cress and a piquancy 
slightly suggestive of the mustard family. Macerated in vinegar 
they are served as a condiment. 2 

The strange and beautiful races of the Antilles astonish the eyes 
of the traveller who sees them for the first time. It has been said that 
they have taken their black, brown and olive and yellow skin tints 



^he anthelmintic properties residing in both the seed and juice have been 
noted by various authorities. 

2 The seeds are encased in a slimy coating and advantage is taken of this by 
the younger generation, who spread them out on a board, and by this means 
form a " slide," which corresponds with the frozen gutters so agreeable to our 
northern urchins. 



276 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharai. 
June, 1901. 



from the satiny and bright hued rinds of the fruits which surround 
them. If they are to be believed, the mystery of their clear, clean 
complexion and exquisite pulp-like flesh arises from the use of the 
papaw fruit as a cosmetic. A slice of the ripe fruit is rubbed over 
the skin and is said to dissolve spare flesh and remove every 
blemish. It is a toilet requisite in use by the young and old, pro- 
ducing, according to the words of a French writer, " the most beau- 
tiful specimens of the human race." 

The papaw has been brought to America as a cure for the national 
disease, dyspepsia. In its tropical, home there are no dyspeptics, 
but its use along similar lines is by no means unknown. 

The meat in these countries is tough and tasteless; beef, mutton, 
pork or fowl have the same flavor, and are as tough as hickory 
wood; boiling until they fall to pieces does not render them any 
more edible ; they simply change from solid wood to fine tough 
splinters. 

One reason for this is that in this climate meat must be eaten 
immediately after slaughter. (It often reaches the pot in an hour 
after killing.) The papaw helps to overcome this Rubbed over 
tough meat it will render it soft and change a piece of apparent 
leather to a tender, juicy steak. It is put into the pot with meat, 
enters into the cereals, soups, stews and other dishes, and they are 
made at least more edible and digestible. 

Most of the half-breeds of Indian extraction upon the South 
American Continent and adjacent islands are particularly given to 
meat diet ; many of them eat it raw, 3 sometimes in a state of partial 
decay, and here the papaw is brought into use, being eaten with the 
flesh or rubbed over it before it is eaten. 

Some of these people are great gluttons ; they gorge themselves 
until the skin on their distended stomach is stretched to its utmost. 
It is certain that no human being could digest the kind of food and 
the enormous amounts they consume without the kindly aid of the 
papaw fruit to assist digestion. 

NAMES AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

The botanical characteristics of this family having been more or 
less completely described by various authors, need not here be 



3 In Bolivia and Paraguay it is a very common sight at the railway stations 
to see raw meat peddled out in chunks to passengers. 



Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
June, 1901. 



Story of the Pap aw. 



277 



repeated. Of the many species the following are edible : Carica 
cauliflora, C pyriformis, C microcarpa, C. integrifolia, C Papaya and 
C quercifoha. 

The Carica digil l ata is credited with poisonous emanations, and its 
juice is actively poisonous, causing pustulation when applied to the 
flesh. 

The Carica Papaya is designated by different names in the 
various localities where found. For instance, in Mexico, " lechoso," 
in Brazil, " papai," "maneo" and " mamerio "; in Paraguay, 
"mamon." 4 

Here, too, the term "jacarata" (chakarateca) is applied to the 
Carica Papaya, as well as to several trees of the same natural 
order. In Yucatan the native uncultivated variety is designated as 
" chich put," or little papaya, while the cultivated is simply " put." 
The Spaniards designated the original species as " papaya los 
pajaros " or " bird papaya." The term " papaw," though sometimes 
applied to several species, almost universally means the Carica 
Papaya. 

Among the names by which botanists have designated this plant 
are the following : Papaya fructu melopeponis, Tuournefort ; Papaya 
Carica, Gaertn ; P. lyatira, Tuss; P. vulgaris, A. D. C; P. Orien- 
tates Col. ; Carica Papaya, L.; C. Maniaya, Veil. 
The Carica Papaya may, in brief, be described as follows : 
A single, supple, slim, straight stalk, terminating in a group of 
large leaves which are arranged in the form of an umbrella, branch- 
ing only when its growth is interfered with. Cultivated plants 
attain a height of from 10 to 30 feet ; wild varieties push up to 60 
or even to 100 feet. Near the base of mature trees the diameter 
ranges from 6 inches to I foot. In a young plant the stalks consist 
of a cellular pith filled with water ; in a mature tree that portion of 
the trunk immediately under the bark is fibrous for a few inches, 
followed by a soft inner layer of an inch or more, terminating in the 
central portion, which is hollow. At intervals through the hollow 
centre are seen membranous tissues dividing the cavities into sec- 
tions, and in the rainy season, for a considerable height up the 
trunk, this central cavity is filled with water. The wood of the 

4 In Brazil the uncultivated plant is designated as "mameo-femeo" ; the 
cultivated form of the same as " mameo-meleo ;" the hermaphrodite plant 
" meneco-macho." — (Rusby.) 



278 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1901. 



papaw is soft, white and spongy ; cuts easier than a potato; is full 
of water, decays rapidly, and is not useful for any purpose. The 
trunk is covered with a gray (green at the top) smooth, tough bark 




I. — Carica Papaya, branch of Male or Hanging Papaw. 

II. — Staminate flower. 

III. — Male flower. 



laid on in folds, which at intervals form rings. 

A large turnip-shaped tap-root reaches down to seek nourishment 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



Story of the Pap aw. 



279 



and to give stability to the tree. These roots are similar in struc- 
ture to the trunk, except for a white bark, and possess an odor of 
cabbage and a peculiar taste suggesting radishes. The leaf stems 
are large and hollow, cylindrical toward the leaf and flattened at the 
point where they join with the stalk. The leaves are large palm- 
lobed, with somewhat deep indentations, dark green on the upper 
and light green on the under side. They are short-lived and, as the 
tree shoots upward, they drop off, leaving scarry marks in the bark 
of the tree trunk. 

The locality where grown, as well as the effects of cultivation, 
modify the character of this plant, hence we find on record varying 



descriptions and statements. Among the notable varieties of the 
Carica Papaya are the green and violet. The latter species which 
has had considerable attention paid to it, is the one most highly 
esteemed for cultivation, but does not attain great height. The stalk 
and limb portion of the leaves are violet color. The fruit is large, 
often weighing as high as twenty pounds, and when ripe is very 
sweet. While young the trees are kept shady, and pruned to pre- 
vent their growing tall. To encourage fruit, portions of the flowers 
are picked off ; the smaller fruits are removed when green, so that 
the remainder will grow larger and stronger. By cultivation a 
dwarfed variety (" lechoso enana ") is produced. The green Carica 
grows to greater height than the purple; its fruits are smaller and 
possess a less agreeable flavor. 

The three forms of flower present in the papaw are, according to 




IV.— Pistillate flower. 
V. — Young fruit. 
VI. — Seed seen in section. 



28o 



Story of the Papaw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June. 1901. 



the native description, classified as varieties. The so-called female 
trees bear only fruiting flowers and produce the largest fruit' and the 
greatest numbers. These flowers are single, with a yellow (or 
purple) corolla with five sessile petals, growing in considerable 
numbers at the apex of the stalk, which rapidly pushes upward 
and puts out new leaf stems. The fruit development is so rapid that 
buds, flowers, green and ripe fruit are often seen at the same time. 
The male flowers are borne on hanging stems, ranging from 6 inches 
to I foot or more in length (hence the " hanging papaw "), and may 
be white, bright yellow, sometimes tinged with purple, often devel- 
oping considerable fragrance. The hanging stems in older trees 
bear fruiting flowers and present a somewhat curious sight. The 
fruit of the hanging papaw is not large, but is very sweet. The 
fruits vary considerably in form as well as in size. They are orange 
shaped, squash-like or quite resembling the cocoa pod ; again, they 
resemble muskmelons, and in the highly cultivated variety water- 
melon shapes are seen. The fruits are green (or purplish cast) turn- 
ing yellow when ripe. 

The skin of the melon is smooth and thin. Before ripening the 
greater bulk of the latex lies just under this skin. The flesh of the 
green fruit is white, tough and watery. As the fruit ripens it turns 
to a muskmelon yellow, with a thickness of about I y 2 inches, end- 
ing in a central cavity which is filled with seeds attached to and 
held together with a delicate membrane, which constitutes the inner 
skin of the fruit. 

The seeds when fresh are dark brown, changing to black on dry- 
ing. Before desiccation their outer membranous coating is trans- 
parent and slippery ; the inner coating is hard, horny and wrinkled, 
and between these two coatings lies a mucilaginous substance con- 
taining myrosin. Within the inner shell lies the leaf-like cotyle- 
dons, veined at the base with an albuminous homotropal embryo 
with a roundish radicle easily distinguished when slightly magnified. 

The seeds when dried resemble pepper. They are aromatic, 
pungent, piquant but not as sharp as mustard, their taste slightly 
suggesting water-cress. 

CULTIVATION AND GROWTH. 

It is quite common for numerous papaw plants to spring up from 
seeds scattered by the birds over a portion of land which, accord- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



Story of the Papaw. 



281 



ing to tropical custom, has been cleared by burning away the trees 
and undergrowth. There are no forests of papaws because the 
plants need sun and room. They are seldom seen among dense 
growths. They do not progagate in clusters. For the most part 
they are the product of cultivation, and near every hut are carefully 
guarded groups from two to six in number. 5 

They present a striking appearance with their straight slim, 
shiny stalk; their bright green umbrella tops towering above a 




Hanging Papaw. 



wilderness of flower-sprinkled verdure. Most beautiful specimens 
are seen in such a place, their base covered with a tangled under- 
growth of trailing, climbing vines. Their roots are kept moist by 
fallen leaves ; and enriched by nuts and fruits that fall and rot 
among the masses of forage and litter so abundant in tropical 
gardens. 

5 This has particular reference to the habits of the Carica Papaya. Certain 
varieties such as the Carica quercifolia, C. microcarpa, etc., are sometimes 
found in the dense forests. 



282 



Story of the Papaw, 



Am. Jour. Pharu . 
June, 3901. 



The only cultivation they can possibly receive must come from 
a little house waste promiscuously thrown from the hut, the brows- 
ing of the ever present dogs, asses and goats. But under these 
conditions fruiting is generally abundant. They exhibit somewhat 
the characteristics of the melon tribe. The young plants are 
exceedingly sensitive and tender ; under slight adverse conditions 
they succumb and die. 6 

A place where it never rains but always pours seems best suited 
to the papaw. My records show the most thrifty trees in spots 
where it rains nearly every day in the year ; pouring, soaking rains 
with a fierce, bright sun shining all through the downpour. After 
the rain come the insects, lizards, centipedes and other creeping 
things that delve among the roots and climb up the stalk of the papaw 
and do the real cultivation. The plant will not flourish in swampy 
nor sandy soil, and seems to be at its best in the rich humus of the 
hillside. 7 

It grows at the edge of the sea with the waves washing the roots, 
luxuriates in the high mountain plateaus in all of the windward and 
leeward islands ; it flourishes but does not attain to any great 



6 Professor Rusby (" Carica Papaya," Druggists' Bulletin) has stated that 
this tree " can be propagated and grown with great readiness ; that its vitality • 
is so great that it is with difficulty destroyed until its natural course has been 
run." Six years' observation has convinced me that it is exceedingly difficult 
of cultivation, and that the cultivated trees are most easily destroyed by 
adverse conditions. 

7 The following is an incomplete analysis of a plot in Jamaica on which 
were several fine specimens of the papaw : 



Water (in air-dry sample) 5"o2 

Volatile matter 20*12 

Silica 3 2 "72 

Lime (as oxide) 10*62 

Magnesia (oxide) i*oo 

Potash (oxide) "52 

Sodium, trace 

Magnesia, trace 

Aluminum (and iron) 8'64 

Carbonates (CO) 2 5'8i 

Phosphoric acid ... 10*20 

Sulphates, trace 



8 In Ver ezuela thrifty spec : mens are cultivated in the sandy soil of the 
ravines. There is here, however, a rainfall averaging one metre per annum 
and the climate is very equable. 



Am j J u°ne?iSr m "} s tor y °f the Papaw. 283 

height, on the bare coral rocks of Yucatan. In parts of Peru it 
grows prolificacy without much cultivation or care, and it is reported 
that in the Transandine regions it reaches a height of over one hun- 
dred feet. 

In some localities the plant begins to grow fruit in seven months; 
in others, eighteen to twenty months from the seed. Usually its 
life is rather short, two to three years being the maximum fruit- 
bearing period. (A rare specimen was observed which was eighteen 
years old, and was bearing one to two fruits each year.) The fruit- 
ing of the papaw is abundant. From two to three hundred have 
been gathered in a season from a wild tree, in size varying from an 
inch in diameter to that of a baseball. The cultivated plants yield 
from twelve to sixty fruits, weighing from five to twenty pounds 
each. 9 

It is reported that in Brazil, in the French Colonies, in Algiers, 
and in the Island of Reunion, successful and extensive cultivations 
have been carried on. In the island of Montserrat a large acreage 
under cultivation was some three years ago destroyed by a tornado. 
In the island of Jamaica, under government patronage and the im- 
mediate direction of William Fawcett, director of the botanical gar- 
dens, several attempts at the cultivation of this plant were under- 
taken on a large scale, but the results were not encouraging. Plots 
consisting of five acres in the first instance and ten acres in the 
second were prepared by clearing, seeds were carefully selected, one 
portion of the seed being sown directly in the ground, other portions 
sown in bamboo pots, and the young plants transplanted. In the 
first instance, a rather fair proportion of the trees came to maturity 
and began fruiting, but at this stage disease set in, insects attacked 
the plants and the whole field was exterminated. The wild plants 
do not seem to be attacked by disease except after injury, but the 



9 The best method of planting papaws is to raise the young plants in beds and 
as soon as they are three inches high transplant them into bamboo joints, in 
which they can be kept until they are 9 inches high, when they can be trans- 
planted to the open ground. In dry districts they will require abundant water- 
ing, irrigation twice or thrice a week being absolutely necessary. In wet 
places they can be grown with little or no water. Papaws require good, rich, 
deep soil and good cultivation ; even then, many of the plants, just as they 
should commence to bear, suddenly fail, the plants cease to grow, the young 
leaves turn yellow and fall off. — (Wm. Fawcett, Bulletin Botanical Department, 
Jamaica.) 



284 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



cultivated plants seem very susceptible to every sort of malady. 
Insects attack the tender leaves of the young plants and they wither. 
Fungi and bacteria find here a suitable soil. 

After fruiting, and especially if the fruits are bled, the tree will 
take on a general debility and become the prey of every adverse 
circumstance. One large field was entirely eradicated by a disease 
or diseases which the natives attributed to attacks of the " mackacka 
worm." 10 In my opinion, the trouble arose from the inherent weak- 
ness of the cultivated plant in its altered environment, which ren- 
dered it susceptible to attacks of beetles and insects of various kinds. 

In another series of plantings conducted with still more careful 
preparation of the ground and selection of seeds, coupled with care 
for the young plants, there was a record of a small proportion of 
plants coming to maturity, and of these only a meagre part bore 
fruit. None of the plants or their fruits were as large as those of 
the parent stock. All of these efforts were accompanied by phases 
which were puzzling and embarrassing. 

The variations in plant life which one sees and hears of in these 
regions are somewhat interesting. It is stated that the shaddock 
contains thirty-two seeds, only two of which will produce shad- 
docks ; the remaining thirty will yield sweet oranges, bitter oranges, 
forbidden fruit, good oranges and bad oranges, and until the trees 
are in full bearing no one can guess what the harvest will be. The 
seeds of the mango selected from the finest fruit and cultivated 
with care, will rarely produce anything approaching the parent 
stock. In fact, no two trees of the mango seem to resemble each 
other. The papaw is likewise very prone to variation. Seeds 
selected with extreme care from flourishing trees, the fruit of which 
would weigh fifteen pounds, upon being planted would in part 
follow the parent stock ; other portions would revert to the wild 
prototype and yield fruit the size of a hen's egg. 

In some of the fruits of the papaw the seeds number five, in 
others prodigal nature supplies over five hundred, apparently only 
a few of these seeds are fertile. When a native desires a single 



10 The term "mackacka worm" in the tropics is applied to the larvae of 
various beetles which feed upon plants that are undergoing decay. I suppose 
that plants already diseased were the only ones affected, and that the ravages 
of these larvae hastened decay. At the present writing these larvae are reported 
as doing great injury to the logwood trees. 



Am j J U ne'i£5. arm- } Use of Wood Alcohol Pharmaceutically. 285 

tree, he buries two or three such fruits in the ground, and at most 
two or three plants are the result. After continued experiment it 
was found that seeds taken from the central portion of the largest 
and finest fruits were the most likely to be fertile, and would give 
more encouraging results. The proper adjustment of the sexes in 
tropical soil is difficult and exasperatng. 

The papaw is much like the nutmeg in its vagaries of sex rela- 
tion. It is generally agreed that for fertilization one male to ten 
female plants is the proper ratio, but until the trees arrive at the 
blossoming stage (five years in the case of the nutmeg) the male 
cannot be distinguished from the female. One can imagine the 
dismay of the cultivator who finds at the end of all his toil and 
waiting that he has a plantation of male non-fruit-bearing instead 
of the coveted female, or fruit-bearing plants. I have records of 
numerous instances where acres of ground were planted with thou- 
sands of papaw plants in which the males were in the majority of 
over fifteen to one. 

This constantly recurring disproportion of the sexes, suggests 
that in cultivation we were so changing environment as to cause a 
perversion of the sexes, resulting in a race of non-fruit bearers. 

Methods of artificial fertilization and budding, such as is followed 
in the propagation of melons and oranges, are now in the experi- 
mental stage. 

( To be continued. ) 



A FEW NOTES ON THE USE OF WOOD ALCOHOL 
PHARMACEUTICALLY. 

By Frederick T. Gordon, Pharmacist U. S. N. 

The point has been raised that one of the objectionable features 
in the use of wood alcohol pharmaceutically is its strong and pecul- 
iar odor, an odor that is unpleasant to many persons and which at 
once makes the substitution of this for grain alcohol apparent. That 
this is a drawback is undeniable; therefore the question has been 
asked if there is anything that can counteract or improve this odor. 
This is perfectly legitimate to answer, for there are many prepara- 
tions in which purified wood alcohol can be used, e. g. liniments, 
lotions, toilet preparations, etc., without impropriety, provided that 
the use thereof is made known to those whom it will most concern, 



286 Use of Wood Alcohol Pharmaceutical^. { * m -j™£;^l nu - 

the druggists, and a reasonable reduction in price is made. Any 
effort to prepare a wood alcohol that can be used surreptitiously in 
place of grain alcohol should be sternly frowned down ; if it is to be 
used — and I hope to see it in its proper place among pharmaceutical 
solvents — this use must be open and above board, sanctioned by the 
weight of authority unimpeachable. 

As far as I have been able to learn from study of the literature on 
the subject as found in our drug journals, there is but one way to 
get rid of the peculiar odor of wood alcohol and that is to eliminate 
the impurities that give it this odor. The addition of many essential 
oils and substances possessing a powerful odor will, to some extent, 
mask the odor of wood alcohol, but they will not mask it so that the 
trained nose cannot detect it, and, from some experiments I have 
made, I would say in addition that it is a waste of these oils even to 
try to hide that peculiar "methylated " odor; it will come out. The 
odor of wood alcohol is not due to the methyl alcohol it contains, 
but is due to its impurities — acetone, furfurol, methyl acetate, allyl 
and amyl alcohols, aldehyde, etc. — and when these are thoroughly 
removed we get a spirit that can scarce be distinguished from a pure 
grain spirit, one admirably adapted for use in making the cheaper 
perfumes. The process of removal is mainly chemical treatment 
and fractional distillation ; it is profitable only on a large scale. 
Such a " pure " wood alcohol, or, as it is then better named, pure 
methyl alcohol, can now be easily obtained. 

In making a number of solid extracts of some of the narcotic 
drugs with methyl alcohol, in which the menstruum was strong in 
alcohol, I made the observation that such solid extracts seemed to 
be more brittle and easier to powder than when made with grain 
alcohol, and it also seemed to me that these extracts were freer from 
inert extractive than the latter. This is a point that invites further 
investigation, especially so as it has been proven that methyl alcohol 
will extract the active principle of these drugs equally as well as does 
grain alcohol. In my work, such extracts assayed well up in alka- 
loidal strength, and proved easier of assay, too, from being freer 
from extractive matter. 

Wood alcohol has been suggested for making tincture of iodine — 
this should be positively prohibited, as such a tincture is violently 
irritating, decidedly caustic in effect and will blister or cause an 
eruption on tender skins. When used around the face or neck, its 



Am ju°n U e r ;S? rnJ '} Use of Wood Alcohol Pharmaceutically. 287 

vapor causes great irritation of the eyes and nose — almost unbear- 
able, and also makes the exposed skin smart and tingle. Even 
pure methyl alcohol tincture will cause irritation of the nose if its 
vapor is inhaled, an irritation quite different from that of iodine. 
During the winter I made a number of experiments on wood alcohol 
tincture iodine, having a number of cases under my observation 
where the chest was painted with iodine for simple cough and cold, 
painting one side of the chest with wood alcohol tincture, the other 
with grain alcohol tincture. In every case the difference was 
marked, the wood alcohol side appeared much redder the second 
day, there was sometimes faint blistering, and the patients declared 
that this side " burnt" them the most. In applying this there was 
often caused very unpleasant symptoms from the irritating effect of 
the vapor on the eyes and nose, one case of mild conjuctivitis being 
noted. In a severe case a blistering effect was wanted ; this was 
obtained easily by painting the wood alcohol tincture on thickly 
and covering it with a piece of oiled muslin. The burning pain 
became so great in ten or fifteen minutes that the muslin had to be 
taken off and vaseline applied. From this experience I would say 
that the wood alcohol tincture of iodine is only fitted for veterinary 
practice, or for cases in which strong irritating effects are called for, 
and I might add that in general the effects of this tincture were 
distinctively less satisfactory in my cases than the U.S. P. tincture. 

Noting that the peculiar irritating effects seemed to come from 
the vapor of the wood alcohol tincture, I sought the reason for this, 
and I think it lies in the formaldehyde and formic acid formed in 
this tincture by the action of iodine on wood alcohol, or some of its 
impurities ; for the tincture made with pure methyl alcohol yielded 
much less pronounced results. One hundred c.c. of tincture were 
made, U.S.P. strength, and allowed to stand ten days, to get as 
much action by the iodine as possible; this was then distilled in 
fractions of 10 c.c. and each of these examined. The distillation 
began at 66° C, running up to 68° for the last four fractions. The 
first lraction was of a light straw color, contained a trace of iodine, 
reduced silver solutions at once and gave marked reactions for 
formaldehyde and formic acid. To make sure of the former, a 
number of tests were applied to the distillate — all gave very positive 
reactions. I did not then estimate the amount of formaldehyde 
formed from given quantities of each of the substances, but this I 



288 Use of Wood Alcohol Pharmacentically. { Am j£e, r i9oi h . arm ' 

hope to do soon, as I have a tincture I am keeping for several 
months, distilling off fractions monthly. The first four of the frac- 
tions contained practically all of the formaldehyde and formic acid ; 
the amount of iodine in each increased progressively, the last two 
fractions being very dark in color, the tenth fraction not being dis- 
tilled over. 

A curious behavior of the first two fractions seems worthy of 
mention. As I remarked, these were light straw color No. I, and 
pale yellow, No. 2; when exposed to the direct rays of the sun in 
tightly corked vials they became colorless in an hour or so ; left 
standing uncorked over night, the color returned. This experiment 
was repeated several times, the color gradually fading until now, a 
couple of months later, the two samples are water- white and do not 
react for free iodine. Both still give the formaldehyde reaction 
p ainly. 

Another point. Although there is a small difference in the spe- 
cific gravities of wood and grain alcohol, the two tinctures I made 
had practically the same specific gravity, the difference in the appear- 
ance of the two tinctures would lead one to think that there is at 
least ten or fifteen points between them. The wood alcohol tinc- 
ture seemed very thin — " watery " is a term that somewhat describes 
it — and has very little " body," it is more limpid and spreads on the 
skin with great rapidity. Its color, too, is different ; it has more of 
a greenish-yellow tint in thin layers than the mahogany brown of 
the grain alcohol tincture, and is more transparent. One who has 
seen both tinctures could readily detect the wood alcohol tincture 
by its general appearance alone. However, if a pure methyl 
alcohol is used, there is very little difference between it and the 
U.S.P. tincture in general appearance ; neither is it much more irri- 
tating, either to the skin or in its vapor. No doubt the great differ- 
ence is due to the many impurities mentioned as being present in 
wood alcohol. Referring back to specific gravities, the specific 
gravity of my wood alcohol tincture iodine was 0-877 to 0-875 for 
grain alcohol tincture. 

Pure methyl alcohol seems to be well adapted for the making of 
resins from crude drugs ; its lesser cost would be a great advantage 
to the pharmacist if its use were made permissible. I made a few 
experiments in this line with podophyllin and jalap, and would 
report that I got results every bit as good in yield, appearance 



Am jine!']9 P of rm -} Methyl Alcohol. 289 

and activity from methyl alcohol as I did with grain alcohol in a 
series of parallel exhaustions ; indeed, the resins so obtained could 
not be told from one another. In fact, I think the question of per- 
mitting the use of £ure methyl alcohol for such operations, the 
making of solid extracts and similar preparations in which the sol- 
vent is completely removed from the finished article, to be well 
worthy of thought and study by our Pharmacopceial Revision Com- 
mittee, for such use would greatly cheapen the cost of many drugs 
without impairing their efficiency at all. 



METHYL ALCOHOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL 
PREPARATIONS. 

By E. Fui^erton Cook. 

The question recently raised concerning the justifiable use of 
methyl alcohol in preparations for internal or external use 
has been prominently brought before the manufacturer and phar- 
macist and it is desirable that some conclusion be reached. 

At the request of Professor Kraemer some of the more recently 
published journals, those of I90i,have been reviewed for reports in 
favor or disfavor of its use, and abstracts are submitted from those 
which add to the literature on the subject. 

The communication from Mr. Frederick T. Gordon, published in 
the American Druggist, of February 25, 1901, is prominent among 
those in favor. 

In almost none of the unfavorable criticisms does there seem to 
be a discrimination in the use of the terms " wood alcohol " ai d 
"purified methyl alcohol," and this is unfortunate, as Mr. Gordon 
has said, since the commercial wood alcohol cannot, at any time, be 
considered a rival of ethyl alcohol in preparing pharmaceutical 
preparations. 

We must, however, accept all evidence obtainable, and carefully 
determine its value, and with that end in view the following are 
presented : 

Dr. A. G. Thompson (Pharmaceutical Review, Feb., 1901, 51), 
as early as 1897, reports an instance which came under his observa 
tion, of complete blindness caused by the drinking of an essence 
of ginger. 



290 



Methyl Alcohol. 



/Am. Jour. Pharru 
<. June, 1901. 



During 1898-1899, Kuhnt, MacCoy and Michael, Moulton, Hol- 
den, Gifford, Patillo, Callan and others report cases of blindness from 
the drinking of " methyl alcohol." 

In February, 1899, Hiram Wood reports in the Ophthalmic 
Record, six cases of total blindness caused by the substitution of an 
essence of ginger for other alcoholic drinks. 

As long ago as June, 1877, Viger published an account of a 
similar case in V Annee Medicate. 

The symptoms of a typical case are as follows : about an hour after 
drinking severe headache, vomiting, excessive sweating, dilation of 
pupils and delirium. 

In twenty-four hours the delirium and other symptoms have dis- 
appeared but total blindness remains. 

The sight gradually improves during the next two months, but 
eventually permanent loss of sight results. 

A large dose of wood alcohol taken upon an empty stomach has 
been known to cause death after several hours, while complete re- 
covery has been reported when but a small dose was taken. 

On March 6th, at Crisfield, Maryland, a man, after drinking a 
large quantity of an essence of ginger, was taken violently ill and, 
though given careful treatment in a Baltimore hospital, subsequently 
became entirely blind. 

On April 1 9, 1900, a man at Circleville, West Virginia, drank some 
essence of peppermint and essence of lemon in lieu of whiskey or 
brandy. Although experiencing almost total blindness during the 
next few days, his sight gradually grew better. 

On September 6th, at Fawn Grove, York County, Pa., the drink- 
ing of some essence of ginger resulted in the death of two men and 
total blindness of another. 

The essences causing the trouble in these last mentioned places, 
Crisfield, Md., Circleville, W. Va., and Fawn Grove, Pa., were all 
manufactured by one firm and, samples having been obtained, they 
were subjected to analysis, the results being published by H. P. 
Hynson and H. A. Brown Dunning in the Pharmaceutical Review of 
February, 1901, p. 54. 

They obtained a distillate of the samples and made comparative 
tests with a mixture containing 75 per cent. Columbian spirits and 
25 per cent, ethylic alcohol, which led them to conclude, that the 
distillate was a similar mixture. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
June, 1901. 



Methyl Alcohol 



291 



In the communication above mentioned they say: "We believe 
that the results secured are such as to convince almost any one that 
wood alcohol is present in large quantities in the essence of ginger 
examined. It must also be concluded, since the tincture of ginger 
made with ethylic alcohol has never produced the toxic and sight- 
destroying effects described by Dr. Harlan, that methylic alcohol is 
entirely unfit for internal administration." 

In the Built tin of 1 harmacy, of March, 1901, page 96, an instance 
is reported of a party of four men having indulged in the drinking 
of some essence of ginger that resulted in the death of two, and only 
the most active efforts on the part of the physicians saved the other 
lives. 

The Druggists' Circular, of March, 1901, reported another case in 
which a sailor, during " shore leave," drank a quantity of essence of 
ginger. He experienced the symptoms before mentioned, followed 
by permanent blindness. 

The instance cited by Drs. MacCoy and Michael, several years 
ago, was that of a young man who, while convalescing from 
measles, succeeded in obtaining two ounces of methyl alcohol, " the 
article being a highly purified one." Two hours afterwards he 
took a similar quantity and as a result experienced the usual, 
immediate symptoms and eventually almost total blindness. 

In the same article, in commenting upon these cases they say, 
" There can be no reasonable doubt that all the people mentioned 
above were simply poisoned by wood alcohol ; as in addition to the 
finding of that substance in the ginger preparations, it is shown 
that the same result followed the use of a peppermint essence in 
which it was also detected." * * * Whether the wood alcohol 
used in making the preparations which have brought about such 
dire results was " crude " or " purified" is apparently unknown. It 
is reasonable to infer, however, that anyone employing it for such 
purposes would choose the latter on account of its comparative 
freedom from disagreeable odor. * * * The foregoing should 
sufficiently dispose of all theorizing as to the possible harmlessness 
of a purified wood alcohol. Even if it were known that it could be 
so purified as to render it no more harmful than grain alcohol, one 
would have to remember that there would always be uncertainty 
as to its purification having been fully accomplished. With 
ordinary alcohol we have no parallel risk." 



292 



Methyl Alcohol. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm 
June, 1901. 



In answering a query in the Pharmaceutical Era, April 11, 1901, 
page 393, " May wood alcohol be used as a preservative for witch 
hazel?" they say that the manu f acturers of Columbian spirits 
state in their advertisements that it cannot be used internally. 

In connection with this, the attention of all who may be inter- 
ested in this subject should be called to an article published by 
Ferdinand A. Sieker on " The detection of methyl alcohol in 
pharmaceutical preparations," appearing in the Pharmaceutical 
Review of March, 1901, and other journals. 

It is interesting to note that, according to Mr. J. Wolff, in a 
paper reported at a recent meeting of the Paris Academie, distinct 
traces of methyl alcohol are found in the fermented juices of many 
fruits, amounting to as much in some instances as two (2) volumes 
for every one hundred (100) of ethylic alcohol formed and in other 
fruits only 0*2 volumes tc the same quantity of ethyl alcohol. See 
Compt. rend., 1900, p. 1323. Zeitschr.f. {Inters, d. Na'ir. u. Genuss., 
iqoi, p. 391. 

It will be noticed that we have no reports on the use of methyl 
alcohol as a menstruum in the making of such preparations as 
those in which the final product contains none of the solvent, 
although, as Mr. Gordon says, the various manufacturers could, no 
doubt, furnish some very interesting, possibly conclusive evidence, 
if they would but report their experiences ; neither do we have any 
report upon its use in the making of toilet preparations, although 
one man vigorously protests against the very thought of its use in 
this connection. He evidently is familiar with the commercial 
grade only and not the " exceptionally pure and odorless article." 

Likewise there is almost no mention of its use in preparations 
intended for external application. 

In view of the facts above cited it is claimed that pharmacists at 
present are not justified in substituting methyl alcohol for grain 
alcohol when the preparation is intended for internal administration. 
For heating purposes it may well take the place of the more expen- 
sive liquids, also as a solvent in the preparing of solutions to be 
used in the arts, as varnishes, etc., and seemingly without objection 
in the making of pharmaceutical preparations in such cases where 
none of the methyl alcohol remains in the finished product. 



Am Tour. Phaini. 
J\.ne, 190]. 



Investigation of Colchicum. 



293 



AN INVESTIGATION OF COLCHICUM. 1 
By Louis Schui^ze. 

Query 15. — "Colchicum root arid seed both contain as their 
principle colchicine an alkaloid. Why should both be official, and 
which is preferable, and for what reasons ?" 

If colchicum depends upon the alkaloid colchicine for its thera- 
peutic value, then, it seems, only that portion of the plant contain- 
ing the largest amount of this alkaloid should be official, and all 
galenical preparations be made from that portion. 

Colchicine differs from most alkaloids in the following particulars : 

(1) It is removed from acid solutions by shaking with chloro- 
form. 

(2) It is quite freely soluble in water. 

(3) It is precipitated by Mayer's reagent only from strongly acid 
solutions. 

This alkaloid is, furthermore, very easily decomposed, its aqueous 
solutions rapidly losing strength, even when quite neutral. Mineral 
acids, even quite dilute, decompose it on application of heat. 

In assaying the root and seed for ascertaining the percentage of 
colchicine three methods were pursued, namely : 

First Met! wci, — 100 grammes of the powdered drug were placed in 
a flask, and 100 c.c. of Prollius' mixture added. After securely cork- 
ing, this was macerated, with occasional shaking, for twelve hours. 
After decanting 50 c.c. of the clear fluid, it was evaporated on a 
water-bath in a beaker nearly to dryness. The residue was taken 
up until 10 c.c. of ether and 5 c.c. sulphuric acid (2-5 per cent.) 
added and stirred until the ether was evaporated. The acid fluid 
was then filtered into a separator, retaining the insoluble residue as 
much as possible in the beaker. This residue was redissolved in a 
little ether, and 2 c.c. of the dilute acid added, stirring as before, and 
filtering the acid aqueous solution into the separator. After washing 
the filter with a little of the acid, the washings were added to the 
contents of the separator and 15 c.c. of chloroform shaken carefully 
with it during two minutes. It was then allowed to separate and 
the chloroform drawn off into a tared beaker. This treatment was 
continued with two portions of fresh chloroform (10 c.c. being used 

1 Eighteenth Annual Proceedings of the Maryland Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1900, p. 119. 



294 Investigation of Colchicum. {^z^I'ISl^ 

each time). The aqueous solution remaining after evaporating the 
chloroform was tested with Mayer's reagent, one-half strength solu- 
tion being used, and in case of seed, on discovering the alkaloid 
had not been entirely removed, again treated with chloroform. 
Finally the chloroformic solutions were evaporated to dryness, re- 
dissolved in a little dilute alcohol and again dried to a constant 
weight. This residue was nearly pure colchicine. As it might have 
retained some chloroform, it was once more dissolved in dilute alco- 
hol and dried. 

Second Method. — 10 c.c. of fluid extract was diluted with 85 c.c. 
of water, and solution of lead subacetate added in slight excess (i. e., 
until the fluid had a distinctly sweetish taste). This was made up 
to exactly 100 c.c. with water and filtered. After adding sodium 
phosphate in powdered form, sufficient to throw down the excess of 
lead, and once more filtering, 50 c.c. of the filtrate were put into a sepa- 
rator and shaken out with three portions of chloroform, dried and 
weighed, as in the first method. 

Third Method. — After removing the lead by means of sodium 
phosphate, as in the preceding method, the alkaloid was precipitated 
by tannic acid, the liquid filtered off, the tannate washed and 
digested with lead oxide, this dried and the alkaloid dissolved out 
by means of alcohol, filtered. The filtrate again dried and weighed. 

The result in each instance was as follows : 

Seed. Root. 
Per Cent. Per Cent. 

First method 0-9 o'6 

Second method o*6 0*4 

Third method 0-4 0*4 

Making for the seed an average of between 0-6 per cent, and 07 
per cent.; for the root between 0-4 per cent, and 0-5 per cent. 
Therefore, it appears the seed are slightly richer in colchicine than 
the root, and should there be no other valid reason why the root 
should be retained in the Pharmacopoeia, they would be sufficient 
whenever the effects of this drug are desired. 



Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association.— The twenty -fourth annual 
meeting will be held at Hotel Oneonta, Harvey's Lake (near Wilkes-Barre ) , 
Pa., on June 18-20, 1901. Address the Secretary, J. A. Miller, Harrisburg, for 
orders for railroad excursion tickets. 



Am jL°ne r ;i9oif rm ' } Correspondence. 29 5 

CORRESPONDENCE. 1 

PROCTER MEMORIAL. 

In response to a letter from the Editor of this Journal concerning 
the feasibility of establishing a Research Laboratory as a memorial 
to the life and work of Prof. William Procter, Jr., by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association at its semi-centennial in 1902, the follow- 
ing are some of the replies which have been received : 

Dear Sir: — That a monument to the memory of Prof. Wm. 
Procter will be erected is now a practically established fact, judging 
from the letters that have appeared in the recent numbers of the 
American Journal of Pharmacy, and the question remaining is to 
determine what form this memorial shall take. 

The statue, the medal, the scholarship, the research laboratory, 
each has its advantages and its disadvantages. Of the four, it 
seems to me that the statue is the least desirable. In perpetuating 
the memory of such a man as Procter we want a living monument, 
SDmething that will be ever before the minds of the pharmacists of 
to-day and of the future, something to stimulate us to do better 
work. If a statue be erected and placed in Washington, but a 
small percentage of pharmacists will ever hear of it again after its 
unveiling. Those who visit Washington may see it, but in that 
city of sights not more than one in a thousand would be sufficiently 
impressed to make him return home resolved to do more for the 
advancement of pharmacy. 

The medal, granted once in three or five years so that it will not 
become too common, would undoubtedly stimulate quite a number, 
but it seems to me even then there would be a decided restriction 
in the amount of good accomplished. 

The scholarship granted every year would help a larger number 
of men ; but probably most of them to whom it would be given 
would be recent graduates, frequently young men not fully matured 
and consequently not equipped to produce the best results. 

The research laboratory, if it can be properly equipped, manned 
and maintained (giving due weight to that "if"), would be the ideal 
memorial. It would be as lasting as the statue and far more impres- 
sive. The results of the labor done there would not appear only once 
in three or five years,' but every year and several times a year, and it 



1 For other information and correspondence on this subject, see editorials, 
November, 1900, and February, March, April and May issues of this Journal. 



296 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. Pkarru. 
X June, 1901. 



would not be the work of more or less immature men, but that of 
men who have already learned to work to the best advantage. Dr. 
Lyons' suggestions seem particularly good. If we could bring about 
such a condition of things, so that by law, or better, by public opin- 
ion, all medicinal substances to be deemed worthy ot recognition 
by physicians must come up to the standard set by the laboratory, 
we would have done much for pharmacy. Make the stamp of the 
laboratory of sufficient value, so that manufacturers will be glad to 
have it on their goods, and those who are now putting out inferior 
artxles, not bearing the stamp of the laboratory, would be stigma- 
tized or driven from competition. This would, of course, be only a 
part of the work of the laboratory. Original investigations along 
practical lines should receive equal attention. 

Nashville, Tenn. Edsel A. Ruddiman. 

Dear Sir : — Replying to your recent favor ; there is no ques- 
tion but what a pharmaceutical research laboratory under proper 
control and direction, whose work should be restricted to supplying 
data for the Committee of Revision of the Pharmacopoeia and for 
working out improved formulas and methods of manipulation for 
semi-official products such as are included in the National 
Formulary, might be of great value to the profession of pharmacy 
and add very largely to the reputation of American Pharmacy as 
compared with its past record. 

To be of value a strong committee should be selected, consisting 
of chairman and able members of the Committee of Revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia, the President, Permanent Secretary, Chairman of 
the scientific section and of the dispensing section of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and all work done should first have the 
sanction of this body. 

It would seem that the establishment of such a laboratory in 
connection with some government institution at Washington, as the 
laboratory of the Department of Agriculture, would be more eco- 
nomical and advantageous than to equip and conduct an entirely 
independent institution. If all the expenses were borne, it might 
be feasible to make some such arrangement and it might not. 

Boston, Mass. E. L. Patch. 

Dear Sir: — Replying to your request for further comments on 
the proposed Procter Memorial, I will say that a careful reading of 



Am jin U e?i9oi arm '} Correspondence. 297 

the suggestions made in the February, March and April editions of 
the Journal leaves me still of my original opinion — that the best 
memorial that can be devised will be a research laboratory in the 
city of Washington. Of course such would be a large undertaking, 
but by no means as expensive as some predict. The $200,000 
plant suggested by one of your contributors would be magnificent, 
but its magnificence would be chiefly in the direction of extrava- 
gance. Twenty to thirty thousand dollars would suffice, and be- 
yond that sum expenditure is hardly necessary. A stately palace 
of marble with superb equipment would be expensive, I grant ; but 
do we plain pharmacists need such a structure ? Would the plain 
Quaker whom we wish to honor desire such a monument ? No! 
Let us aim at something simple; let our motto be " Deeds rather 
than dazzle;" let the Procter Memorial Laboratory become known 
by the achievements of its workers rather than by the gorgeousness 
of its facade. President Garfield's famous saying relating to the 
teaching capacity of Mark Hopkins, his statement that a log cabin 
and a bench with his revered teacher at one end and the student at 
the other, was preferable to a college with magnificent equipment 
and poor teachers, is justly applicable in the present case. 

Surely, it were an infinitely better monument to Procter to have 
a modest building and equipment with zealous workers, than a 
massive pile with nothing done. 

Let a similar case be cited : The Lloyd Library is, or should be, 
the pride of American pharmacy. Its complete equipment is a 
positive joy to all engaged in research work, and its fame has gone 
forth to the furthermost parts of the pharmaceutical world. What 
matters it that it is housed in a modest building, with naught but a 
little tablet announcing its purpose. Its fame comes from its use- 
fulness, not from its personal appearance. 

Therefore my idea is that a research laboratory should be started, 
even though only $15,000 were raised. Let a modest house be 
purchased in Washington, and equipped for pharmacopceial re- 
search work. If the work emanating from the institution is valu. 
able, it will surely grow to greater things, and (as a judicious 
investment in Washington realty rarely depreciates) as further 
funds are forthcoming, the first modest home might be sold and a 
more pretentious plant erected. For, let it be said in passing, the 
writer does not urge a cheap monument to the " Father of Ameri- 



298 Correspondence. { Am ju°n U e?i9oi arm ' 

can Pharmacy," he merely deprecates efforts to discourage modest 
beginnings. 

Cleveland, O. H. V. Arny. 

Dear Sir: — lam heartily in sympathy with the movement to 
establish a suitable memorial to Professor Procter. After reading 
the various ideas expressed in the A.J.Ph., I have slightly modified 
the opinion which I had first formed. 

If it were possible to raise sufficient funds for the proper equip- 
ment and maintenance of a research laboratory my ideal would be 
accomplished. As I doubt very much that this can be carried into 
effect my second choice would be a fellowship. In case this would 
not be feasible then a Procter medal to be bestowed only once in 
two or three years for continuous, exceptionally meritorious work 
along pharmaceutical lines is the least, in my judgment, that should 
be decided upon. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. J. O. Schlotterbeck. 

Dear Sir : — In reply to yours of the 4th inst., I desire to say that 
I am in entire accord with the research laboratory idea, providing 
the project can be carried out in an adequate and generous way. 
This it seemed to me at first not easily possible, but if the indica- 
tions now point to a greater probability of accomplishment, the 
movement would have my fullest support. There ought to be a 
liberal endowment for maintenance or some other arrangement 
that would from the beginning remove the need of that practice of 
economy that is never fruitful. 

I will be glad to do what I can to help the matter along. 

Minneapolis, Minn. Frederick J. Wulling. 

Dear Sir : — Your favor of the 4th inst. to hand and noted. I 
am decidedly in favor of establishing a research laboratory as a 
memorial to Professor Procter, and think it decidedly the most 
suitable and desirable memorial we could erect to him. But I fear 
it will be too great an undertaking, and that the maintenance of it 
will be more than the A. Ph. A. can finance. The first expense will 
perhaps be too large for practical purposes even, for I cannot see 
where the funds will come from. The fixed charges after it is 
erected then will be in excess of what it can earn in my judgment, 
and we cannot depend or look with any assurance upon govern- 
mental support or maintenance. If it is located in New York City, 



Am 'jun U ej90L rD ''} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 299 

it may earn more from the many importers, who may avail of its facili- 
ties, than it would if located at Washington, but in any event I fear it 
cannot be successfully carried out by the A. Ph. A. The erection of the 
Hoffmann Haus in Berlin required great and long-continued efforts 
on the part of the chemists and chemical industries of the world, 
and we cannot hope to enlist the interest of nearly so many people, 
nor nearly so many large and wealthy industries. While hence I 
would prefer to see a research laboratory be the memorial for 
Professor Procter, I think the most that the A.Ph.A. can hope to 
successfully carry out is a gold memorial medal to be awarded 
annually to the pharmaceutical chemist or botanist that has in the 
judgment of a suitable committee advanced the science the most 
during the year. 

Baltimore, Md. A. R. L. Dohme. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

THE DISTILLATION PRODUCTS OF CASTOR OIL. 

It has been often noticed that toward the end of the distillation 
of castor oil, the residue in the retort very suddenly and with de- 
velopment of considerable gas is converted into a sticky rubber-like 
mass. H. Thorns and G. Fendler [Arch, Ph., 1901, 1) report exam- 
ination of the residue, which they find consists largely of the glycer- 
ide of a dibasic fatty acid, triundecylenic acid (C n H 20 O 2 ) 3 . 

From this glycerine the anhydride of the acid was isolated in the 
form of a bright yellow, somewhat elastic mass, having the formula 
C 33 H 58 5 which corresponds to the composition (C u H 20 O 2 ) 3 -H 2 0). 
The residue on heating with potassa yielded a new acid of the oleic 
acid series, a body melting at 36 and of formula C 16 H 30 O 2 . 

H. V. Arny. 

CONCERNING OIL GLANDS. 

An important contribution to the study of plant processes is an 
article with above title by A. Tschirch and O. Tunman (Arch. Ph., 
1901, 7.) 

The special subject investigated was the method of secretion of 
resins, or of oils, or of gums in the various glands or secretion cells, 
the work being performed by aid of microscope and appropriate 
stains. Among the latter the Unverdorben-Franchimont reagent, 



300 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am 'j J U n U e ^i9oi arm ' 

(copper acetate I part, water 20 parts) is given the preference, 
it staining resins from blue to emerald green, according to botani- 
cal origin. Passing over the individual peculiarities of each resin 
and oil-bearing plant examined, we find the following important 
conclusions : 

First : In no case were volatile oils and resins found in the secre- 
tion cells, bordering the intercellular spaces of the stems, the con- 
tents of such cells being either of fat or of tannin. Ethereal oil is 
invariably found in subcuticular spaces (hence in glands), where it 
evidently originates, being decomposition product of the cell wall 
rather than of the cell contents. 

Second : Wherever resin is found, mucilage accompanies it ; the 
walls of resin glands invariably having a mucilaginous layer in 
which, according to the writer, the resin is manufactured ; in other 
words, the layer which Tschirch calls " resinogenous " (resinogene 
schicht) is invariably mucilaginous. 

Third : As yet the exact chemical processes involved in the 
origin of resins and oils is unknown. 

Fourth : It is observed that while tannin accompanies the resins 
in most glands, it is found more abundant in old glands than in 
young ones. This fact could be construed either as favoring or dis- 
proving the theory that tannin is an intermediate stage in the for- 
mation of resins. The writers lean toward the affirmative opinion, 
explaining the deficiency of tannin in the young cells by saying 
that it is all used up in the process of transformation into resin and 
that when the glands become older and the resin formation ceases, 
the unused tannin is stored up without change. H. V. A. 

CONCERNING CATHA EDULIS, 

This plant, a native of Abyssinia and Arabia, where it is called 
Kat and where its leaves have been used from the earliest times by 
the natives of that region as an innocent stimulant, such as our 
coffee and tea, is the subject of a lengthy paper by A. Beiter (Arch. 
Ph., 1901, 17.) Passing over his pharmacognostical description we 
find that he obtained from the plant an alkaloid by treating the 
leaves with chloroform, saturated with ammonia, evaporation of 
the chloroform, solution in acidulated water, extraction with 
chloroform and repeated crystallization. The yield was about 
of one per cent., was in the form of small needles of bitter un- 



Am j^ne?i9o h i arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 301 

pleasant taste and with no odor. It gave reactions with the usual 
alkaloidal precipitants and likewise responded to the common color 
tests. It possesses alkaline reaction and assayed to the formula 
C 10 H 18 N 2 O. From the leaves was also obtained an interesting rub- 
ber-like product, melting at 120°, dissolving in carbon disulphide and 
other caoutchouc solvents and also vulcanizing. It analyzed to the 
formula C 10 H 17 O. There was also isolated from the leaves consider- 
able tannin, seemingly representative of both the iron green and 
iron blue classes. Lastly was obtained mannite and an ethereal oil 
lighter than water, and smelling like tea. The ash of the leaves, 
1 1 '59 P er cent, consisted of magnesium, calcium, iron, chlorine, sul- 
phates and carbonates. 

The seeds of the plant on extraction with petroleum ether yielded 
50 per cent, of fixed oil. H. V. A. 

CASCARA AND ITS ADULTERANTS. 

A form of adulteration of cascara sagrada not likely to be met 
with in this country is reported from France (E. Perrot, J. Ph. etCh., 
1901, 161). It is the addition of buckthorn bark, and the article 
deals with the pharmacognosy of the two drugs in the form of pow- 
der, the conclusions being that the chief difference between buck- 
thorn and cascara sagrada is that the former never contains sclerotic 
cells (a characteristic of the latter), and is always of a red-brown 
color rather than a yellow-brown. H. V. A. 

CHEMISTRY OF FRESH KOLA NUTS. 

The reason of the superiority of the fresh kola nut over the dried 
is explained as due to the fact that kola contains an oxidizing fer- 
ment which utilizes the oxygen of the air in converting the kola 
alkaloids as well as the coloring matter into insoluble forms. This 
is in line with the recent investigation on the so-called oxydases, the 
careful study of which is certain of explaining many of the causes of 
deterioration now unknown. Thus, it is stated that the darkening 
of all fruit on drying, and also the relative inferiority of a dried fruit 
to a fresh one, is due to the presence of such oxidizing ferments, 
which produce a chemical change on all fruit exposed to the 
air. Fresh kola nuts contain a normal and soluble alkaloid, called 
kolanine, which under the influence of the oxidizing ferment is 
decomposed or rendered insoluble. Sugar, however, prevents such 



302 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^^iSfSp*"" 

deterioration, hence it is highly advisable to dispense the kola in the 
fresh form, either as a saccharine, fruit pulp, as a syrup, or as an 
elixir. As to the so-called kola red, there is much confusion con- 
cerning this product, at least three distinct bodies bearing this name, 
and all of these are supposed to be pathological products produced 
by the oxidizing ferment. Hence, the attempt to judge the value of 
kola nuts by amount of kola red they obtain is characterized as 
absurd. — (Charles, Bull, de Sc. Pharmacol., 1900,495, through Schw. 
Woch. Ch. u. Ph., 1 901, 25.) H. V. A. 

ACTION OF METALS ON 95 PER CENT. ALCOHOL. 

95 per cent, alcohol of neutral reaction and leaving no residue on 
evaporation was left in contact during six months, placed in bottles 
of white glass, carefully corked with each of the following metals : 
Copper, iron, tin, lead, zinc and galvanized iron. At the end of six 
months the originally clear liquid was found turbid and containing 
quite a residue other than the metal itself, and the alcohol from each 
of the metals save copper, yielded on evaporation a decided amount 
of residue. Unfortunately, the experiment was not a quantitative 
one; however, it leads to the valuable conclusion that all metals 
used, with the exception of copper, are partly soluble in alcohol. 
( Dr. Malmejac, J. Ph. et Ch., 1 901, 169). H. V. A. 

ESTIMATION OF SUGAR IN URINE. 

The administration of methylene-biue obscures the Fehling's test 
in the urine of the patient. In such cases the urine must first be 
decolorized by aid of solution of mercuric nitrate ; subacetate or 
acetate of lead not answering the purpose. — (G. Patein, J. Ph. et Ch., 
1901, 172.) 

A NEW SYNTHESIS OF THE ALCOHOLS. 

Treatment of an alcohol with its sodium salts yields an alcohol 
having twice the number of carbon atoms. Thus inactive amylic 
alcohol C. 5 H r -,0 with its sodium derivative, yields an alcohol C 10 FL : O- 
Likewise onanthic alcohol C-H 13 plus its sodium salts yields Beta- 
dionanthic alcohol C^H^O and the onanthate of sodium. Likewise 
the dionanthic alcohol heated with the sodium derivative of onanthic 
alcohol gives trionanthic alcohol C 21 H 44 0. The two new bodies, 
dionanthic and trionantlrc alcohol, are described in the article. — 
(M. Guerbet, % Ph. et Ch., 1901, 179.) H. V. A. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.-l FdifnrirtI 7m 

June, 1901. I national. jUj 

MANNA FROM THE OLIVE TREE. 

In the gardens of Mansourah near the Iron Gate of the Danube, 
there are some very ancient olive trees, the trunks of which yield 
abundantly of manna, some of the exuding pieces weighing almost 
a kilo. The product on examination yielded 52 per cent, of mannite, 
identical with that from the manna ash. The residue consisted of 
sugar, gummy matter, debris and water. — (J. A. Battandier, J. Ph. et 
Ch., 1901, 177.) H. V. A. 



EDITORIAL. 

CHARLES RICE. 

Without knowledge that Dr. Charles Rice had been ill, the phar- 
maceutical world was startled by the announcement of his decease 
on Monday morning, May 13th, at 10 o'clock, in his apartments 
at the Bellevue Hospital, New York City. The fact was, he had 
not been well all winter, and few apprehended even during his 
last hours that the end was at hand. As recently as May 8th 
he had sent out to the members of the Committee of Revision of 
the U.S.P., several circulars bearing on the work. On Saturday 
afternoon, May nth, he went out for a drive in Central Park, but 
on returning was compelled to go to bed, from which he never 
arose. As to what was the cause of his death, it is not entirely 
apparent, it being supposed that he died of aneurism of the aortd. 
On May 3d he wrote : " It looked at one time as if I had to drop all 
work not absolutely incumbent upon me, but there is enough 
improvement visible to justify me holding on at least for a while 
longer, until it can be seen what the summer will do for me. I first 
had the grippe, and this was followed by intercostal neuralgia and 
indications of asthma, which, some weeks ago, became very annoy- 
ing. But I am getting better, and am only kept back by the un a- 
vorable weather." 

Dr. Rice was of Austrian parentage, and was born on October 4, 
1 84 1. Of his early life and subsequent career until he came to this 
country we know little, save that he received a very thorough edu- 
cation in- the classics, mathematics and the languages in various 
schools in Munich, Passau and Vienna. Having been disappointed 
in obtaining a position requiring a knowledge of Sanskrit under the 



304 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



British Government, he came, through the influence of an uncle, to 
America, in 1 862. During the war he served in the navy as hospital 
steward, and had an opportunity of visiting various foreign coun- 
tries. After his discharge from service he had a spell of illness and 
was taken to Bellevue Hospital. Meanwhile he was made assistant 
to John Frey, the apothecary of this institution, and prosecuted his 
chemical studies so that upon the death of the latter he was made 
superintendent of and chemist to the general drug department of 
Bellevue Hospital, and subsequently chemist to the Department of 
Public Charities and Corrections of New York City, which positions 
he held during the remainder of his life. 

His later life has been so rich in accomplishments that a knowl- 
edge of all the details of his early life are not essential to an under- 
standing of his character. His whole life was devoted to high pur- 
poses and was so filled, in not only doing his own work, but also in giv- 
ing aid and counsel to others, that when one approached him there was 
no time for gossip or idle chat. Indeed, it would not be saying too 
much that these things were foreign to his nature, and that life had 
a greater meaning for him than this. It seems almost as though 
Emerson must have been writing of some such personality as his 
when he portrays what a friend should be, and says: 

' ' Why should we desecrate noble and beautiful souls by intruding ou them ? 
Why insist ou rash personal relations with your friend? Why go to his house 
or know his mother and brothers and sisters ? Why be visited by him at your 
own? Are these things material to our covenant? Leave this touching and 
clawing. Let him be to me a spirit — a message, a thought, a sincerity. A 
glance from him I want, but not news nor pottage. I can get politics and chat 
and neighborly conveniences from cheaper companions. Should not the society 
of my friend be to me poetic, pure, universal and great as nature itself? Ought 
I to feel that our tie is profane in comparison with yonder bar of cloud that 
sleeps on the horizon, or that clump of waning grass that divides the brook ? 
Let us not vilify, but raise it to that standard. * * * * Worship his supe- 
riorities." 

Dr. Rice was one whom it will require years to appreciate and 
understand. He will undoubtedly rank as the superior of all who 
have labored before him in the profession of pharmacy. " He 
taught, as the artist must, without intention, and his lesson was 
how a man may be modest and self-reliant." In reply to a 
request for a biographical sketch, he sent the following on March 
11, 1900 : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



Editorial. 



305 



Concerning your last letter, I* want to say now that I beg you to give up the 
idea of making any sort of display of me in print. The older I get, the more 
distasteful is this to me. I cannot prevent any one from acting on their own 
will and judgment, but when I have a chance of giving my views before the 
thing is done, I trust that my wishes will be fulfilled. My life, before I came 
to this country, passed along in so uneventful a manner that the only land- 
marks in it that I could point to, are fully covered by the biographical sketch 
in the American Druggist some seven or eight years ago. Since I am here, 
and since I hold my present position in the Department of Public Charities 
(now about thirty-four and one-half years) my connection with pharmaceutical 
journalism and pharmacopceial matters are, I believe, sufficiently well known 
not to require announcement. Whatever is to be said about me, let it be said 
after I am gone. Any sort of display about me, particularly now, would 
be surely taken by some persons as a personal advertisement on the eve of the 

convention. I am sorry that Dr. has seen fit to put such a puff 

into , yet I cannot blame him, as he did not know how I feel 

about it. 

Hoping that you will drop the idea and comply with my wishes, I remain 
your sincere friend, 

Charges Rice. 

A close study of the life of Dr. Rice will show that he was 
pre-eminently a man of character. One could not but see in him the 
personification of all the noble traits. He, unlike other men, 
apparently had no chart or compass. He simply acted and lived 
as seemed best, and what he did was right. He was so unselfish in 
all his actions that he amazes us, and was with difficulty sometimes 
understood. In 1885, as Chairman of the Committee on Unofficial 
Formulas of the American Pharmaceutical Association, he had 
worked out a plan whereby the New York and Brooklyn Formulary, 
which he and others in the vicinity of New York had made so suc- 
cessful, was to be turned over — for the sake of the larger field of 
usefulness and greater good — to become the property of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association. The discussion on this subject 
(see Proc, 1885, pp. 558-564 and 574-575) is most interesting read- 
ing. The proposition was at first refused, and then through Mr. 
Ebert the matter was again brought up and Dr. Rice spoke as fol- 
lows. Those who knew Dr. Rice can doubtless see him and hear 
him, because the tenor of his remarks on this occasion were charac- 
teristic uf him on all occasions. He said : 

Mr. President : — Certainly, yesterday it appeared to me that there was a 
peculiar reluctance, to accept the gift freely offered, but I am happy to say 
that reluctance due to a misunderstanding has been overcome. This may have 
occurred in readingithe report hastily. We had in substance offered you the 



306 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



following terms : We have asked you to approve of the Formulary, provided 
you thought it worth}-. That was the proposition, or, perhaps, merely a sug- 
gestion on the part of the committee. Then the other proposition was put in 
the form of an invitation from the New York and Brooklyn societies, asking 
the Association to join in the copyright. We did not insist that you should 
copyiight it ; we offered it to you and wanted to help you in the matter of 
getting the copyright, as we are incorporated. Or if you did not want it copy- 
righted, and are rich enough to put your hand into your pocket and pay for 
its publication without insuring to yourselves the exclusive sale of it, you 
could go ahead and do it. The next proposition was that we ask you— actually 
ask you — to take all the work that had been done in the preparation of the 
third edition, which we interrupted in order to make you this offer. We did 
not ask you to appoint us a committee. As a committee you can appoint any- 
body else. We are very willing to turn over all our papers to this committee. 
We knew that some money was required to carry on the experiments, and we 
suggested that you place some funds at the disposal of the committee. You 
need not do this if the committee are all rich men and are willing to pay the 
expense themselves. But you could not expect everybody to do that and 
serve upon the committee. If this committee is going to correspond with the 
State pharmaceutical associations in all parts of the United States, to find out 
what formulas each one desires to have introduced, with a view of making 
them uniform, there will be some expense. In view of the fact that all the 
work would cost something, we suggested that you set aside for the use of the 
committee $250. 

It should not be forgotten that a previous committee made an official 
request of our General Committee to let them have the New York and Brook- 
lyn Formulary, in order to incorporate it in their report to this Association, 
because they could not get up anything better. We made the reply that we 
were not authorized at the time to turn over the book ; but as the work has 
now advanced so far in our hands, we concluded to give it to the Association 
in order to make it national. We sent a representative to Philadelphia to see 
the Council, and the Council seemed to be satisfied with the offer at that time 
so far as they understood it ; but they decided that they were not authorized 
to accept it, or to act in the premises, and the advice then given us was to 
come to the Association. In response to that invitation, we make you a very 
liberal offer and that is what was given to the Association yesterday. Yester- 
day the impression on my mind and on the minds of my colleagues was very 
strong that our offer was supposed to be not quite disinterested, and that for 
this reason cold water was thrown upon it. I am glad to say that that was a 
misapprehension. The explanation made a little while ago is satisfactory, 
and the offer still stands, without any reserve of any kind ; and if you are 
ready to act upon it, we shall be perfectly satisfied. 

This was the beginning of the National Formulary, and in its 
inception, principles and subsequent policies Dr. Rice was the 
master hand. 1 For most men this would have been a monumental 



1 See Proc. A.Ph.A., 1884, p. 506 ; 1S85, pp. 558, 574 ; 18S6, pp. 159, 177, 191 ; 
1887, p. 496 ; 18S8, first issue of the National Formulary. 



Editorial. 307 

work. But even a greater work was done by him on the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia. To wholly grasp the dilemma and appreciate the 
position of the pharmacists of the United States in regard to the 
revision of the Pharmacopoeia and the needs of reform, one must 
consult the Proceedings of the A, Ph. A. for 1876 and 1877. 1 Suffice 
it to say that in enieavoring to solve the difficulties, one of our fore- 
most pharmacists said of his own plan and efforts (Proc, 1 877, p. 531): 
"The design and plan which was presented to the Association last 
year has been entirely and, I was going to say, ignominiously de- 
feated. * * * The American Medical Association has distinctly 
refused to have anything to do with the subject, and now we are in 
the condition we were in before the broaching of the subject. The 
subject was entirely mine ; brought up entirely by me, originally 
in the American Medical Association, and so far as I am concerned, 
it has been entirely defeated and entirely frustrated. * * * The 
whole subject of the Pharmacopoeia seemed to me to require recon- 
struction and reform, and I undertook that subject with hesitation, 
but yet earnestly and carefully and with the least possible personality, 
and proposed a method of reform and a plan for discussion. This 
soon brought upon me and my propositions an amount of abuse of 
a character so personal and so intemperate as to be extremely 
disagreeable, and therefore, I am now ready to leave the matter 
and turn my attention to something better than setting up for 
a reformer, even though still convinced of the necessity of the 
reform." 

It was under these circumstances that Dr. Rice was asked to 
serve as chairman on the Special Committee of the A.Ph.A. on 
Revision of the U.S.P. In the following year he organized the 
committee, distributed the work among members and others, and 
was ready to report at the meeting in 1878 (see Proc, p. 668) a 
developed and successful plan. The work completely broke down his 
health, and he asked to be relieved therefrom. This was done, and 
it was then that Professor Maisch said (see Proc, p. 879) that " it is 
principally due to that energy and wonderful talent of organizing 
possessed by Mr. Rice that it [the work on the Pharmacopoeia. — 
Ed.] has reached its present advancement." In closing his report, 
Dr. Rice said, in his customary manner: " The chairman is grateful 



Am. Jour. Phariu. 
June, 1901. 



J See Proc. A.Ph.A., 1876, pp. 629-650; 1877, pp. 53^-539. 552-557- 



3 o8 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



for the honor conferred upon him, as well as for the expressions of 
encouragement which he has received during the past year ; but it 
should be borne in mind that all the advance thus far made is pri- 
marily due to the able and earnest workers who are members of the 
committee, or who have assisted the committee in its labors." Not- 
withstanding his modesty, Professor Maisch at that time showed 
upon whom the honor should be placed, and for twenty years the 
pharmaceutical and medical professions have recognized that it was 
the character and intellect, the mind and heart of Charles Rice that 
pre-eminently made the U.S.P. what it is to-day. Fortunately he 
lived long enough to mould the policies and direct the work of 
revision of the forthcoming Pharmacopoeia, so that the success of it is 
assured. His place cannot be filled, but his influence on pharmaco- 
pceial work, like that on the National Formulary, has been so great 
that for all time men will know what to do and how the work should 
be done. He made the compass and the chart, and while difficul- 
ties will present themselves and storms will arise, yet there surely 
must be those who will be familiar with his life and actions so that 
all will be well in the future, and the U.S.P. will continue to hold its 
own for all time to come. 

Dr. Rice never posed as the reformer ; he knew too well the ex- 
periences of men from the time of Confucius to Emerson ; that what 
was needed was the work that the present generation required to be 
done. He, knew, too that this required the co-operation of every 
one who could contribute to it. He knew who could work and he had 
them work. He organized and led ; and everyone else received the 
honors and emoluments for the work. He was satisfied that the 
work was done. When the convention of 1890 voted him an 
honorarium of $1,000, he turned it back into the Revision Com- 
mittee Fund to pay others for their labors. As chairman of the Revi- 
sion Committee of 1900 he was voted a salary, but he never asked for 
it and had not, we believe, been paid for his services. He was the 
ready worker at all times, doing his own work and that of others 
too. If the needed work required him, it mattered not the condi- 
tion of his health or how much other work he had to do, he was 
ready to do it. When on account of impaired health he asked to 
be relieved of the chairmanship of the Committee of Revision of 
the A. Ph. A. in 1878, and after the chairman who succeeded him had 
resigned, and after several ineffectual attempts to induce other mem- 



Editorial. 309 

bers of the Committee to accept the position had failed, he 
(see Proa, 1879, p. 668), "rather than let the whole plan fail for 
want of an organization, consented, much against his wi<rh, to 
re-accept the office on the authority of the Executive Committee 
and of the President." The entire report is well worthy of perusal, 
as it shows this man of modesty and self-assurance in a strength 
and beauty that is most commendable. 

Dr. Rice wrote a great many papers, and he never wrote unless 
he had something of value to say, What many investigators 
would have put into an elaborate paper he put simply into a state- 
ment of fact, as is shown in his answer to the query on st The 
asserted variable solubility of sulphate of morphia " (see Proa, 
1875, 821), of which there is not even a record in the general index. 
In this connection it may be stated that he was Associate Editor of 
New Remedies, which was subsequently merged into The American 
Druggist. He served as chairman of the Committee on Adulterations 
and Sophistications of the A.Ph.A. in 1873 and 1874, and demon- 
strated how useful this committee might be in collating personal 
observations, private communications and published reports in the 
various journals bearing on this subject. These reports will always 
be deserving the careful perusal of committees having this matter in 
charge, as the disposition of the work, the general deductions and 
observations, hold as true to-day as then. Dr. Rice served the 
A.Ph.A. on many occasions. When through failing health Pro- 
fessor Diehl was compelled to resign as Reporter on the Progress 
of Pharmacy, Dr. Rice though not present was elected to help the 
association out of its dilemma. He arranged for the work, 
divided the salary among those whom he engaged to assist him in 
it, arranged the report for the press, read the proof, and even 
made the index himself. Surely no man in pharmacy acted like 
this man, giving his time, his money and himself on each and every 
occasion. He was First Vice-President of the A.Ph.A. at the meet- 
ing in Washington in 18S3 and doubtless would have been made 
President of the semi-centennial meeting in 1902. 

Dr. Rice was an active member of the College of Pharmacy of the 
city of New York and was chairman of the Committee on Examina- 
tions. He also served the College in other ways; as chairman of 
the Library Committee and as a member of the Board of Trustees, 
and in the language of Samuel W. Fairchild, former President of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Juue. 1901. J 



Editorial. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. June, 1901. 



College, "was unfailingly and devotedly interested in the affairs of 
the College and zealous in promoting every measure that seemed to 
promise improvement in the College work." 

All that has been referred to in this brief sketch is but a part of 
the career of this great man, and was the work accomplished during 
his period of recreation. His best work was given as chemist and 
superintendent to the Department of Correction and Charities of 
New York City. He conducted all this work without permitting 
the political rings in New York City to influence it in the least ; he 
organized the work and made the department the only one that 
has not suffered through the influence of political intrigue at one 
time or other. He so conducted his department that, though the 
work might be scrutinized with all the malice of a foe, nothing 
should reward the search but the finding of a faithful adherence to 
duty. 

And yet when all this is said we have but glanced at the per- 
sonality of this man. He was an unusual scholar and master of a 
dozen or more of languages. He was a most thorough linguist 
and recognized as an authority on questions of philology and ety- 
mology and was one of the foremost Sanskrit scholars in this 
country. He was a proficient mathematician, and had a thorough 
grasp of recent researches in both theoretical and physical chem- 
istry. He was a chemical as well as a biological analyst and was 
on the staff in the Pediatrics Laboratory in New York City. He 
had a working knowledge of botany and zoology that simply 
amazed specialists in these branches. At one time he was doing 
microscopical work in these sciences, and at another, systematic 
work. No one comprehended this man in his entirety. To each 
he revealed a part of himself, and because his attainments in a par- 
ticular field stood out in such bold relief, men did not comprehend 
that he was equally accomplished in others, and so men have com- 
pared their notes and they each find that he stood for more than they 
thought ; and now that the work of collating the facts of his life, his 
achievements and his character has begun, they like the hues of the 
opal and the light of the diamond, will become more and more 
apparent as we come together and speak of him and write that 
record. 

Dr. Rice was an Honorary Fellow of the New York Academy of 
Medicine and Honorary Member of the following organizations: 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



Editorial. 



British Pharmaceutical Conference, Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, Maryland College of Pharmacy, German Apothecaries' Society 
of the City of New York, the Alumni Association of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy, and the following State pharmaceutical 
Associations : Louisiana, New Jersey, Ohio and Pennsylvania. He 
was a corresponding member of the following societies : Societe de 
Pharmacie d'Anvers, Colegio de Pharmaceuticos di Barcelona, 
Sociedad de Historia Natural de Mexico, Pharmaceutical Society of 
Athens (Greece) and of the Societe de Pharmacie de Paris. 

He was a Regular Member of the German Oriental Society of 
Leipzig und Halle, the American Oriental Society, the New York 
Academy of Science, the New York Botanic Garden, the American 
Chemical Society, the American Pharmaceutical Association, the 
College of Pharmacy of the City of New York, the Committee of 
Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, etc. 

He received the following honorary degrees : Doctor of Philos- 
ophy from the University of the City of New York, and Master in 
Pharmacy from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

There is but one father of American pharmacy as there is but 
one " father of his country." These honors cannot be shared. 
But as the name of Abraham Lincoln in American history, so the 
name of Charles Rice will endure in the history of American phar- 
macy. Each, like a meteor, has his own path of glory, and each, like 
the famous mountain peaks, serve as resting places for our ascending 
footsteps that we may catch the inspiration to do our part and do 
it well. Dr. Rice, by reason of his attainments of intellect and 
character/' indisputably enjoyed an elevated rank in human nature." 
One ventures to believe that an adequate memorial of him will some 
day be undertaken. Meanwhile his memory is safe ; his work will 
be conserved and his example we should endeavor to emulate. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The last of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1 900- 190 1 was held Tuesday, 
May 21, 1 90 1. Dr. Adolph W. Miller, Corresponding Secretary of 
the College and Lecturer on Materia Medica at the University of 
Pennsylvania, presided. There was a fair attendance, and in other 
respects the meeting was a fitting close to the series of meetings. 



312 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am ju O n U e "-i90i arm ' 

The first speaker was Mr. F. B. Kilmer, New Brunswick, N. J., 
who read a most interesting and exhaustive paper, entitled " A Story 
of Papaw." (See p. 272.) Mr. Gordon stated that some years 
ago, when stationed at Colon, on the Isthmus of Panama, on board 
the Atlanta, the crew were supplied with salt pork, salt fish and 
beef, the physician in charge ordered them to get a supply of papaw 
and wrap the meats in the leaves over night, which rendered 
them digestible, and as a result the crew were very free from 
sickness. 

In reply to questions by Professor Lowe, Mr. Kilmer said that the 
natives rub the meat with the papaw and then also boil it with the 
meat, and that the ferment acts until the boiling point is reached 
when it is destroyed. Mr. Kilmer said that while it might seem 
plausible to cut off the fruits and then incise them, this was 
not found to be practicable as the latex flows but a very short time 
only after the fruit is removed from the tree. 

In reply to the question of Mr. Boring as to whether the custard 
apple, sometimes found in this region, is the same as the papaw to 
which Mr. Kilmer referred, Mr. Kilmer stated that the papaw did not 
occur further north than Jacksonville, Fla., as it will not stand the 
frost, and Dr. Miller stated that the plant to which Mr. Boring re- 
ferred is the Asimina triloba, an entirely different plant. 

Referring to certain portions of the paper, Professor Kraemer said 
in speaking of the variability of seeds which necessitates a selection 
on the part of the planters of papaw, that this is due to the fact that 
all the seeds, even though produced in the same pod or in the same 
fruit, are not necessarily alike, because each does not receive the 
same amount of nutriment and hence do not have the same degree 
of vitality. In this connection he referred to recent investigations 
which showed that the different commercial varieties of strophanthus 
were not necessarily derived from different species, but might be 
obtained from the same species, the difference being due to the 
position in the pod, those more remote from the direct sup- 
plies of food being less, or improperly, developed. He also 
mentioned the fact that pistillate plants of Arismma triphyllum 
deprived of the proper amount of nourishment produced the follow- 
ing year staminate plants. 

Professor Kraemer also referred to the subject of natural indica- 
tors (see this Journal, p. 174) and thought that the color principle 



Am. Jour. Pharru.\ 
June, 1901. j 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



313 



to which Mr. Kilmer referred belonged, in all probability, to this 
class of substances, which were apparently of rather wide occurrence 
in nature. He also referred to a recent paper in Science (see p. 
765), in which the author points out the living character of the 
ferments. 

Frederick T. Gordon read a paper on " Notes on the Use of 
Methyl Alcohol in Pharmacy" (see p. 285). In the discussion 
Mr. Wiegand pointed out that the odor in wood alcohol can be 
removed by passing the electric current through it. Dr. Miller 
said that it was sometimes used in making bay rum, and that he 
could always detect the odor, which was very offensive to him. 
E. Fullerton Cook, Assistant Director of the Pharmaceutical Labor- 
atory, presented some abstracts of recently published articles refer- 
ring to " The Use of Methyl Alcohol in Pharmaceutical Preparations " 
(see p. 289). Frederick T. Gordon presented some " Notes on the 
Spoliation of Syrups," which will be printed in a subsequent issue 
of this Journal. F. W. Haussmann sent some notes bearing on 
this question, which will also be published later. Dr. Miller stated 
that broken rock-candy cost, by the barrel, about 1 cent more per 
pound than granulated sugar, and that the cost of rock-candy would 
therefore not interfere to any considerable extent with its use in the 
preparation of medicinal syrups. Mr. Boring favored Mr. Gordon's 
suggestion to make syrups in quantity to suit the demand for them. 
Mr. Boring further said that he used rock-candy in making syrup 
of hydriodic acid, and that in the preparation of syrup of wild cherry 
he used the finely powdered bark, which he placed loosely in the 
percolator. He moistens the bark, pours it into the percolator, 
allows it to macerate, then removes, moistens again and pours back 
into the percolator, the extraction then being rapid and satisfactory. 

A device for cutting soap, by V. Clyde Michels, was exhibited, 
which consisted of a ruled board with a wire attached, so that the 
soap can be cut off in definite sizes. Mr. Boring stated that he heated 
the soap on a register and cut it with an ordinary spatula. Dr. Lowe 
suggested that several pieces of wire should accompany the appar- 
atus, as the wire was likely to break, and that he found it necessary 
to buy a large quantity in order to have it on hand. 

On motion of Mr. Boring, which was seconded by Dr. Weide- 
mann, a vote of thanks was tendered the speakers for their commun- 
ications. H. K. 



314 



Notes and News. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1901. 



PERSONAL NOTES. 

The Monument to Pasteur, which is to be erected in his native town, 
represents, besides a statue of Pasteur, a figure personifying science, who is 
holding a wreath of laurel toward Pasteur and a woman holding two small 
children, who are supposed to have been saved from death by Pasteur's dis- 
coveries. 

A Memorial Marble Bust of Robert Brown, the eminent botanist, has 
been unveiled in the picture gallery of Marischal College, the University of 
Aberdeen. 

Walter Myers' Chair of Tropical Medicine has been endowed in the 
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, in memory of the late Dr. Myers, 
whose life was sacrificed in the study of yellow fever. 

Emil Behring, Professor of Hygiene and the History of Medicine at Mar- 
burg, has had conferred on him on the occasion of the bi-centenary of the 
Prussian monarchy, the patent of hereditary nobility. 

Max Von PeTTEnkofer, Professor in the University of Munich and the 
eminent authority on hygiene and bacteriology, committed suicide on Febru- 
ary loth, fearing that he would become insane, which fear seems to have been 
well grounded as the autopsy subsequently showed. 

Theodore Husemann, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the 
University of Gottingen, died unexpectedly on February 13, 1901. 

Henry C. Blair, a prominent apothecary of Philadelphia, Pa., died on 
January 7, 1901, after a brief illness. 

William R. Warner, senior member of the firm of Wm. R. Warner & Co., 
manufacturing pharmacists, died April 3, 1901, of apoplexy. 

Hans M. Wilder, well known for his ability in preparing indices, in 
translating and abstracting scientific literature, and in arranging scientific 
collections, died on January 25, 1901. 

A Portrait of W. W. Keen, the eminent surgeon and professor in the 
Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, has been presented to that institution 
by his colleagues and students. 

G. A. Hansen, the discoverer of the lepra bacillus, will have his sixtieth 
birthday on July 29th celebrated by the erection of a marble bust, in the Lun- 
gegaard Hospital, Bergen, where he discovered the bacillus. 

The RonTGEN Society of London offers, as a gift from its President, a 
gold medal to be awarded to the maker of the best X-ray tubes. 

Charles F. Chandler, President of the College of Pharmacy of the city 
of New York, has been appointed by the President a member of the U. S. 
Naval Observatory. 

The List of the Honorary Members in the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy has been increased by the recent election to membership of Prof. 
Dr. Arthur Meyer, Marburg, Germany ; Dr. B. H. Paul, London ; Dr. Charles 
Rice, New York City (since deceased) ; Helen A. Michael, Boston ; Dr. Charles 
T. Mohr, Asheville, N. C. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, igoi. 




THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL 
CONGRESSES. 
By Fr. Hoffmann.* 

At the annual meeting of a French pharmaceutical society held 
at Strassburg in August, 1864, the disadvantages of the constantly 
increasing manufacture of, and trade in, secret remedies (nostrums) 
was discussed and the desideratum expressed for counteracting and 
suppressing this growing and, as was claimed, dangerous evil in 
medication and pharmacy. A resolution was proposed and adopted 
for calling an international conference of delegates of the represen- 
tative pharmaceutical associations for consideration and action in 
this matter. 

It remains a matter of conjecture whether an invitation was ex- 
tended by French pharmaceutical associations to other societies for 
arranging such a conference, or whether the resolution passed at the 
Strassburg meeting became known only by reports published in 
French, and subsequently republished in other pharmaceutical peri- 
odicals. The fact is that at the annual meeting of the General 
German Apothecaries' Association, held September 14-16, 1864, at 
Wiesbaden, about one month after the meeting in Strassburg, atten- 
tion was called to the resolution passed there in regard to the nos- 
trum trade. This resolution was submitted for consideration to a 



* At the request of the Editor of this Journal I have, not without reluctance, 
consented to compile from a few American, British and German periodicals at 
my disposal this brief and incomplete retrospect upon the so-called international 
pharmaceutical: congresses. ~ , " 

(315) 



3i6 



International Congresses. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



committee consisting of delegates of the North and the South Ger- 
man and the Austrian Apothecaries' Associations, and of the Phar- 
maceutical Society of St. Petersburg. This committee reported in 
favor of arranging an international conference for considering the 
prevailing nostrum evil and preparing a plan for proper and rigid 
restriction or suppression of the same. As a further topic for con- 
sideration it was suggested to come, if possible, to an agreement on 
a uniform strength of the pharmacopoeial formulae for commonly 
used galenical preparations of potent drugs, and to units of weights 
and measures. 

This committee rendered at the same meeting the following report, 
which was unanimously adopted, and may have been the real im- 
petus for the subsequent international pharmaceutical congresses : 

" In Anbetracht, dass das Geheimmittel Unwesen mehr und mehr um sich 
greift, die Regelung der medicinischen Gesetzgebung unmoglich macht, und 
das Gesundheitswohl des Publikums gefahrdet und den Landern bedeutende 
Summen Geldes entzieht, erscheint es geboten, Mittel und Wege in Erwagung 
zu ziehen, wie diesem Unwesen Grenzen zu setzen und es ganzlich zu beseitigen 
sei. 

" Die Wiirde des pharmaceutischen Standes und das Interesse desselben 
erfordern es, dass alle pharmaceutischen Vereine diese Bestrebungen kraftig 
unterstiitzen und an den beziiglichen Berathungen Theil nehmen. Um dieses zu 
ermoglichen haben die vereinten deutschen Apothekervereine in ihrer gemein- 
samen Versammlung in Wiesbaden im September 1864 beschlossen, die sammt- 
lichen Apotheker Europa's zur Abhaltung eines internationalen Congresses ein- 
zuladen. Als Versammlungsort wahlten die beiden deutschen Vereine, in vor- 
laufigem Einverstandnisse mit den in den Sitzunzen anwesenden Vertretern der 
Pharmaceutischen Gesellschaft in Sanct Petersburg und des Oesterreichischen 
Apotheker Vereins, die Stadt Dresden. Der allgemeine deutsche Apotheker 
Verein ist geneigt, seine Versammlung im nachsten Jahre dort ebenfalls 
abzuhalten. 

" Nach den uns gemachten Mittheilungen ist die Beschickung des Congresses 
von Seiten der franzosischen Apotheker mit Sicherheit zu erwarten. 

"Die Bestrebungen gebildeter englischer Apotheker, deren in der letzten 
Jahresversammlung des Oesterreichischen Apotheker Vereins Erwahnung 
gemacht wurde, lassen auch einer Betheiligung der Apotheker Englands ent- 
gegensehen." 

Wiesbaden, d. 14 September 1864. 

Dr. Rieckher, Oberdirector des Apotheker Vereins fur Siiddeutschland ; Dr. 
Geiseler, fur den Norddeutschen Apotheker Verein ; Dr. G. A. Bjorcklund, 
fiir die Pharmaceutische Gesellschaft in Russland ; Klinger, in Vertretung des 
Oesterreichischen ApothekerVereins. 

In April, 1865, an invitation for and programme of, an inter- 
national conference was issued, signed by the presiding officers {Dr. 



Am 'ju°iy!''i9oi. arm ' } International Congresses. 317 

Bley and Dr. Geiseler) of the North German and [Dr. Rieckher) of 
the South German Apothecaries' Associations. It contained the 
statement that at the last annual meeting of the General German 
Apothecaries' Association, held at Wiesbaden in September, 1864, a 
resolution had been adopted for arranging an international pharma- 
ceutical congress, that this proposition meanwhile had met with the 
endorsement of other pharmaceutical societies at their meetings, and 
that the city of Brunswick had been chosen as place of meeting. 

It was further stated, that the number of attendants should not be 
restricted, but that only delegates of recognized pharmaceutical 
associations would be entitled to voting, and that the deliberations 
will be conducted in the German language, while the use of French 
and English was also to be admitted. 

The following queries were proposed for the consideration of the 
meeting : 

( r ) How and by what means can the professional position of the pharmacist 
be maintained? 

(2) How can the insufficient supply of assistants be remedied to the advan- 
tage of both the employers and the employees ? 

(3) Are the benevolent funds instituted in support of sick and invalid assist- 
ants and of their widows, a success or a failure ? 

(4) What are the main disadvantages prevailing in maintaining the standing 
and the prosperity of the pharmacist ? 

(5) Would the principle of free competition extended to pharmacy improve 
the condition of the pharmacist and offer any advantage to the public ? 

(6) How can a uniformity of the formulae of the pharmacopceial galenicals 
be attained ? 

( 7) Is the universal introduction and adoption of the metric system in weights 
and measures desirable and what is the best way to bring it about ? 

(8) Should pharmacopoeias invariably be written and published in the Latin 
language ? 

(9) How can quackery and the nostrum evil effectually be checked and 
suppressed ? 

(10) How is the sale of poisons to be regulated so as to prevent abuse dan- 
gerous to life and health, without at the same time making the useful applica- 
tion of poisons too difficult ? 

FIRST INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL CONGRESS IN BRUNSWICK, 1 865. 

The Congress took place immediately after the annual meeting of 
the North German Apothecaries' Association in Brunswick, Sep- 
tember 16 and 17, 1865. Only a few sessions were held and 
attended by twenty-nine delegates, representing twelve pharma- 
ceutical societies of Germany, Austria, Russia, France and Sweden. 



31 8 International Congresses. { Am ju°yy«£. ariD ' 

Mr. Dittrich, of Prague, was elected President and Mr. Robinet, of 
Paris, Vice-President. 

The following conclusions were the result of the deliberations on 
the before-stated respective questions submitted to the Congress : 

(1) By obligatory higher preliminary education and an adequate professional 
education consisting of three to three and a half years' apprenticeship (two to 
two and a half years for young men of superior preliminary education), of three 
years' service as assistant, and three terms of university or college study. The 
requirements at the State examination for obtaining the license as apothecary 
should be raised, particularly in inorganic and organic chemical analysis. 

(2) By the same measures as proposed in the reply to the first question. 

(3) No definite conclusion was obtained. 

(4) Repression of the nostrum trade and the dispensing of medicines by 
medical practitioners. 

(5) This question was answered in the negative. Experience demonstrates 
the fact that free competition has p-oved of rather detrimental consequences, 
nor is it conducive to cheapening the prices of medicines. 

(6) At the periodical revision of the various pharmacopoeias a uniformity of 
the formulae should be gradually attempted. 

(7) The desirability of the adoption of metric units was generally conceded, 
and the opinion prevailed that it should be made obligatory by governmental 
ordinances. The introduction would not cause any considerable difficulty or 
inconvenience. 

(8) Generally consented as best and even necessary. 

(9) The discussion of this question was a very animated one. The nostrum 
industry was declared unethical and discreditable. No government ought to 
permit this trade, detrimental to public and private health, nor protect by 
patent or trade-mark rights alleged or empirical medical discoveries when intro- 
duced as secret remedies or specialties. The pretended formulae of the con- 
stituents of nostrums are mostly vague or incorrect, and the certificates for 
their efficiency fraudulent or obtained by bribes. The nostrum trade is based 
upon false pretenses, deceit and popular credulity, and should be repressed by 
all means. 

Cosmetics should be placed under the control of the health authorities. 

Even the French delegates endorsed these sentiments, stating 
that the French pharmaceutical associations recently had expelled 
from membership all makers of specialties, and that the great 
majority of French pharmacists discountenanced nostrums. 

At the conclusion of the Congress a standing committee for 
selecting place and time and initiating the proper arrangements for 
holding a second Congress after the lapse of three years, was 
appointed, consisting of the presidents of the five principal phar- 
maceutical societies of the Continent, 

The two pharmaceutical societies of Great Britain and the Ameri- 



Am 'juT y ?i9oi arm '} International Congresses. 319 

can Pharmaceutical Association, although invited in time, were not 
represented at this first International Congress. The Council of 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain rendered at its meeting, 
August 2, 1865, the following response to the invitation received: 

"Whilst this Society estimates highly the proposed objects of holding an 
international conference of pharmacists, and would gladly give any facilities in 
its power to their prosecution, it is scarcely within its functions as a corporate 
body to appoint representatives thereto. We would, however, draw the atten- 
tion of the Committee on Arrangements to a voluntary association existing in 
this country under the title ' British Pharmaceutical Conference,' one of whose 
objects is a correspondence with societies with similar aims in other countries, 
to whom such a communication may be addressed. This being done, the 
Pharmaceutical Conference would probably arrange, if practicable, to co-op- 
erate in some way at a future meeting."* 

SECOND CONGRESS IN PARIS, 1867. 

The committee elected at the Congress in Brunswick, selected 
Paris as the place for holding the second meeting and confided all 
arrangements to the Society of Pharmacy of Paris. The committee 
of this society addressed, early in 1867, an invitation to and pro- 
gramme for, the Congress to be held on August 21-25,1867, at 
the time of the second World's Fair in Paris. 

The programme argues " that pharmacy in Europe at this time 
is in an unhealthy and critical condition, not less injurious to the true 
interests of the public than to those of the profession itself. This 
critical situation has been explained by the Congress of Brunswick, 
and that body has given the results of its deliberations in the form 
of resolutions. 

" In consonance with the present efforts of various countries to 
attain to an international uniform type in weights, measures, mon- 
eys, etc., the Congress will naturally be led to recognize the neces- 
sity of a code or legal formulary as a guide to the pharmacists of 
all countries. This code will insure uniformity of composition and 
strength in the commonly used medicines, particularly the more 
potent ones." 

The Committee of Organization therefore proposes the following 
questions to be considered at the meeting of the Congress of 1867. 

(1) What character should be attributed to the pharmacist? What are the 
functions he should perform and what conditions ought he to accomplish in 
order to acquit himself of his professional obligations ? 



* Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, 1865-1866, p. 93, 



320 



(2) What are the most expedient ways and means of elaborating a code or 
formulary of official medicines, for which it is important to establish a uniform 
composition ? 

(3) What are the best and most practical means of determining the amount 
of active principles, especially of alkaloids in the drugs containing them, and 
in the galenical preparation of these drugs ? 

Each association will be entitled to three delegates, national associations to 
three delegates for every 100 of its members, but each delegation will have 
only one vote. 

The Congress was attended by about fifty delegates from France, 
three from Holland, two from the United States (Wm. Procter, jtr., 
of Philadelphia, and John Faber, then residing at Nuremberg), three 
from Germany, four from Austria-Hungary, three from Russia, two 
from Spain, two from Switzerland, one from Italy, one from Sweden 
and one from Egypt. Dr. Rieckher, of Germany, was elected Presi- 
dent, with five honorary vice-presidents. 

The deliberations seem to have been not strictly in the line of the 
proposed questions. The main discussions and resolutions related 
to the following subjects : 

How can the status and prosperity of the practice of pharmacy 
be best advanced ? — By restriction of the relative number of phar 
macies and by a proper control and limitation in proportion to the 
number of inhabitants and the increase of population. The Amer- 
ican delegates were the only ones who voted in the negative. 

It was recognized to be advisable to institute pharmaceutical 
advisory boards for assisting the Government in the proper regula- 
tion and control of pharmaceutical and sanitary affairs. In this 
connection, a resolution was added, declaring that the trade in 
nostrums and trade-marked specialties and their advertisements in 
the newspapers should be strictly prohibited. The American dele- 
gates refrained from voting on this question. 

The traditional problem of an international pharmacopoeia caused 
a long but unavailing discussion. It was finally agreed that the 
Latin language was the best one for a universal code and that the 
elaboration of such a one should be undertaken. Only the dele- 
gates of the United States voted against this resolution for the 
reason that the broad differences of views in regard to many im- 
portant galenical preparations in use in America, as well as in Eng- 
land, tog-ether with the numerous preparations and drugs used on 
the continent and not esteemed in America and England as meri- 



Aui. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



International Congresses. 



321 



torious, were obstacles too. great to meet the approval of American 
and British pharmacopoeia committees. 

At the conclusion of the Congress, the Committee of Organization 
for a next Congress, appointed at the Brunswick meeting, was re- 
elected and Vienna proposed as place for assembling. 

THIRD CONGRESS IN VIENNA, 1 869. 

The invitations and programme having been sent out early in 
1869, the delegates to the Third International Pharmaceutical Con- 
gress convened in Vienna, September 9, 1869. The following 
countries were represented by delegates: Austria by twelve, Ger- 
many by nine, Russia by three, France by three, Italy by one, 
Switzerland by one, England by two (H. S. Evans and Theoph. Red- 
wood) and the United States by one (John Faber, of Nuremberg). 
Mr. Wm. Dankworth, of Germany, was elected President and Messrs. 
Robinet, of France, and Trapp, of Russia, Vice-Presidents. 

The questions submitted to the Congress were : 

(1) Are independent schools of pharmacy desirable ? — The dele- 
gates of the various countries briefly described the collegiate edu- 
cation at home. They finally agreed upon the resolution that 
higher pharmaceutical schools, as an integral part of universities, 
with pharmacists as professors in the classes relating exclusively to 
pharmacy, would be preferable in the interest of both the public 
and the profession. 

(2) What advantages will arise from syndical chambers proposed 
at the preceding Congress ? — The committee to whom this query 
had been submitted reported in favor of establishing such syndical 
chambers as representative and advisory bodies between the phar- 
maceutical association and the Government. They might be 
formed of delegates from the pharmaceutical corporations within 
certain districts. Their duties would consist in representing the 
profession in forming new regulations affecting pharmacy, and in 
acting as executive bodies for the proper working of existing laws. 

(3) Is the supremacy of the medical profession in regulating phar- 
maceutical matters compatible with the present professional and social 
standing of the pharmacist, and does it conduce to the interests of 
the State, the public and the pharmacist ? — This question applied 
to pharmacy in continental Europe only. The delegates shared in 
the opinion that the scope and the extent of medical knowledge 



322 



International Congresses. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



have reached such an amplitude that medical men on the average 
cannot any more enter upon the study of pharmaceutical branches, 
that, therefore, the pharmacist should replace the physician in the 
conduct and regulation of purely pharmaceutical affairs. Jf the 
governments have any doubt in their professional ability to do so, 
they should raise the standard of pharmaceutical education and the 
requirements at the State examinations. 

(4) What should be done to attain to the greatest possible uni- 
formity in the composition and strength of the pharmacopceial 
preparations ? — It was stated that the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Paris had volunteered to undertake the compilation of a compara- 
tive conspectus showing side by side the differences existing in the 
various pharmacopoeias in regard to the composition and relative 
strength of the identical galenical preparations in the various 
countries in order to initiate steps to have the pharmacopoeias 
adopt uniform formulae in course of time. This work has been 
commenced and will be submitted to the next Congress. 

(5) What methods are best for assaying the organic alkaloidal 
drugs? — This question was dropped as hardly pertaining to the 
present objects of the Congress. It was, however, acknowledged 
that the methods for ascertaining the proportion of the active 
principles of drugs prescribed in the pharmacopoeias needed 
improvements and that this matter belonged to the domain of the 
committees of pharmacopceial revision. 

In conclusion it was resolved that the President may prepare a 
report on the resolutions of the Congress and communicate this 
report to the governments of those countries who were represented 
by delegates. 

The proposition was made and endorsed to hold the fourth Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress after the lapse of three years. 
The presidents of the National Pharmaceutical Associations of 
Austria, Germany, Russia, and France were delegated as a- com- 
mittee for selecting the place of the meeting and making in time, 
the proper arrangements for such a meeting. The delegate from 
Prussia tendered an invitation to hold this in St. Petersburg. 

THE FIRST MOVE TO INVITE THE CONGRESS TO HOLD A MEETING IN 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

In consequence of the Franco-German war in 1869 and 1870 the 



Am. Jour. Pnarru. 
July, 1901. 



International Congresses. 



323 



holding of the fourth Congress within the time stipulated at the 
preceding meeting in 1867 was delayed for two years. Meanwhile 
an initiatory move was made by Professor Maisch and endorsed by 
President E. H. Sargent \n his presidential address before the annual 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association held in Balti- 
more, Md., in September, 1870, for holding the fifth Congress in 
Philadelphia in the Centennial year, 1876. This proposition met 
with approval and a committee consisting of Messrs. Wm. Procter, 
Jr., Albeit E. Ebert and Fred. Hoffmann was appointed to report on 
the subject with a plan of action, at the meeting of the Association 
in 1 871. 

This committee presented the following report to the American 
Pharmaceutical Association at its meeting in St. Louis, September, 
1871 : 

That in view of the notable period in the history of our country, the Cen- 
tennial anniversary of its political independence, which will be reached in the 
year 1876 we are called upon, in common with all citizens of the Republic, to 
manifest our patriotic impulses in a worthy manner, by showing the advance- 
ments made in the arts and sciences, and the progress towards a higher civili- 
zation. Further, as at that time unusual inducements and attractions will 
doubtless cause many to visit this country from foreign lands, it is believed 
that so favorable an opportunity will not soon occur again to briug together in 
this country pharmacists of Europe. 

It is therefore recommended that the International Pharmaceutical Congress 
be solicited to postpone the meeting which would occur in its regular order in 
1875, and that this Association extend a cordial invitation to that body to meet 
in this country in the year I876. But if for any reason the Congress should 
deem it not advisable to accept such invitation, it is recommended that an in- 
vitation be extended to the delegates present at the meeting in 1872, and to 
the pharmacists of all nations, to meet with this Association in 1876. 

Your committee further recommends, that at the present meeting the month 
of July and the city of Philadelphia be designated as the time and place for the 
meeting of 1876, it being manifestly appropriate that the meeting of that year 
should be held in the centre of pharmaceutical and political interest, and in 
the month dedicated to the celebration of our National Independence. . The 
action recommended seems necessary at this time, in order that our annual 
meetings intervening may be located in view of such decision, and that appro- 
priate efforts may be made to insure at that meeting a full representation of 
American pharmacists, thereby making this association a truly national 
brotherhood of all engaged in our noble profession. 

Your committee further recommends the appointment of a committee at this 
meeting for devising suitable plans and recommending such preliminary 
arrangements as seem necessary to render the meeting of 1876 worthy of the 
occasion. 

[Signed] Albert E. Ebert. 

Fred. Hoffmann. 



324 



International Congresses. 



Am. Jour. Pharra. 
July, 1901. 



Professor Procter refrained from signing this report on account of 
the fact that the International Congresses thus far have only de- 
voted themselves " to correcting abuses that exist in Europe in the 
laws bearing on the profession there. By transferring their delegates 
to this country, to act here just as they do there, would be unprac- 
ticable and unavailing in consideration of the very different views 
and usages prevailing in the practice of pharmacy in the United 
States and England." 

At the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association in St. 
Louis, September, 1 871, it was, however, stated that, although all the 
discussions of the International Congresses thus far held amounted 
to very little to American pharmacists, inasmuch as they naturally 
had been discussing subjects of particular interest and application only 
to the country in which they met. If they should come here where 
the conditions under which pharmacy is practised are essentially 
different from those existing in Europe, the questions to be dis- 
cussed and the deliberations would undoubtedly be pertinent to 
and in accordance with these conditions. 

The report of the committee and the motion to invite the Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress to meet in the United States in 
1876 was unanimously adopted with but two dissenting votes, and 
the city of Philadelphia was chosen as place of meeting. 

In compliance with these resolutions the following invitation was 
addressed, July 13, 1 874, by the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion to the fourth International Pharmaceutical Congress at St. 
Petersburg : 

* * * In the year 1876 occurs the one hundredth anniversary of the 
Independence of the United States of America. This historical event will be 
celebrated throughout our country, and an international industrial exposition 
will be held in the city of Philadelphia. * * * 

It is more than probable that this Industrial Exposition will be visited by 
many European pharmacists, and that this occasion will be a fit and convenient 
opportunity to unite the delegates of the pharmaceutical societies, throughout 
the civilized world, in council on the questions affecting the present and future 
status of pharmacy among the nations, or having a practical or scientific 
importance for our profession. 

The officers of the American Pharmaceutical Association, in carrying out 
the resolution of this association adopted at its meeting in St. Louis in 1871, 
cordially invite the fourth International Pharmaceutical Congress to appoint 
the year 1876 and the city of Philadelphia as the time and place of meeting of 
the fifth Congress. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
July, 1901. 



International Cong r esses. 



32S 



* * * Should the fourth Congress deem it iuexpedient to call the fifth 
Congress to meet in the United States in 1876, we now invite all the societies 
which may be represented at the St. Petersburg Congress, and all pharmacists, 
to meet the American Pharmaceutical Association at its twenty-fourth annual 
meeting, which will beheld in Philadelphia during the International Industrial 
Exhibition in 1876. 

[Signed] John F. Hancock, 

President. 

John M. Maisch, 
Permanent Secretary of the Amer. Pharmac. Association- 

This letter of invitation was laid before the Congress at St. Peters- 
burg, as stated further on. As no response had been received from 
the presiding officers of the Congress until nearly one year after 
the letter had been sent, the Permanent Secretary of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association addressed, on June 3, 1875, tne follow- 
ing inquiry to the President of that Congress : 

The American Pharmaceutical Association will hold its twenty-third 
annual meeting in Boston early in September, 1875, and will then determine 
upon the proper measures for its twenty-fourth meeting, which will convene in 
Philadelphia during the International Exhibition in 1876. You are aware that 
the fourth International Pharmaceutical Congress was invited to call the meet- 
ing of the fifth Congress to assemble in Philadelphia in 1876. The selection 
of the proper place and time having been referred to the International Congress 
Committee, I take the liberty of inquiring of you whether that committee has 
decided upon the invitation above referred to. 

I also beg to ask for information in relation to the proposed draft of an 
international pharmacopoeia ; if possible, the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation desires to participate in its elaboration. 

[Signed] John M. Maisch, 

Permanent Secretary, A. Ph. A. 

Phu.adei.phia, June 3, 1875. 

It seems that no reply has been received to this letter neither. 
This ended the first effort of inducing the Congress to hold a meet- 
ing in the United States during the Centennial year 1876. 

( To be continued.) 



The Lowering of the Temperature of Water of maximum density 
by solutions of various salts is shown by de Coppet (Compt. rend., May 20, 
1 901) to be proportional to the quantity of the substance dissolved and that with 
the exception of lithium salts the molecular lowering is almost constant. 



326 



Developments in Organic Compounds. 



Am. Jour Pbarm. 
July, 1901. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE STUDY OF THE 
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMICAL CONSTI- 
TUTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION 
OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 

By Prof. Virgin Coblentz. 

( Concluded from p. 272. ) 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TASTE AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION. 

Sweet and bitter taste has long played a very important part in 
modern medicine and pharmacy. Formerly resort was always had 
to the use of corrigents. However, of late years, synthetic chem- 
istry has endeavored to solve this question from a purely scientific 
standpoint, through the introduction of certain groups which would 
not interfere in any manner with the therapeutic effects of the 
original substance. 

In alcohols of the aliphatic series the sweetness increases to a 
certain extent with the number of entering hydroxyl groups, as for 
example, the glycols, glycerol, mannitol. The polyhydric alcohols 
are less sweet than their corresponding aldehydes and ketones, as 
for example, mannitol and its aldoses and ketoses. 

CH.OH CH 2 OH CH 9 OH 

I I I 

(CHOH) 4 (CHOH) 4 (CHOH) 3 



CH 2 OH 



Mannitol. 



C 



O 



H 



An Aldose. 



CO 



CH 2 OH 
A Ketose. 



According to W. Sternberg, the hydroxyl (OH) and amido 
(NH 2 ) groups are taste generators, the entrance of one hydroxyl 
carries odor and two or more taste. The presence of a carboxyl 
group produces in all cases a sour taste. Stereo geometrical con- 
figurations play no part. This investigator also claims that a cer- 
tain harmonic relation between the substituting hydroxyl and the 
substituted alkyl groups is necessary for the development of sweet 
taste. Every alkyl group must stand opposite a hydroxyl, as is the 
case in glycerol and mannitol. The alkyl groups may be per- 
mitted to exceed the hydroxyls by one member only, so that the 



A.m. Jour. Pharm.\ 
July, 1901. f 



.Developments in Organic Compounds. 



327 



molecule contains one oxygen less than carbon without the sweet 
taste suffering, for this reason the disaccharides (sucrose) are sweet 
and the tri and poly-saccharides are tasteless. 

On replacing the alkyl radical in glucoses by a phenyl, an 
intense bitter substance results. 



CH, 

CHOH 
I 

CHOH 
I 

CH 2 OH 
Butenyl Glycerol 
Sweet. 



C 6 H 5 
I 

CHOH 

I 

CHOH 

I 

CH 2 OH 
Phenyl Glycerol 
Bitter. 



The natural glucosides are bitter because they are mostly phenol 
derivatives. 

Symmetry of the hydroxylated compound is also necessary, thus 
those di and tri-hydric phenols whose substituting groups occupy 
the symmetrical meta position are sweet, for example : 



OH 



Resorcin 
m-dioxy-benzole 
sweet 



OH 



Pyrocatechin 
o.dioxy-benzole 
bitter 



OH 



H 



Phloroglucin 
symmetric 
sweet OH 



OH 



OH 



Pyrogallol 
bitter 



OH 



X |OH 
loH 



The amido group (NH,) lends a sweet taste to hydrocarbons 
under the conditions that a negative carboxyl group (COOH) is 
present and the other groupings are closely linked thus the ortho- 
amido-salicylic acid is feebly sweet, while the para ai.d m la com- 
pounds are tasteless. 

NH 2 
OH 

Ortho-amido-salicylic acid 

COOH 



328 Developments in Organic Compounds. { Am ' J J u °iy 1 [ , iSif rm ' 

Amido-benzoic acid loses its sweet taste through the introduc- 
tion of an extra acid group and only in 



Ortho-sulfamid-benzoic acid 



v S0 2 NH 9 
COOH' 



V/ 



through the close linkage brought about by the andride formation 
is an intense sweet taste developed 



SO 

>NH 
CO 7 



Ortho-benzoic sulfinid. 



To correct taste, efforts are generally directed toward either 
closing the reactive groups through the addition of radicals or the 
conversion of the substance into an insoluble compound which, 
however, must be of such a nature as to readily split up in the 
alkaline secretions of the intestinal canal. Efforts to render quinin 
salts tasteless have been successful in such combinations as quinin 
chloro carbonic ester CO . CI . C 20 H 23 N 2 O 2 , also Euchinin— an ethyl 
carbonic ester of quinin C 2 H 5 — CO — OC 20 H 23 N 2 O 2 

Freedom from tinnitus as well as from taste is claimed for these 
salts. 

The tasteless character of quinin tannate is known to us all. The 
disagreeable taste and undesirable action in the stomach produced 
by tannin are repressed by forming an insoluble compound with 
albumen, casein or gelatin, as for example in such compounds as 
Tannalbin (a compound of tannin and albumin), Tannigen (acetic 
ester of tannin), Tannon (a condensation product of tannin and uro- 
tropin), Tannoform (a condensation product of tannin and formalde- 
hyde). These are all valuable intestinal astringents. In this con- 
nection the salol class of intestinal antiseptics introduced by Nencki 
may be mentioned. Here not only the taste but also the caustic 
action of many substances is avoided through esterification. 

7 OH 

Salol C 6 H 4 ' Phenyl salicylic ester, 

X COOC 6 H 5 



■juiy r ."i??i arm "} Developments in Organic Compounds. 
,OH 



329 



Betol C 6 H / 

x COJ — C 10 H 7 
OH 

Salacetol C 6 H 4 ^ 

x COO — CH0COCH3 

Salophen C 6 H ' NH 
X COO • C 6 H / 

X COCH. 



OH 



Cresalols QH^ 



Salicylic nap thy I 
ester. 



Salicyl acetol. 



A ceto-pa ra - a mid - 
salol. 



So lie y lie ere sy lie 
estets. 



COO • C 6 H 4 CH 3 
As esters of Guaiacol 

OH (!) 

X OCH 3 (2) 

we have the valuable comparatively tasteless and less disturbing 
compounds 

O — C 6 H 4 OCH 3 



Duotal CO' 



x O— C e H 4 OCH 3 
,OH 



QH 3s 



■OCH 3 + 2H 2 



Benzosol C 6 H 4 ; 



COOH 
OCH. : 



O — C 6 H.CO 



OCR 



Guaiacol carbonate. 

Guaiacel carbonic 
acid 

Guaiaeol benzoate. 
Guaiacol cinnamate. 



Sty r a col QH/ 

X — C 6 H 4 — CH-— CH — CO 
OCH 3 

Geosote QH/ Guaiacol valerate. 

x O— COCH,— CH=(CH 3 ) 2 

^ ru /OCH3 Guaiacol glyceryl 

Guaiamar C H H/ . & s j 

x O— CH 2 — CHOH— CH 2 OH eUur - 

ANTIPYRETICS. 

Formerly the efforts of the synthetic chemist were directed toward 
producing bodies analogous in character and action to the well known 
quinin. Ten years ago the views as to the constitution of quinin were 



330 Developments in Organic Compounds. 



July. 1901. 



erroneous, hence such synthesized substances differed essentially 
from this alkaloid. Of all the synthetic antipyretics none possess 
the most important function of quinin, that is, its specific action in 
malaria. Quinolin 




N 



being the mother substance of quinine, was necessarily the basis of 
these attempts. Filehne found that only the alkylated nitrogen of 
a tetrahydro quinolin was worthy of trial ; following this came 
Fischer's Kairin, Kairolin and Skraup's Thalline 

H 2 

Kairin //Xv / X H 2 

(ethyl-ortho-oxy-quinolin tetra hydride). ^ 2 

OH N — C 2 H 5 HCl 

Owing to the unpleasant and sometimes dangerous toxic side 
actions this class of derivatives has been dropped. This nucleus fur- 
nishes us, however, a valuable antiseptic in Loretin (meta-iodo.ortho- 
oxy-quinolin-ana-sulfonic acid). 

SOoH 



OH N 



With the intention to produce a quinine-like body Knorr discovered 
antipyrin. This investigator's views as to the constitution of this 
synthesized body were at first erroneous. Knorr thought that this 
newly discovered body was a di-methyl-oxy-chinizin in which two 
quinolin molecules were linked to the pyridin nucleus, as was sup- 
posed to be the case with quinin. Later it was found that the 
five-membered ring Pyrazol 

NH 

\ 



N 



CH 



HC 



CH 



Am 'jui u /,'i9oi arm "} Developments in Organic Compounds. 331 

was the nucleus, antipyrin ,being a phenyl 1 — dimethyl 2, 3 — 
pyrazolon 5. 



CH,N 



CH 3 C 



N . C 6 H 5 
CO 



LH 



Tolypyrin resulting through the introduction of a methyl group 
possesses a more irritating action, 4 grammes bring equivalent to 5 
to 6 of antipyrin. 

The only active competitor of antipyrin belonging to this series 
was found in Pyramidon, a di methyl-amido-antipyrin which is three 
times as active as antipyrin 

N . C 6 H 5 
CHoN , /X CO 



CH 3 C 



C(CH, 



ANILIN DERIVATIVES. 

The accidental discovery of the antipyretic and anti-neuralgic 
properties of acetanilid led to its study and subsequent unlimited 
application in the preparation of innumerable medicinal derivatives. 
The introduction of acid radicals in place of a hydrogen of the amido 
group of a base results m the diminution of its toxic action on the 
ground that the substance has become more resistive to the decom- 
posing action of the body fluids; hence acetanilid C 6 H 5 NHCH 3 CO 
represents the toxic characters of anilin but in a milder degree, its 
action being that of anilin in a weak and protracted condition. 

Benzanilid C 6 H 5 NHC 6 H 5 CO splits up with difficulty and slowly 
in the system, hence its action is milder than that of acetanilid, 
Salicylic anilid fails to break up, hence is without action. 

PARA-AMIDO-PHENOL DERIVATIVES. 

With the experience of acetanilid and its derivatives synthetic 
chemists made systematic efforts to build up a substance which 
should represent the antipyretic and antineuralgic properties of 
acetanilid without its unpleasant side effects and action on the 
hemoglobin of the red blood-corpuscles. 



332 



Developments in Organic Compounds. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1901. 



The investigations of Schmiedeberg demonstrated that anilin was 
altered and rendered less toxic in the organism through oxidation 
in the para position yielding para-amido-phenol. 



OH 



Anilin 
(amido-benzol) 



Para-amido-phenol 



NH, 



NH, 



With this in view, also that para amido phenol was less toxic 
than anilin, an acetyl radical was introduced with the hope of 
obtaining an ideal antipyretic. The resulting acetyl para amido 
phenol still possessed toxic antipyretic symptoms, hence it was found 
necessary to close or protect the free hydroxyl group through the 
introduction of an alkyl radical. If a methyl group is employed, 
methacetin results; an ethyl, phenacetin; other alkyls, as propionyl, 
butyryl, etc., have been employed in place of the- ethyl, but the 
resulting compounds, because of their great insolubility, react too 
slowly in the system. 



/OCH, 
C H / 

Anisidin 

7 OC 2 H 5 

X NH 2 
Phenetidin 



CH 



OCH 3 

" x NHCH 3 CO 
Methacetin 

OC 2 H 5 

CH / 

4x NHCH 3 CO 
Phenacetin 



The maximum of antipyretic and antineuralgic action is found in 
the methyl derivative (methacetin), while the least toxicity is pos- 
sessed by the ethyl derivative (phenacetin). The readiness with 
which the acid secretions of the stomach split off the acid rest pre. 
paratory to the decomposition of the resulting phenetidin nucleus 
depends largely upon the nature of the acid employed. Among these 
derivatives in which the acetic acid rest of phenacetin is replaced 
by other acid rests are lactic (Lactophenin), valeric (Sedatin), 
salicylic (Saliphen), phenyl glycolic (Amygdophenin), vanillic 
(Vanillin-p-phenetidin), etc. 



Am 'j J uiy?iloif rm '} Developments in Organic Compounds. 333 

Each of these possesses slightly different characters as regards 
solubility, rapidity of action, varied elimination of toxic effects, etc. 

Owing to the insolubility of phenacetin, one of the earliest 
endeavors was to obtain a compound sufficiently soluble to enable 
its employment in solution. This was accomplished by the addition 
of a basic group, glycocoll (amido acetic acid), which, through its 
amido group, is capable of uniting with other acids and forming 
very soluble salts. 



Phenocoll C 6 H 4 ; 



OC 2 H, 



NHCH.NH.CO . HC1. 



Amido-acet-para-phenetidin hydrochlorid. The soluble salts are 
the hydrochlorid, acetate and salicylate (Salocoll). 

All antipyretics act in a greater or lesser degree on the blood in 
which the oxyhemoglobin is converted into methaemoglobin and 
the respiratory capacity lessened and the red blood-corpuscles 
modified, the blood pigment at times being set free. 

According to Schmitt these remedies may be divided into the fol- 
lowing classes : 

(1) Antipyretics, which in moderate doses oxidize the haemo- 
globin, as antipyrin and phenacetin. 

(2) Remedies which in moderate doses fix the methaemoglobin 
within the blood-corpuscles as thallin, antithermin, kairin, exalgin, 
methacetin, acetyl amido-phenol. 

(3) Remedies which fix the methaemoglobin, destroy the red 
corpuscles and set free the methaemoglobin which appears in the 
urine, lor example, acetanilid, benzanilid, formanilid, pyrodin, etc. 

The ideal antipyretic and antineuralgic with a specific antimalarial 
action has not as yet been found, and will not until either accident 
or a more accurate knowledge of the structure of quinin furnishes 
the means. 

LOCAL ANESTHETICS. 

On hydrolizing cocain with mineral acids, methyl alcohol and 
benzoic acid with the nucleus Ecgonin result, neither possesses local 
anaesthetic action. 

It does not matter which alkyl radical replaces the methyl of the 
COOCH3 group, the homologue retains the typical properties ot 
cocain. 



334 Developments in Organic Compounds. { Am, juiy r ,'i9?i! rm ' 

Of greater importance is the replacement of the benzoyl group 
in cocain by other acid radicals, the anaesthetic properties are 
either lessened or disappear entirely. 

Filehne thought that the benzoic acid rest was necessary, on the 
ground that atropin, Homatropin and the benzoic derivatives of 
other alkaloids, as morphin, hydrocotarnin and quinin, possessed 
local anaesthetic action. 

CH 2 CH CH 2 

I I 
NCH 3 CH.OH Tropin 

I I 

CH 2 CH CH 2 



CH, CH CH . COOH 

Ecgonin 



NCH 3 CH.OH 



CH., CH CH 2 

For the development of the action of cocain the position and union 
of the OH and COOH groups are of great importance, hence the 
stereo chemical configuration of the ecgonin nucleus is essential in 
conjunction with the anchoring benzoyl group. The methyl group 
covers the acid and irritating characters of ecgonin. 

Further, the derivatives of tropin, which do not contain a 
carboxyl, the addition of a methyl group is not essential for action. 
On the other hand, the presence of an esterized carboxyl increases 
activity. The mydriatic effect stands likewise in close relationship 
to the fundamental base (a pyrrolidin), but the localizing action 
is governed only by aromatic acid radicals, as is the case in atropin 
and homatropin. Based on the view of Merling, that cocain was 
made up of two ring nuclei, and that one, a methylated piperidin, 
was the active base, several products were synthesized from the 
methylated base triaceton alkamin, namely 



CH 9 CH CH.COO.CH, 



Cocain 



N.CH 3 CH.O.C 6 H 5 CO 

Benzoyl-methyl-ecgonin 



CH 9 - _CH CH 9 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



Developments in Organic Compounds. 



335 



C 



HoC 



(CH 3 ) 2 C 



H 

OH 

CH 2 

C(CH 3 ) 2 



N — CH 3 

Triaceton alkamin. 



H 2 C 



CH . OH 

CH 9 



(CH 3 ) 2 C N / CCH 3 
NH 

Vinyl diaceton alkamin. 



C 



/COOCH, 
\0— C 6 H 5 CO 



Eucai?i "A" 



Benzovl-methyl 
Tetra-m ethyl 
Hydro-piperidin 
Carboxy-methyl 
Ester. 



H 



\0— CH 



XOH— CO 
/ upthalmin 



CH.O— C 6 H 5 CO 



Eucain "B" 



the local anaesthetics eucain " A" and eucain "B" and the myotic 
euphthalmin 

Eucain A, which is closely related to tropa cocain, is a local anaes- 
thetic, it does not produce a dilation of the pupil, however, its 
irritating action on mucous surfaces are detrimental to its use. More 
successful as a substitute for cocaine was Eucain " B," which is free 
from irritating action and more active and less toxic than the former. 
Chemically, eucain " B " is the benzoyl derivative of the base vinyl- 
diaceton-alxamin, and like cocain, it loses its local anaesthetic effect 
on replacing the benzoyl radical with an acetyl. If a mandelic acid 
radical (C 6 H 5 — CH(OH)CO) is introduced in place of the benzoyl of 
eucain " B," the very active mydriatic eupthalmine results. The 
hydrochlorid of this base has chemically the same relation to eucaine 
"B" as homatropin has to tropa-cocain, that is euphthalmin is the 
hydrochlorid of the mandelic acid derivative of eucain "B." 

Einhorn and Heinz have prepared various derivatives of the other 
half of the ecgonine complex, namely hexa-hydrobenzole. They 
found that all the esters of the aromatic hydroxy-amido acids pos- 
sessed local anaesthetic properties, particularly so the methyl ester 
of para-amido-meta-oxy-benzoic acid (C 6 H 3 (OH)(NH 2 )COOCH 3 ) 
which is called orthoform. 



336 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



THE STORY OF THE PAPAW. 
By F. B. Kilmer. 

{Continued from page 285. ) 
THE MILK OF THE PAPAW. 

Trees that give milk are plentiful in the tropics. The native 
name for the papaw is " lechoso " (a producer of milk). When an 
incision is made in the bark of any part of the tree or in the fruit 
rind, a limpid, milk-like liquid exudes very freely. It is slightly 
more dense than water, and in contact with the air quickly coagulates 
and closes the incision. This coagulation is a rather notable phe- 
nomenon. 

For the fraction of a minute the liquid flows as though a milk 
bottle were uncorked, and one imagines that gallons will run with- 
out stopping, but suddenly it ceases. On examination it is found 
that the milk is coagulated for a considerable distance within the 
glands. I am quite firmly convinced that this action is due to the 
presence of a clotting enzyme. This assumption is made probable 
by the fact of the quite ur iversal presence of pectin in plants, and 
further from the fact that I have proven the presence of calcium 
salts and pectic compounds in the latex of the papaw. This state- 
ment is further strengthened by my observation that the latex of 
the papaw will coagulate the juice (neutral or alkaline) ot certain 
other plants. The presence of rennin ferment in the latex of the 
papaw is noted elsewhere in this paper. Its behavior is, in many 
respects, unlike that of the jelly-forming enzyme here noted, and, 
while further examination of fresh material is needed before making 
any fuller statement, I think I am sa r e in announcing that we may 
add the papaw latex to the list of plant juices in which the pectase 
ferment has been noted. 

The odor of the fresh milk is pronounced, and not unlike that of 
the latex of the india-rubber tree, and, on the whole, is a disagree- 
able one, suggestive ot decayed meat. The taste is somewhat bit- 
ter, rather markedly astringent and acrid. When dried by artificial 
heat the ferment power is weakened or lost, if dried in the sun it 
retains its activity and about 75 per cent, of moisture is separated. 

This milky emulsion seems to be secreted for the most part in 
fairly large vessels (readily observable by a pocket lens), which lie 
just under the epidermis in every part of the plant. In the ripened 



Am 'ju°iy?i9oi arm "} Story of the Pap aw. 337 

fruit it seems to permeate to . all parts of the fleshy portion of the 
fruit (somewhat changed in character). The supply of milk in a 
vigorous tree- is very abundant. After making several prolonged 
incisions in a single fruit, I estimated that an entire tree must con- 
tain several hundred ounces, but no such amount can be obtained 
by any practical method. 

The dried milk of the papaw is an article of commerce, and its 
character is dependent upon the method of preparation. The main 
source is the crude method of the natives. The* usual proceeding 




Selling papaw fruit in the market. 

is to make an incision just through the rind of the green fruit ; the 
milk flows freely for a short time ; this is caught in a dish, coagu- 
lation follows closely, and the milk oozes slowly through the incision 
for twenty-four hours or more. If numerous incisions are made in 
the fruit, it will, at the end of this time, become y 2 an inch thick. 
The milk is most abundant after heavy rainfalls, from the first fruits 
of the tree, and naturally so from vigorous plants. 

The latex, when allowed to dry on the fruit, becomes discolored 



338 



Story of the Papaw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



and dark. The lighter-colored and best products are produced when 
the coagulated juice is removed as fast as it exudes, spread out thin 
and quickly dried. 

No advantageous method of gathering the milk has come under 
my observation. Some of the difficulties of the present usages can 
be imagined by the recollection that in some cases the fruits are 
from 20 to 30 feet from the ground. The coagulation allows only a 
small yield, requiring constant climbing to make fresh incisions. 
The latex yields 25 per cent, of dried material (still containing 6 to 
10 per cent, of moisture). Under favorable conditions I extracted 100 
grammes of latex from one fruit. One gatherer claimed an average 
yield of one pound of dried milk from each tree per year, though 
under somewhat adverse conditions it required fifty trees to yield 
one pound of dried milk. 

OFFICE OF THE MILK AND ENZYME. 

The office of this milk in the economy of the papaw is not easy 
to explain. Parkin (Pharmaceutical Journal, 1578, page 337) states: 
" The most important function of such a latex is that of holding 
water in reserve." This seems hardly possible in respect to this 
plant because all tissues of the plant are filled with a watery fluid, 
so much so that they flow upon cutting, and it is hardly possible 
that the tree is dependent upon the milky juice for a supply of 
moisture. The native observers suggest that the milk has to do 
solely with the ripening of the fruit, and it is true that as the fruit 
ripens it is in all parts permeated with the milk, and as a conse- 
quence the starch compounds are changed to sugar ; the proteids 
are peptonized and the flavor mellowed. But it would seem to be 
a prodigious waste of energy if this ripening action was the only 
action of the milk and its enzyme contents. 11 

We do know, however, that this latex is the carrier of enzymes, 
and that in plant life certain enzymes play an important part in 
incorporating material for the growth of the living substance or of 
preparing material brought to it, so that it may be capable of such 
incorporation. Again, they bring about decompositions which 



11 Assuming that there is at the lowest estimate, 100 ounces of latex in a 
tree, we would have twenty ounces of dried material capable of converting 
about 3,000 pounds of proteids. 



Am -ju^;i?o h i arm -} Story of the Papaw. 339 

supply the energy needed for the maintenance of vital processes, 
In other words, these enzymes digest and prepare food for plant 
life and growth. 

J. Reynolds Green has shown that in the process of nutrition in 
plants, when the constructive processes are active, an excess of 
material is elaborated and deposited in temporary reservoirs. This 
material is utilized by a process of digestion brought about by the 
agents of enzymes or ferments which are formed to digest these 
deposited materials. From many plants we have been able to 
separate diastasic, proteolytic, glucosidal, emulsifying and other 
ferments. 

The papaw is a plant of quick growth. It rapidly appropriates 
and converts decaying vegetation. Its best fertilizers have been 
found to be dead vegetable and animal matter, house waste, etc* 
This suggests that the presence of this abundance of enzymic power 
is necessary for the digestion and conversion of plant-food material, 
and that the material is prepared for incorporation in the living 
plant by the enzymes present in the latex. 

The milky juice of the papaw can therefore be imagined as quite 
akin to the gastric or pancreatic juice of the animal organism. 
The ducts through which this latex flows are possibly digestive 
tracts; their contents, an emulsion of partially digested proteid and 
other material, under transformation preparatory to ultimate 
assimilation. 

Corrosive Properties of the Latex. — The corrosive action of the latex 
has been recorded ; all species have this property in some degree. 
Persons who handle the green fruit in the preparation of pickles are 
troubled with raw and bleeding fingers and are forced to abandon 
the work. The fresh latex will irritate the mucous membrane and 
its continuous use is in some instances very escharotic. This prop- 
erty seems more manifest in certain isolated plants of apparently 
the same species. This is true not only of the Carica papaya, in 
universal cultivation by the natives, but also in other varieties the 
fresh juice will blister and cauterize almost instantly. A caustic 
property is not unusual in many tropical plants. In the milk of the 
papaw it is not due to acid constituents, as it is still present if the 
slight acidity is neutralized. It can be removed by chloroform and 
ether, and is either removed or destroyed in some of the processes 
of separating the ferments (precipitation). 



340 Story of the Papaw. { Am "jSy'"i9oi arm * 

The corrosive constituent is not volatile and remains in the dried 
juice. An examination of many of the preparations sold in our 
market under the name of " papain," etc., shows that this corrosive 
property had not been altogether removed. 

ANALYSIS OF PAPAW LATEX. 12 

This latex is an emulsion of fats and wax, containing also extrac- 
tive matters, albumen and salts, as shown by the following : 

CARICA LATEX— SUN-DRIED. 

Moisture . 6*o6 

Soluble ash 2 "64 

Insoluble ash 478 

Matters soluble in water (including ash ) 8274 

" benzine **.... 11 '43 

" ether .... 977 

" chloroform 11*20 

" acetone 5 98 

" alcohol .... . . 7'i6 

ASH. 

Total ash 7-42 

Soluble ash 2*64 

Insoluble ash 478 

Calcium sulphate — insoluble ash . . 0-896 

Calcium phosphate " " 3 72 

Silica " " 0*164 

Calcium sulphate — soluble ash 1*024 

Potassium, sodium, lithium, chlorides and carbonates — soluble 

ash 1*616 

Chlorine , 0*22 

Ferric oxide ... trace 

Alcoholic extract (7* 16 per cent.) is colored, astringent and has a 
somewhat acrid taste. The concentrated extract is dark brown, 
resembling well known solid extracts. Evaporated residue is only 
slightly soluble in ether and chloroform, but is partially so in a cold 
5 per cent, solution of sodium hydrate. It is further dissolved 
upon heating. Alcohol added to this sodium hydrate mixture dis- 
solves it completely. Acid added to the aqueous or alcohol alka- 
line mixture gives a saponification indicating resins. 

Some observers have reported a glucosidal body in the Carica 
latex. The usual tests for such substances, when applied to this 



12 Owing to the length of this paper, the detailed methods of analysis have 
been omitted. In most cases the methods were those in common use. 



Am, jui u /;i9o h ir rm "} Story of the Pap aw. 341 

extract, give negative results. In my hands this extract gave no 
indication of tannin, although this substance has been reported as 
present in the milk. The acrid resins of the papaw are more or 
less extracted by alcohol, but more completely by acetone. The 
alcoholic extract is acid to litmus. 

In this alcoholic extract the presence of an indicator was 
observed. When the extract is somewhat .concentrated, the color 
becomes a beautiful pink which is destroyed by sodium hydrate, 
added to saturation, and upon concentrating the solution to dry- 
ness. The color is not restored by hydrochloric acid. (This color 
substance needs further study.) 

Ether extract (977 per cent.) is nearly colorless, yielding upon 
evaporation a residue resembling white beeswax. This residue is 
quite soluble in chloroform, but only partially soluble in benzine or 
alcohol. (Soluble in hot alcohol.) The aqueous washings of this 
extract give an acid reaction with litmus and a precipitate with lead 
acetate. 

Chloroform extract (H -20 per cent.) is colorless and slightly tur- 
bid. The residue, upon evaporation, is wax-like and hard (much 
resembling the residue from the ether extract). This residue is 
partially soluble in ether, and almost insoluble in alcohol and 
benzine. The aqueous washings from this extract give an acid reac- 
tion to litmus. 

Acetone extract (5-98 per cent.) is of a yellowish color. The 
evaporation residue has a pungent, slightly aromatic odor and a 
dark brown color resembling the extract of plants. The residue is 
almost wholly soluble in alcohol, chloroform and amylic alcohol ; 
but slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in benzine. 13 

As the substances removed from the latex by volatile solvents 
were in the nature of material foreign to the enzyme, no systematic 
examination was made. These solvents do not seem to remove 
any proteid compounds save in the case of benzine, which extract 
gave a faint proteid reaction. 

As a result of a rather hasty examination of these extractions, 
we may assume that they contain coloring matter ; " vegetable 
extractive matter;" hard and soft waxes; hard and soft resins; a 



13 The alcoholic and acetone extracts give slight indications of the presence 
of nitrogenous matter by the soda-lime process. 



342 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



volatile resin ; a substance of the nature of fatty acids ; pectose 
compounds. 14 

WATER SOLUBLE CONTENTS. 

The dried latex extracted by repeated washings with water gives 
8274 per cent, of matter, soluble to a clear greenish-yellow solu- 
tion. This watery extract is of acid reaction and responds to the 
usual tests for the presence of proteids, such as Millon's rea- 
gent; the xanthoproteic and biuret tests, etc.; precipitates are 
formed by alcohol, tannin, picric acid, platinum chloride, metaphos- 
phoric acid, lead acetate, Mayer's reagent, mercury bichloride, 
potassium ferrocyanid and acetic acid. The presence of several 
forms of proteid substances is also shown by the following : 

The filtered solution (noted above) is rendered turbid by heating 
to the boiling point. Upon continued boiling a very fine precipitate 
is separated, though this is not abundant. Filtering and further 
boiling produces no further precipitation, but the addition of nitric 
acid drop by drop gives a heavy flocculent precipitate. The clear 
aqueous extraction noted above, slightly acidulated with hydro- 
chloric acid and heated, shows a slight turbidity just before reaching 
the boiling point. Cooling and the further addition of the acid 
produces at once a heavy flocculent precipitate, which dissolves 
upon heating and reappears upon cooling. 

A solution of sodium carbonate (0-5 per cent.) added to the clear 
aqueous extract of the dried latex produces an immediate turbidity 
which, upon heating, separates into a small amount of fine precipi- 
tate. From these last results it will be seen that the soluble albu- 
mins of the latex of the papaw are only partially coagulated by 
heat. 

When concentrated hydrochloric acid is cautiously added to the 
clear watery extract of the latex, there is formed a heavy curdy 
precipitate, soluble in an excess of the acid. In a clear aqueous 
solution of the latex, concentrated nitric acid pioduces a heavy 



14 Malic acid has been noted as being present in the latex of the papaw. The 
acid principles of these extracts of the milk when subjected to the usual tests 
for malic acid, gave but slight indications of its presence. 

The aqueous solution of the latex was examined at length and judging by 
the reactions noted in the text-books, and compared with malic acid itself, 
the conclusion was reached that no malic acid or malates were present. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July. 1901. J 



Story of the Pa paw. 



343 



white precipitate, also soluble in an excess of the acid (proteid 
reaction). This precipitate turns yellow and dissolves upon heating 
(albumose), but upon cooling is again precipitated. Upon adding 
an excess of acid it is completely dissolved and not re-precipitated 
when cooled (globulin). 

The presence of soluble globulin in an aqueous solution is further 
shown in that the precipitate produced by boiling is not soluble in 
hydrochloric acid (0-2 per cent.). 

The residue left upon the extraction of the dried milk with water 




Water method of drying latex of papaw. 



is partially soluble in a weak solution of common salt, and the 
resulting solution gives a precipitate with nitric acid (globulin). 

The watery solution noted above, when rendered slightly acid 
(acetic) and boiled, is made turbid, forming small amount of floccu- 
lent precipitate (globulin and albumin). 

The clear watery extract of the papaw latex, when saturated 
with ammonia sulphate, gives an abundant white precipitate with 
strong proteid reaction (the precipitate carrying the greater por- 
tion of the ferment). The precipitate just noted, freed from the 
ammonium sulphate, dissolved in water, made acid with acetic 



344 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



acid, and then saturated with common salt, gives a white floccu- 
lent precipitate (primary albumose). After saturation with am- 
monium sulphate, the filtrate gives a precipitate, deutero-albumose, 
and the supernatant liquid, under the biuret test, shows the pres. 
ence of peptones. 15 If precipitated by soda-magnesium sulphate, the 
filtrate likewise exhibits a strong peptone reaction. 16 

ANALYSIS OF PAPAW PROTEIDS. 

It cannot be said that any of the enzymes have been completely 
isolated. The most that can be urged is that the enzymes are 
either proteid in character, or are associated with proteid bodies. 
In all, or nearly all, attempts to separate the enzyme from the 
accompanying proteid, the result has been a destruction of enzymic 
power. Again, when in our manipulation of the enzymes we alter 
or destroy the character of the proteids which are associated with 
them, we alter or destroy the character of the enzyme. While it 
cannot be said that the enzyme and the proteid are identical, we 
must admit that the enzyme and proteid are most closely associated. 

We have abundant authority to show that diastase is associated 
with leucosin ; rennin is associated with hetero-proteose ; bromelin 
appears in close relation to two forms of proteids, and so on through 
the list a close association of the enzyme with a proteid body can be 
shown. But it cannot be said that the proteid is actually the 
enzyme. So far as our present knowledge goes, an analysis of the 
proteid must stand for an analysis of the enzyme. 

From the examination of the water-soluble contents of the latex 
of the papaw, we may reach the conclusion that the enzyme is 
associated with one or more of the soluble proteids. An analysis of 
these proteid bodies was therefore made, as follows : 

For the purpose of analysis, a portion of the air-dried latex was 
extracted with alcohol, benzine and ether, to remove waxes, resins, 
etc., the residue consisting of the proteid matters and ash. This 
preparation is marked I in the accompanying table. 



■ 15 By the digestion of a solution of this peptone with the separated ferment 
or with trypsin, leucin and tyrosin appear i indicating hemipeptone |. 

16 The classification of the albumoses and peptones is the subj ect of controversy. 
The classification here followed is that in most common use. Under another 
view we would have in this substance a mixture of globulin, proto and deutero 
albumose with, possibly, two or more forms of peptone. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



Story of the Papaw. 



345 



A second preparation was made by extraction of the milk, as 
above, the product dissolved in water and the proteids precipitated 
by sodium chloride, and the precipitate partly freed from excess of 
salts, by dialysis : 

This process was repeated with a view of obtaining an approxi- 
mately pure preparation, and one representative of the enzyme of 
the latex. This preparation is marked II in the accompanying 
table. 

PAPAW PROTEIDS. 





I. 


11. 


Air-dry. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 






42-8I 






6 77 






10-09 




9-88 


6-51 




io-8 3 


7 90 


Moisture-free. 








44"8i 


46-84 






6-39 






10-95 


Ash ... 




7-06 


Moisture-free, ash-free. 








50-38 


50-01 




674 


6-87 




14-19 


11-78 






31*34 




100*00 


100 -oo 



The large proportion of mineral ash in the purest preparation 

II — is notable and seems to indicate that the proteid constituents 
and the ash are most closely associated. Otherwise, we may ob- 
serve that the carbon stands in about the same proportion as in 
other vegetable proteids. We have, however, a much smaller 
amount of nitrogen than is present in most proteids ; but this low 
content of nitrogen is quite in accord with the constitution of some 
of the enzymes which have been examined. This is shown by the 
following comparison : 

Nitrogen. 
Per Cent. 



Bromelin (Chittenden) 10-46 

Trypsin (Kuhne) 13-41 

Papaw (Kilmer) .11-78 

Peptone (Henninger) 16-38 



346 



Story of the Papaw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



THE FERMENTS OF THE PAPAW. 

The latex of the papaw is notable from the fact that it contains 
several soluble enzymes or ferments, or else (if such a thing is pos- 
sible) a ferment body with a fourfold power. The ferments so far 
noted as contained in the lat^x are : 

(1) A proteolytic ferment which decomposes proteids. 

(2) A coagulating (rennet-like) ferment which acts upon the 
casein of milk. 

(3) An amylolytic ferment having the power to attack starch, etc. 

(4) A clotting ferment similar to pectase. 

(5) A ferment possessing feeble powers of action upon fats. 
The digestive action of the latex at the instant of its extraction 

from the green fruit is very marked. Placed in contact with such 
a substance as blood fibrin in a little water, the fibrin will be dis- 
integrated before your eyes; mixed with milk and warmed, the 
milk is instantly coagulated. Boiled starch paste is thinned, and 
the blue color produced upon starch by iodine is changed to a pur- 
ple in a few minutes. Poured over lumps of beef and placed in a 
warm place, the meat is softened, its fibres disintegrated, finally 
becoming a partially transparent jelly. The action upon cooked 
egg albumen is not so marked. 

The latex when dried retains these powers in a somewhat lesser 
degree. I am of the opinion that the ferments exist in the latex, 
and possibly in the cellular structure, as a zymogen (carizymogen). 
This presumption is verified from the fact that after the extraction 
of the latex or pulp with water (preferably slightly acid or alkaline), 
a second maceration will bring a further yield of enzyme. I have 
repeated such a process ten times successively, in each instance 
bringing a further supply (small in amount) of the ferment into solu- 
tion. If a considerable bulk of water (neutral, acid or alkaline) be 
added to the latex, and the resulting liquid be filtered and the resi- 
due on the filter paper washed with water, the greater portion of 
the ferment will be found in the filtrate. 

The ferment may be extracted from the dried milk by water or 
glycerine (neutral, acid or alkaline), by very dilute alcohol (5- 100); 
and from such a solution may be precipitated by any of the usual 
methods ; such as an excess of full strength alcohol, saturation with 
alkaline salts, etc. 



Am -/uTy?iFoi arm -} Story of the Papaw. 347 

The following are the most important of the practical methods 
of separation. The first three are the methods of Peckholt : 

(1) Exhaust the juice with ether ; then exhaust the residue, first 
with absolute alcohol and next with 80 per cent, alcohol ; the dried 
residue is then treated with water which dissolves it almost entirely, 
forming a turbid solution. The watery solution is finally precipi- 
tated with alcohol ; the precipitate washed with alcohol, and dried 
over calcium chloride. Peckholt obtained by this process 7-848 
per cent, of a white, light amorphous powder which he called 
" papayotin." 

(2) Mix the juice with four times its weight of water; filter, and 
precipitate with alcohol (95 per cent.); wash and dry the precipi- 
tate. This gives 3-762 per cent, of a product practically the same 
as (1) but not quite so light. 

(3) Evaporate the latex to dryness and then completely exhaust 
with ether and alcohol (absolute), as in the first method. Dissolve 
the residue in water and precipitate with alcohol. The result 
being a light brown powder of which Peckholt obtained 5-338 per 
cent. (He called this " parapayotin.") 

(4) Wurtz prepared the ferment as follows : The milky juice 
was thrown on a filter and the coagulum washed with water. The 
aqueous solution then obtained was reduced to a small volume in a 
vacuum, and was precipitated by ten times its volume of alcohol. 
This precipitate was dried, dissolved in water and precipitated a 
second time with alcohol, washed with absolute alcohol and dried 
in a vacuum. The product of this process he called " papain." 

(5) A method now in actual use in one of the West India Islands 
is as follows : Pour into the strained latex five times its volume of 
full strength alcohol, collect the precipitate and wash with absolute 
alcohol ; dry over calcium chloride or sulphuric acid. (There is a 
considerable loss of alcohol ; the product is small, fairly active, but 
high priced.) 

(6) Method devised by the author : Dry the latex without 
heat ; exhaust the dry residue first with ether, then with chloro- 
form, followed by benzine ; finally extract with alcohol. Under 
this process, if the extraction is thoroughly carried out, everything is 
removed except the proteids and ash. The product is a fine grey- 
white amorphous powder almost completely soluble in water, more 
active and more nearly representative of the peculiar properties of 



348 



Story of the Papazv. 



Am. Jour. Pharai. 
July, 1901. 



the latex than the product resulting from any other method which 
has come under my observation. 

(7) Salt-precipitation method. The well-known methods of 
precipitation by alkaline salts are applicable to the separation of 
the papaw ferments. The latex diluted with water or the dried 
latex extracted with water (filtered), when saturated with sodium 
chloride, with ammonium sulphate or with magnesium sulphate, 
will yield a heavy precipitate of the proteid contents carrying the 
greater portion of the ferments. Such precipitates may be freed 
from salts by subjecting their solution to dialysis, the resulting solu- 
tion (and precipitated residue) are then to be evaporated to dryness. 

The yield from these salt-precipitation methods is small, but, if 
the processes are carefully performed, furnish a satisfactory product, 
weaker however in action than those prepared by the method out- 
lined in the preceding section. 

Something like thirty methods for separation have been tried in 
my researches with the result that all methods where precipitation 
is involved, tend to weaken the digestive power of the ferment. 
Ihe metrods used in the separation of pepsin whereby a purified 
and high power pepsin is produced, are as follows: Digestion of 
the proteid constituents, precipitation and purification of the pro- 
duct do not seem to be applicable to the papaw. 

If the proteids of the papaw are digested by the aid of the con- 
tained ferments in either acid, neutral or alkaline fluids, and a 
separation and purification then made, the resulting product is de- 
creased, and the digestive power is not increased ; in fact, unless 
the process is most carefully performed, the absolute power of the 
ferment is greatly weakened. 

It has been stated that the ferments of the papaw are chiefly as- 
sociated with one of its protei \ constituents. 17 

I have never been able to verify this statement. When any of 
the various forms of proteids are separated by the processes else- 
where outlined, heat or coagulation excepted, the separated body 
will be found to possess ferment power. Even the peptone remain- 
ing after separation of the albumoses exhibits feeble ferment powers. 
The ferment action seems to be the most marked when all of the 
proteids are associated together in their natural form. 

( To be continued.') 



17 Martin believed the ferment to be associated with the proteid which he 
termed B Phytoalbumose. 



Am jiiy, r i9o? arm '} The " Hofmann Hans." 349 

THE « HOFMANN HAUS." 

By H. V. Arny, Ph.D. 

On October 20, 1900, the German Chemical Society dedicated, 
with appropriate ceremonies, the magnificent building erected in 
Berlin as a memorial to the great pioneer in the aniline industry 
and the famed teacher of chemistry, A. W. von Hofmann. 

The building, designed as a home for the German Chemical 
Society and kindred organizations and as a hospice for sojourning 
foreign chemists, is located at Sigismundstrasse 4, and is a four, 
storied fire proof structure with a twenty-two meter front of Silesian 
sandstone, with two ornamental iron bow windows projecting from 
the second and third stories respectively, and with a red-tiled man- 
sard roof. The ground floor is occupied by janitor's quarters and 
by a research laboratory. The second floor front contains offices 
of the society, while the third floor front is devoted to the library 
and committee rooms. 

The rear part of the building is given up to an assembly hall, 
contains 254 seats arranged in tiers, rising level with the third 
story, the lecture counter being flush with the second floor. The 
top floors of the building are fitted up as offices and as store build, 
ings. The entire edifice is lighted with electricity, contains an 
electric elevator and is heated with hot water. This structure and 
the lot on which it stands represents an expenditure of 575,000 
marks. 

A full account of the enterprise was contained in a special issue 
of the Berichte of the Society, published at the beginning of this 
year, and from it we can glean several lessons of value in the con- 
sideration of the proposed Procter Memorial. The figures will be 
given, as in the original, in German Reichsmarks, the equivalent in 
dollars being easily reckoned by dividing by four. 

The financial commencement of the enterprise was the occasion of 
Hofmann's seventieth birthday, when his admirers raised a purse of 
39,000 marks. Seven thousand marks of this was expended on a 
bust of the master ; the remaining 32,000 marks being handed 
Hofmann as a jubilee purse. The recipient, with his characteristic 
generosity, augmented the amount with 8,000 marks of his own 
means and returned it to the committee with the request that it be 
called the Hofmann fund and used for the advancement of chemical 
science. 



350 



The u Hofmann Hans. 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
July, 1901. 



Hofmann died May 5, 1892, and immediately the German Chem- 
ical Society decided on a memorial to the eminent chemist, using 
the Hofmann fund, which, during the four years, had grown to 
65,000 marks, as a nucleus. 

The first call for subscriptions was dated November 12, 1892, and 
in response, 85,000 marks were subscribed by December 1st of 
same year. From then until October 1, 1893, 79,000 marks more 
were collected and during the ensuing fifteen months, up to January 
I, 1895, additional subscriptions amounting to 12,000 marks were 
received. On May 12, 1896, three and a half years after issuance 
of the original appeal, the committee reported that flie subscrip- 
tions and interest on same amounted to 176,000 marks. 

The committee, having planned a memorial costing 800,000 
marks, though sorely disappointed at the apparent failure of their 
hopes, renewed their efforts and succeeded during the next six 
months in bringing the fund up to 229,000 marks. 

In December, 1896, they purchased a site for the building for 
275,000 marks, covering the deficit by drawing on the original 
Hofmann fund. They then formed a stock company, capitalized for 
300,000 marks, for the erection of the building, issuing bonds of 
5,000 and 10,000 marks value, bearing 3^ per cenc. interest. 
These bonds were bought by German chemical corporations and 
others, and of the 300,000 marks thus subscribed, bonds amounting 
to 140,000 marks were returned to the corporation, all claims of 
payment of both principal and interest being waived by the gener- 
ous subscribers, on occasion of the dedication of the building. 

This leaves a debt of 160,000 marks, secured by a mortgage on 
the property, and which it is hoped will be paid off by legacies. 
One such has been announced — Commercienrath T. F. Holtz, 
Treasurer of the German Chemical Society and the most indefatig- 
able member of the memorial committee, having expressed the 
intention of giving 30,000 marks. 

The interest on the bonds will be met by the rental on the 
property paid by the several organizations having their home in the 
building. 

An analysis of the subscription list may prove interesting. 

The total amount, 236,751 marks, was obtained from 1,350 sub- 
scribers, whose gifts ranged from 20,000 marks to 50 pfennig (12 
cents); 244 contributors furnishing 221,850 marks. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



The " Hofmann Hails. 



351 



The several large donations'are as follows, the names of the donors 
known on this side of the water being given in brackets. These do 
not include the cancelled bonds of 10,000 and 5,000 marks each, 
total 140,000 marks contributed by nineteen persons. Besides 
these there were two gifts of 20,000 marks each, from two dyestuff 
corporations; one of 10,000 marks, four of 6,000 marks (Fahlberg 
and Tiemann) ; six of 5,000 marks; five of 3,000 marks (Bayer of 
Elberfeld); two of 2,500 marks, eight of 2,000 marks (Bayer of 
Elberfeld, Schering of Berlin, Fischer of Berlin); eight of 1,500 
marks (Schering) ; twenty-seven of 1000 marks (German Soda 
Works, German Solvay Works, German Explosive Works, Kalle 
of Biebricb, Knorr, Pintsch and Siemens of Berlin); two of 800 
marks; five of 600 marks; thirty-one of 500 marks; four of 400 marks ; 
fourteen of 300 marks; five of 250 marks; twenty-nine of 200 
marks, and ninety of 100 marks. It may be interesting to note 
that a collection was taken up in practically every chemical labora- 
tory in Germany, thus giving each student an opportunity of con- 
tributing his mite. 

Among special contributions not enumerated above may be 
mentioned a gift of 7,000 marks for fitting up the library, from Pro- 
fessor Harries of Berlin ; a large number of books and apparatus 
from various German firms in that line of business; a marble statue 
of Hofmann, for which fifty-seven subscribers donated 14,475 marks ; 
and Hofmann's library, given by his widow. 

In conclusion, it will be seen that the raising of funds necessary 
for so expensive a structure as the " Hofmann Haus " was accom- 
plished only after herculean efforts, it taking eight years to collect 
376,000 marks and even then there is left a debt of 160,000 marks. 
Let those in charge of the Procter Memorial bear this in mind and 
let them therefore plan more moderately than did their German 
confreres. 

On the other hand, if the German chemical interests freely gave 
236,000 marks for a memorial possessing largely the nature of a 
club house ; there seems no reason why the American drug trade 
should not raise $50,000 for an undertaking of such far-reaching 
importance as a research laboratory. 



352 



Pumpkin Seed Oil. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



PUMPKIN SEED OIL. 

By Wizard Graham, P.D. 

Pumpkin Seed Oil as found in commerce varies in quality and is 
generally, if not always, obtained by the use of a solvent. The 
expressed oil is not used to any great extent, as the extracted oil is 
cheaper. 

A quantity of whole seeds were ground and extracted with 
acetone ; the acetone being recovered by distillation. The yield 
was 25 per cent, of an oil having the following properties : 

A clear reddish limpid liquid having an agreeble odor and taste, a 
specific gravity of 9208 at 1 5 C, saponification number 192- 5, acid 
number 18-9, ether number 173 6, soluble in all proportions of 
carbon disulphide, ether, chloroform and in twenty parts of absolute 
alcohol, drying on standing to a tough yellowish transparent 
mass. 

A commercial oil was obtained and on examination gave the 
following results : 

A clear reddish liquid of an agreeable odor and taste, having a 
specific gravity of 0-9197 at 1 5 C, saponification number 195-2, 
acid number 3-5, ether number 191-7, soluble in all proportions of 
carbon disulphide, ether, chloroform, and in twenty parts of abso- 
lute alcohol. 

The above oils having been obtained by extraction it was deemed 
desirable to examine an oil obtained by expression, but after sub. 
jecting a quantity of ground seeds to a pressure of 3,000 pounds, no 
appreciable quantity of oil was secured on account of the porous 
condition of the seeds. 

Benedikt and Lewkowitsch in their " oils, fats and waxes " de- 
scribe it as an oil expressed from the seed of Cucurbita Pepo, specific 
gravity at 15 C, 09231, saponification number 1 88- 1, iodine value 
121, solidifying point — I5°C, melting point of mixed fatty acids 
28° C. 



Caryone Content of Volatile Oils. — According to Kremers { Jour. 
Soc. Ch. Ind., January 31, 1901,) the determination of the carvone content of 
volatile oils, containing this ketone, as carvoxime, while by no means perfect, 
is unquestionably a step in the right direction, the one great advantage be- 
ing that a definite crystalline compound is weighed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



Reaction for Morphine. 



353 



THE LLOYD REACTION FOR MORPHINE. 1 

By Joseph L. Mayer, Phar.D. 

Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory of the Brooklyn College of 

Pharmacy. 

Since the publication of the installment of Professor Lloyd's 
" Stringtown on the Pike," which had to do with the trial scene, 
tests and results, the journals have contained in almost every issue 
contributions which in one way or another relate to the well-known 
bichromate sulphuric, strychnine reaction. 

Prominent among those who have contributed articles on the 
subject is Mr. Seward Williams, who in the April number of the 
Druggists Circular elaborates his previous discussion concerning 
the possibility of mistaking a morphine-hydrastine mixture for 
strychnine. 

He concludes that " the moral of the story is not to place too 
much reliance on any one of the generally recognized evidences of 
organic poisons." 

In going over the reactions he finds that the morphine-hydrastine 
mixture with a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, will, even 
in the absence of potassium bichromate, produce the violet-blue 
color which so nearly simulates the characteristic strychnine reac- 
tion that Professor Lloyd yielded to the temptation to make it the 
theme of one of the most powerful climaxes of his deservedly 
popular novel. 

As a consequence Mr. Williams proposes that " we shall add to 
our list of alkaloid color-tests the two just mentioned and know 
them as the Lloyd reactions for morphine and hydrastine, if agree- 
able to Professor Lloyd." 

If the unknown substance is suspected to be morphine, add a small 
a mountof hydrastine and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid ; 
a violet-blue color appearing after five minutes indicates morphine. 

If hydrastine is suspected, add to the sample a small amount of 
morphine and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid ; a violet- 
blue color after five minutes indicates hydrastine. 

As a matter of fact, modern methods followed in toxicological 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the New York State Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June 4-S, '9or, and communicated by the author. 



354 



Reaction for Morphine. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



analysis have so taken advantage of the solubility of the alkaloids 
in the solvents employed in their separation, that even if some 
color reactions are common to several alkaloids, unless these alka- 
loids are separated in the same step in the examination, the chances 
of error are minimized. 

It is the possibility of making an error that emphasizes the 
necessity of having an unlimited number of tests of identity. 
Experiments recently made, prove that chloroform will dissolve out 
of a solution sufficient morphine and hydrastine to react violet- 
blue with concentrated sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate. 

While it is true that the reaction differs from that obtained with 
strychnine in persisting some time, instead of being evanescent, it 
is plain to see how a mistake might easily be made. 

Had " Professor Drew," the chemist in " the Stringtown poison- 
ing case," been more observant, and applied other tests than the 
bichromate one, his testimony would not have supplied the power- 
ful link it did, in the prosecution's strong chain of circumstantial 
evidence. Tests of identity and confirmatory ones are not only 
necessary in examinations of this character, but are required by the 
pharmacist to enable him to identify the alkaloids he purchases 
and dispenses. For example, the United States Pharmacopoeia re- 
quires that quinine " should not produce a red color with nitric 
acid (difference from morphine)." 

These facts suggested to the writer, that if hydrastine when 
mixed with any alkaloid other than morphine, in the presence of 
concentrated sulphuric acid, after five minutes' stirring failed to pro- 
duce the violet-blue color, the reaction would be a valuable addi- 
tion to the tests for differentiating morphine from other alkaloids. 

The following are the results of the experiments I made to deter- 
mine this question. 

The conditions and method of applying the tests were alike 
throughout, and consisted in mixing approximately one part of 
hydrastine with eight parts of the other alkaloid. 

After the addition of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid 
the mixture was stirred with a glass rod for at least five minutes. 
In view of the fact that many alkaloids give colorations for the 
first few minutes which are totally different from the end reaction, 
the direction to " stir at least fives minutes " must be strictly 
observed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



Reaction for Morphine. 



355 



The alkaloids operated upon, those most likely to be found in the 
drug store were the purest obtainable. 

The following table gives the colors produced by stirring the 
alkaloids named with hydrastine and concentrated sulphuric acid 
for five minutes : 



Aconitine ..... Brown. 

Atropine Pinkish. 

Berberine Greenish-brown. 

Brucine Light-brown. 

Caffeine Dirty-white. 

Cinchonine Dirty-yellow. 

Cinchonidine Dirty-white. 

Cocaine Unaffected. 

Codeine Pinkish. 

Digitaline Mahogany. 

Heroin Violet to purple. 

Homatropine Pale-yellow. 

Hyoscyamine Dirty-white. 

Morphine ...... Violet-blue. 

Pilocarpine Light-brown. 

Quinidine Light-green. 

Quinine . . . .' Greenish-yellow. 

Sparteine Greenish-yellow. 

Strychnine Dirty-white. 

Veratrine Royal purple. 



An analysis of these results shows that but three out of the 
twenty samples examined give a violet-blue color under the above 
conditions, viz., heroin, morphine and veratrine. 

Among this number only one gives a cherry-red color with cold 
concentrated sulphuric acid, viz., veratrine. 

The remainining two are differentiated by nitric acid; an orange- 
red color indicates morphine and a yellow color heroin. 

When we consider the sharpness of the reaction with the simplic- 
ity and ease of application, it becomes apparent that Lloyd's test 
for morphine is one worthy of a place among the alkaloidal color 
reactions. 

Fully realizing the importance attaching to the necessity of sub- 
jecting as many alkaloids as possible to the test, the writer regrets 
exceedingly that the number at his disposal was so limited, but 
hopes in the near future to report on those not included in the pres- 
ent work. 



356 



Aniseed Oils, and AnethoL 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1901. 



THE ANISEED OILS, AND ANETHOL 1 

By George R. Pancoast, M.D., and Lyman F. Kebi,er, Ph.C, 

Aniseed oil is one of the oldest of essential oils known, having 
been observed as early as the sixteenth century. On account of its 
being a grateful aromatic and a mild carminative it: has received 
general recognition by the various pharmacopoeias. The 1880 
U.S.P. recognized, and the 1898 Br. Phar. at present recognizes, 
both the oils distilled from Anise and Illicium. The former states that 
Oil of Illicium has nearly the same properties as oil of Anise, 
except that it congeals at about 2° C. while the latter recognizes a 
difference in the solubility in alcohol. The 1 890 U.S.P. recognizes 
only the oil distilled from Pimpinella Anisum L. (Nat. Ord. Umbelli- 
ferae). Why this restriction has been made is not apparent. The 
plant originally came from Egypt and the Levant, but on account 
of its usefulness, importance, and ease of production, it is now culti- 
vated in nearly all parts of the world. Russia at present is the 
largest producer of oil, not solely because it grows the greatest 
quantity of seed (about 3,000 tons annually) but rather because the 
seed is of inferior quality and is of little value except for oil. Spain 
has of late years produced about 1,500 tons per annum, and Turkey 
not far from this amount ; but these two countries produce large, 
pure seed of such fine quality as to commercially preclude its use 
for oil. 

Seed from various sources will yield from 1 y 2 to 6 per cent, of 
oil. In some localities, stems, chaff and even the leaves are added 
to the fruit before distillation. Chaff yields about ]/ 2 per cent, of 
oil. 

The physical properties of aniseed oil have been thoroughly in- 
vestigated and are as follows ; at, or above 20 C. it is a colorless or 
pale yellowish, strongly refractive liquid, of a characteristic odor and 
sweetish, mildly aromatic, taste. At or about + I 5° C. it solidifies 
into a snow-white crystalline mass, called by some " flat tablets " 
and a^ain becomes completely liquid at from -f 18 to -f 20 C. An 
oil that requires a temperature below -j- 15 C. for congealing 
should be looked upon with suspicion. The specific gravity of a 
fresh oil is 0-980 to 0-990 at 17 C. increasing with age ; due to the 



1 Read before the Pennsjdvania State Pharmaceutical Association, June, 
1901, and communicated by the authors. 



Am juiy i ri9Q arm '} Aniseed Oils, and Ancthol 357 

formation of anisaldehyde, amsic acid and polymeric anethols. The 
plane of polarized light is turned slightly to the left up to i° 50 
minutes. It is clearly soluble in an equal volume of alcohol and 
the resulting solution should not assume a blue or brown tint on 
the addition of a drop of solution of iron chloride (absence of phe- 
nol). With age the oil becomes more readily soluble in alcohol. 

The principal constituents are anethol, 80 to 90 per cent., and 
methylchavicol, an optically inactive body having the odor of 
aniseed oil, but lacking its sweet taste. 

For the various adulterants found from time to time and 
methods of detecting the same, see a former paper by the authors, 
in American Journal of Pharmacy, 73, 1, entitled " Adulterations 
of Essential Oils." 

Before taking a sample for examination, the contents of the can 
should be thoroughly liquid and well agitated so as to get a repre- 
sentative sample. 

Aniseed oil, it is said, can only be distinguished from star anise 
by the odor and taste. Various other distinguishing tests have 
been suggested, but none have proved satisfactory. It is probably 
due largely to the close similarity of the two oils, and the difference 
in price, that the former has been largely displaced by the latter ; 
which is derived from the fruit of Illicium verum, H. (Nat. Ord. 
Magnoliaceae). The new German Pharmacopoeia has met the exist- 
ing conditions very well in that it recognized neither of the oils, but 
their chief constituent, anethol. Whether such a step is a good one, 
time alone can tell. 

Star anise oil is practically controlled by the Chinese. At the 
source of distillation it is placed into tin cans holding from 32 to 35 
catties (42 to 46 pounds) and shipped to Hong Kong or other 
prominent markets, from whence it is sent out in lead canisters 
holding jy 2 kilos. Some of the star anise oil is sent through Ton- 
quin, the French centre of distribution. The construction of the 
canisters is not the most convenient, for readily emptying, without 
loss. The following precedure works very satisfactorily. Cut a 
round hole into the centre of the canister, through the seal, make 
this opening perfectly smooth and round by means of a reamer; into 
this opening insert a double perforated cork, carrying in one open- 
ing a siphon-shaped glass tubing, of suitable size and length, armed 
with a piece of rubber tubing at both ends, the rubber piece inside 
the container is about an inch long, and the one outside a foot 



358 Aniseed Oils, and Anethol. { Am juiy, r i9 P o? arm ' 

long. Into the other opening insert a straight glass tube. The 
apparatus is now ready tor use. Slightly elevate the canister, place 
a receiver under the long rubber tubing and start the siphon by 
blowing into the short glass tube. The canister is thus quickly 
emptied without loss. The small quantity of oil remaining, can 
readily be removed by draining. 

The physical properties of this oil are about the same as those 
for aniseed, the slight variations having been noted above. 

The composition of star anise oil appears to be somewhat more 
complex than that of anise oil. 

Many adulterants have been reported by the various investiga- 
tors, but at present only those of a more scientific character are met. 
Kerosene seems to have been used largely at one time, but the 
writers never met with any in this oil. It might be interesting, 
however, to record a few observations made with this adulterant. 

Schimmel's Report, April, 1897, P- contains the following : 

Specific Gravity Congealing Solubility in alcohol, 
at 15 C Point. 

Pure Oil . . 0-986 + 18° C. Soluble in 2-2 and more parts 

Oil-f- 5 per cent, kerosene 0*978 + 16X C. Not soluble in 10 parts 

" +10 " " " 0-970 +i4^°C. " " " " 

J. C. Umney reported the following observations ; Chem. and 
Drug., Vol. 51 (1887), p. 623 : 

Specific Gravity Congealing Contained, 
at 15 C Point. 

1 0*894 -f- 5'7° C. 56 per cent of Kerosene 

2 0*926 + 97 C. 37 

3 0-939 +n-5°C. 36 

4 0-920 • + 8-8° C. 41 " " " 

5 0-910 + 7'8° C. 47 

The above data were obtained from star anise oil of the London 
market. 

The authors have recently examined a number of samples of the 
various aniseed oils offered as pure, with the following results : 

Source. Specific Gravity. Optical Congealing Solubility in 

Rotation. Point. equal volume 

of alcohol. 

1 Russian .... 0-9838 at 17 C. + 3 5o / + 15° C. Soluble 

2 . . . . 0-9893 " 20 C. —4 59' + 1 8° C. 

3 Tonquin . . . 0*9834 " 17 C. — i° 30 / + 17 C. 

4 Star Anise . . 0-9648 " 17 C. — i° 27' + 15 C. 

5 - • 0-9870 " 17 C. + o° 58' + 16 C. 

6 . . 0-9822 " 17 C. —i° 53' +I5-5°C. 

7 • • 0-9821 " 17 C. —i° 3i r + 14-5° C. 

8 . . 0-9832 " 17 C. . — 1° 44 7 + 14° C. 

9 . . 0-9832 " 17 C. — i° 44 7 4- 14° C. 



Am j J uiy"i9 J oL ainJ -} Aniseed Oils, and Anethol. 359 

Oils Nos. I and 2 have undoubtedly been tampered with. The 
disturbed optical rotation of No. 1 is probably due to added oil of 
fennel, or some of its derivatives. What the disturbing factor of 
No. 2 is, the authors are unable to conjecture. No. 8 is also abnor- 
mal, due probably to the same added impurities as No. i,or possi- 
bly added star anise leaf oil, which has a specific gravity of 0-9878 
at 1 5 C. and an optical rotation of -\- i°. The anethol content of 
star anise leaf oil is small, and the congealing point correspondingly 
low. It has been called " Liquid star anise oil " and has no practi- 
cal value, except as an adulterant. 

Oils are occasionally met with, having a low congealing point, 
yet are not adulterated. These are the " Flower Oils." They are 
obtained from a mixture of natural and artificially ripened seeds ; 
i. e., the branches are gathered before the fruit is all ripe so as to 
hasten the ripening of the green seeds. Such oils cannot be con- 
sidered equal to an oil made entirely from prime seed. 

ANETHOL. 

The present German Pharmacopoeia describes anethol as a color- 
less, highly refractive liquid, of a pure anise odor, and of intensely 
sweetish taste; specific gravity at 25 0.0-984 to 0-086; melting 
point, 4- 20 to -J- 21 C; boiling point 232 to 234 C. and must 
form a clear solution with two parts of alcohol. 

Several samples examined by the writers yielded : 

Specific Gravity. Optical Congealing Boiling 
Rotation. Point. Point. 

A 0-9895 at 20° C. inactive 17 C. 210-235 C. 

B 0-9896 at 20 C. — i° 30' + 20 C. 220-235 C. 

C 1-0525 at 15° C. — 2 i8 / 228-245 C. 

D 0-9870 at 20 C. + 5 22 / + 20 C. 229-236° C. 

E • • 0-9847 at 20 C. inactive + 19 C 210-235° C. 

All are soluble in an equal volume of alcohol. A, B and E are 
of fair quality and comply fairly well with the above requirements, 
but anethol is generally considered optically inactive. C and D were 
labeled liquid anethol. We are informed that this is a redistilled 
oil of anise, prepared from the regular anise oil of the market. Liquid 
anethol is therefore a misnomer. It is desirable here to remark that 
C was an old sample and its original physical properties may have 
changed. D appears to be "anethol " derived from oil of fennel. 

Laboratory of Smith, Kline & French Co. 



360 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. PLarm. 
1 July, 1901. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

WOOD ALCOHOL. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Permit me a word on the use of wood alcohol for heating purposes,, 
spoken favorably of in a recent number of the Journal. Unques- 
tionably methyl alcohol is a cheaper fuel than grain spirit. It costs 
less and generates, weight for weight, more heat. However, its use 
is attended sometimes with inconveniences that must be taken into 
consideration. From its greater volatility it is even more danger- 
ously inflammable than ordinary alcohol. On account of this vola- 
tility, also, there is much greater waste in its use, the loss from 
evaporation in storing being more considerable and control of the 
rate of combustion in ordinary spirit lamps being more difficult. 

When burned in the safety spirit lamps, in which the fluid is ab- 
sorbed by asbestos covered by brass wire gauze, the metal of the 
gauze is rapidly corroded, as shown by the deep green or blue color 
imparted to the flame, and a brass kettle heated over the flame be- 
comes quickly tarnished. As a fuel, therefore, for use at the tea 
table, wood spirit cannot be recommended, at least where brass 
utensils are employed. 

A. B. Lyons. 

PROCTER MEMORIAL. 1 

In response to a letter from the Editor of this Journal concerning 
the feasibility of establishing a Research Laboratory as a memorial 
to the life and work of Prof. William Procter, Jr., by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association at its semi-centennial in 1902, the follow- 
ing are some of the replies which have been received : 

Dear Sir : — In a former communication I expressed the idea that 
some monument in memory of William Procter, Jr., would be the 
most appropriate memorial of his life and work. If he could have 
been consulted about the matter he would have said, " Let it be a 
Research Laboratory," and so, perhaps, we owe something to his 
known preferences. If the necessary funds can be obtained and 
arrangements made for the permanent maintenance of a research 
laboratory, it seems to me it would be a most fitting monument to 



1 For other information and correspondence on this subject, see November, 
1900, and February, March, April, May and June issues of this Journal. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1901. 



Correspondence. 



361 



his memory. I can see a number of difficulties that will have to be 
overcome in the conduct of such an establishment, but without 
doubt these can all be overcome. 

The Faculty and Directors of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy would, it seems to me, be the proper persons to be entrusted 
with the carrying out of this project by reason of his association 
with its early history, and Philadelphia being the city in which his 
life-work was done ; and I see no reason why a national monument 
should not, in this way, be cared for by the mother of all the col- 
leges in the United States. 

W. M. Searby. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Dear Sir: — Replying to your letter of April 4th, in which you 
state that it may be possible to establish a research laboratory at the 
fiftieth anniversary of the A. Ph. A,, I have to say that I am greatly 
pleased at this outcome of the discussion, and if there is anything 
I can do to further the scheme by encouraging sentiment in favor, I 
should be very glad. I hope that the research laboratory will in- 
clude various kinds of pharmacological work, will not confine itself 
to strictly chemical study, but will embrace physiological pharma- 
cology, which has grown to be so important to the physician espe- 
cially, but to the pharmacist as well. 

Anything that we can do in this laboratory on the broad lines of 
medical and pharmaceutical science for the benefit of human society, 
should meet with hearty approval, and should have the co-operation 
of all interested in medical science in any of its branches. 

L. E. Sayre. 

Lawrence, Kan. 

Dear Sir :— Your agreeable communication of recent date, rela- 
tive to the project of a Procter Memorial, and asking for an expres- 
sion of opinion thereon, has been duly considered, and we beg to 
state as follows : 

Believing, as we do, in a glorious future for American pharmacy, 
and in the eminent value of the instrumentality of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association in promoting that consummation, we 
quite agree with the proposition conveyed in your editorial in the 
American Journal of Pharmacy of November last, that the fiftieth 
a> niversary of the Association be commemorated by some act of 



362 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. July, 1901. 



historic significance, worthy and expressive of the high mission of 
that organization. 

Recognizing also the distinctive prominence of the late Professor 
Procter as a pioneer, guide and leader in the evolution of pharma- 
ceutic science and practice on this continent, we deem it likewise 
proper that the above-indicated commemorative act should bear his 
name and thereby serve to perpetuate and honor his memory. 

As to those forms suggested for this Memorial, on the feasibility 
of which no doubts have been expressed, we incline to side with the 
view variously supported in your correspondence columns, that 
neither the Statue nor the Medal plan would be sufficiently remi- 
niscent of the modest bearing, assiduous toil, and self-denying devo- 
tion to a noble cause, which characterized the great pharmacist 
whom it is desired to honor. In what we are informed to have been 
his spirit, the General Scholarship plan would, among the admittedly 
practicable suggestions so far put forth, appear to us to claim first 
place. 

Merck & Co. 

New York City. 

Dear Sir: — Replying to your esteemed favor of the 5th inst., 
relative to " memorializing the life and work of Prof. William Proc- 
ter, Jr.," it seems to me we should try to combine sentiment with 
utility. Sentiment, to satisfy the desires of the heart towards one 
we love and have lost, and utility, to perpetuate the memory of the 
departed. 

In the lecture room, where he was wont to teach, to give up the 
best part of the results of his untiring labors among those he loved 
and was loved by — there, where the happiest and best years of his 
life were spent, let there be erected a beautiful white marble tablet, 
bearing " en relief," a bronze (bust size) profile, elegantly done — 
true to life — with a proper dedication embodying his worth as a 
man, pharmacist and friend ; also the affectionate regard of those 
(students, etc.) erecting said tablet — so much for the sentiment 
portion — a just tribute to a great and good man, upon the spot of 
his well-earned honors. 

Now, as to the utility portion — every year, let there be conferred, 
jointly by members of the A. Ph. A. and Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy — a free tuition, in the name of Prof. William Procter, Jr., 
for the degree of pharmacist (Ph.G.) in the Philadelphia College of 



Am j J u°iy , ;'i9o h r m -} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 363 

Pharmacy, upon some worthy lad who lacks the means. * * * 
I think Prof. William Procter, Jr., would have been well pleased 
with this. 

The research laboratory idea is all right, but it had better be left 
to those with unstinted means; this is more a labor of love than vain 
glory and should be made up of contributions like unto the widow's 
mite. 

We want something simple, impressive and lasting, dignified and 
true to the purpose. Anything involving a large expenditure will 
either not be realized or only create an opening for would-be gen- 
iuses. . Prof. William Procter, Jr., and his memory would be lost in 
the refulgence cast by the halos around the heads of " Research 
Laboratory " workers. 

Let us love and honor the man for his many cardinal virtues, 
but in such a way that his, and only his, memory get the full benefit. 
I have no use for these double-edged schemes, which are like unto 
the Spanish proverb which says : " He who asks for God, asks for 
two." (A reference made to the pious monks asking charity.) 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

E. FOUGERA. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

BACTERICIDAL ACTION OF PAINTS. 

Cultures of various pathogenic bacilli — such as those of diphtheria, 
cholera and typhoid — transferred to freshly painted surfaces of wood, 
tinplate and earthenware, and observed under various conditions of 
time and temperature, were destroyed in every case, as shown by 
the inability to produce new cultures from the experimental mate- 
rial. That the destruction was not due to chemicals was shown by 
the fact that the same cultures thrived in 1 per cent, solutions of 
magnesium chloride and of arsenous acid. 

The writer, noting that linseed oil paints were the best germicides 
and also that all such paints, on drying, react to ozone paper, con- 
cludes that the antiseptic action of paints is due to the formation of 
ozone in the oxidation of drying oils. (M.Piorkowski, Bericht. dtsch. 
Ph. Ges., 1901, 85). 

H. V. Arny. 



364 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am -/uw%i avm - 

FUNGICIDAL ACTION OF VOLATILE OILS. 

Interesting to compare with above is an article by T. Borkorny 
{Ph. Cent., 1 90 1, 159, and 172) in which he reports elaborate experi- 
ments on the destruction of mould (Schimmelpilz) and putrefaction 
bacteria with ethereal oils and their derivatives, drawing therefrom 
interesting conclusions as to chemical structure and relative tox- 
icity. Quoting Loew's classification of toxicological action, in which 
he assumes that death of organisms by poison is due to the chem- 
ical decomposition of the protoplasm — be it by complete dissocia- 
tion, or by formation of substitution products. 

The writer cites the following oils as most toxic to mould, deduc- 
ing the reason for toxicity from their chemical structure. 

First comes eugenol, a phenol, and all phenols form substitution 
products with the protoplasmic constituents. It likewise contains 
an allyl group — CH = CH 2 , and all unsaturated groups are more 
poisonous than the corresponding saturated body. Thus allyl 
mustard oil is much more toxic than ethyl mustard oil. Second in 
antiseptic nature is cinnamic aldehyde, C 6 H 5 CH = CH CHO, which 
is toxic because of its CHO group. Aldeyhdes are more toxic than 
their corresponding alcohols (note antiseptic action of formaldehyde, 
as compared to its congener, methyl alcohol) because, according to 
Loew, they react with the amido groups found in the protoplasm. 
Cinnamic aldehyde, moreover, contains the unsaturated group — 
CH = CH — which contributes to its toxic action. Salicylic aldehyde, 
C 6 H 4 CHO, is more toxic to fungi than its alcohol, saligenin, or its 
oxidation product, salicylic acid, again showing influence of the 
aldehyde group. Lastly, all bodies containing the phenyl group, 
C 6 H 5 , show more toxic character than corresponding substances of 
the marsh gas series. H. V. A. 

CLARIFICATION OF ALBUMINOUS URINE. 

The clearing of urine prior to testing for albumin is sometimes 
difficult, and such foreign bodies as magnesia, aluminum hydrate, 
red lead or talc, have been recommended for the purpose. All, 
however, carry down considerable albumin, hence are not advised. 
Infusorial earth is the least objectionable clarifying agent, and even 
this should be used in small amounts only, not exceeding y 2 per 
cent. After all, shredded filter paper is the most reliable clarifying 
agent.— (Dr. Grutzner, Ph. Zt., 1901, 78.) H. V. A. 



• Am -Jui u y r ;i9fi? rm '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 365 

POISONOUS STAR ANISE. 

C. Hartwich (Schw. Wochenschr. Ch. und P/l, 1901, 107) finds 
star anise of Swiss commerce contains 10 to 20 per cent, of the 
poisonous fruit of Illicium religiosum. He calls attention to the 
means of detection suggested by Lenz. (See this Journal, 1900, 
75)- H. V. A. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 
A Handbook of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 
including the posological action of drugs, the special therapeutics of 
disease, official and practical pharmacy, and minute directions for 
prescription writing. By Samuel O. L. Potter. Eighth Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 
The new edition contains 950 pp. octavo, Price, in Cloth, $5 00; 
in Sheep, $6.00. 

This well-known, comprehensive and commendable work has again 
been subjected to a thorough and critical revision, has been largely 
rewritten, and has been expanded by the introduction of much new 
matter. The latter has to some extent taken the place of material 
considered obsolete or comparatively unimportant, so that the in- 
creased size of the book over the previous edition is only twenty 
pages. 

In the section on Materia Medica the following articles have been 
rewritten : Argentum, Cinchona, Coca, Coffea, Digitalis, Dulcin, 
Ergot, Ferrum, Ipecacuanha, Myrrha, Saccharinum and Veratrum 
Viride. The new matter includes paragraphs on Actol, Airol, 
Argentamin, Argentol, Argonin, Chinosol, Creosotal, Dionine, 
Eucaine, Eudoxin, Glycero-phosphates, Heroine, Holocaine, Iodo- 
thyrin, Itrol, Largin, Nesophen, Orphol, Orthoform, Passiflora, Pel- 
lotine, Peronine, Phloridzin, Piperidin, Protargol, Tuberculin-R, 
Urotropin and Xeroform. 

In the section on Therapeutics new articles are inserted on Local 
Anesthesia, Beriberi, Dhobie Itch, Tropical Fevers, Heat-stroke, 
Hemoglobinuric Fever, Lymphadenoma, Miliaria, Bubonic Plague, 
Sprue, Tinea Imbricata, Tinea Versicolor and Toxemia. Twenty- 
eight articles in this portion of the book have been rewritten, in- 
cluding those on Amenorrhea, Asthma, Boils, Cholera, Diabetes, 
Dysentery, Dyspnea, Gonorrhea, Insomnia, Leprosy, Leucocythemia, 
Lichen, Myxedema, Pemphigus, Phthisis, Remittent Fever, Typhoid 



366 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { Am -/ u iv r iS 1 i arm ' 

Fever, Septicemia, Shock, Suppuration, Ulcers, Uremia, Variola and 
Wounds. The text of many other articles has been expanded by 
the incorporation of more than two hundred items from current 
medical literature and from the author's personal experience in 
practice. The articles on Poisoning, on Temperature in Disease, 
and on the Clinical Examination of the Urine have been transferred 
to this part of the book from the Appendix, in the belief that they 
will be more frequently consulted when found in their alphabetical 
order in the section on Therapeutics. 

Potter's Handbook is one of those works that contains a vast 
amount of information and is teeming with the results of the au- 
thor's own personal experience and operations. The present edition 
contains material gathered from the writer's experience in active 
professional practice in a tropical climate, among soldiers and civil- 
ians, men, women and children, during a period of nearly two years' 
duration. The book is of great value to medical students and 
physicians and will be found also a valuable reference book by 
pharmacists and dentists as well. 

Merck's 1901 Manual of the Materia Medica. A ready ref- 
erence pocketbook for the practising physician and surgeon. Com- 
piled from the most recent authoritative sources and published by 
Merck & Co., New York and Chicago. 

This handy little book of nearly 300 pages contains a vast amount 
of information regarding the physical and chemical properties, 
physiological effects and therapeutics, uses of drugs, as well as a 
formulary of well-selected prescriptions and a valuable article on 
poisoning and its treatment. It will be found invaluable to the 
busy practitioner and is in just such a form that it may be carried 
about in the pocket and readily consulted. 

Memoranda on Poisons. By Thomas Hawkes Tanner. Eighth 
revised edition by Henry Leffmann. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. 

This little book will be of value not only to physicians, but also to 
pharmacists. It contains concise information regarding the diag- 
nosis and treatment of poisoning and many other features connected 
with this subject. The handy compact form of the book will make 
it useful, particularly to students and young practitioners of medi- 
cine, as well as pharmacists who occasionally are called up to assist 
in the saving of life until the physician arrives. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



AUGUST, igoi. W?, 



ROTATION OF THE PLANE OF POLARIZATION BY 
MIXTURES. 

By W. Porter Bkck, Tutor in Physics. 
The University of Maine. 

The experiments described in this paper were suggested by Prof. 
James S. Stevens, and carried on by the writer during the past 
year. They had for their general object an investigation of the 
rotation of the plane of polarization by mixtures, as compared with 
that produced by the separate ingredients. A Laurent polaris- 
trobometer was used, the special feature of which is a semi-circular 
plate of quartz which serves to retard half of the rays, so that 
under certain well-understood conditions there is an equal illumina- 
tion of the field. The source of light used was a sodium flame 
produced by saturating the wick of a large alcohol lamp with com- 
mon salt. 

Assuming the truth of the law connecting the degree of rotation 
with the tube length, the first part of the experiment consisted in 
determining whether the apparatus available was sufficiently accu- 
rate for the proposed investigation. A triangular trough with one 
angle very small was made water-tight and covered on two sides 
with strips of paper perforated at equal distances. It was proposed 
by sighting through opposite apertures to measure the rotation 
due to a sugar solution, whose thickness increased as one passed 
from the apex to the base of the triangle. It was found, however, 
that the refractive effect of the glass sides, which could not, of 
course, he placed parallel to each other, prevented the field from 
being observed. 

(367) 



368 



Polarization by Mixtures. 



f Am Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1901. 



A more satisfactory method consisted in taking a piece of hard 
glass tubing, 2-51 cm. outside, and 2-15 cm. inside diameters, and 
cutting as great a length as could be used in the instrument, and 
cementing plates of glass over each end. Fig. 1 shows the arrange- 
ment indicated. The cement used was melted asphalt, commonly 
known as " sidewalk pitch." It would be difficult to find a more 
perfect cement for glass than this substance ; it is water proof, 




Fig. ia. — Side view. 




Fig. ib. — General view of tube. 





















Fig. ic. — Direct end views of tube. 



and many of the common chemicals do not affect it. Another 
variety, known as " roofing pitch " is good, but more viscous, and 
not so well adapted for permanent strain. 

A solution of glucose was placed in this tube and the end 
cemented on, leaving a small space as shown in the figure. Through 
this space the liquid could be introduced by means of a pipette, 
and when once filled the surface tension was sufficient to retain it. 



Am . J our. Pharm . \ 
August, 1901. / 



Polai'ization by Mixtures. 



369 



The amount of rotation was next observed, and the tube unsealed 
at one end and cut down about 1 cm., refilled, and the process 
repeated. Observations for twelve lengths of tube were taken, and 
when plotted with the corresponding rotations, gave a fairly straight 
line, but the results were not considered sufficiently accurate. 

In order to obtain the best possible results, a series of tubes, six- 
teen in number, was constructed, differing from each other by 
irregular intervals of length. These could be tested repeatedly 
and afforded a check on the work. To find their lengths, measure- 
ments were taken on two sides and the mean taken. The following 
table will show the method of procedure : 



TABLE I.— LENGTH OF TUBES. 



No. of 
Tube. 


Length 
of a b. 


Length 
of a' b'. 


Mean 
(weight 1). 


Length 
of a b. 


Length 
of a' V. 


Mean 
(weight 2). 


Final 
Average. 




Cm. 


Cm. 


Cm. 


Cm. 


Cm. 


Cm. 


Cm. 


1 


0-44 


0-41 


0*425 


o*43 


0-41 


0-420 


0-42 


2 


076 


0-85 


0-805 


o-86 


0-76 


o'8io 


o-8i 


3 


1*04 


I'OO 


ro2o 


i'oi 


s'04 


1 '025 


1-02 


4 


1 '47 


1 '34 


1*405 


1*45 


1*32 


i*385 


i*39 


5 


178 


1*90 


1-840 


1-90 


i*77 


1*835 


1-84 


6 


3"42 


3-48 


3*45° 


3*41 


3*48 


3*445 


3*45 


7 


5*" 


5-20 


5*155 


5-20 


5*io 


5*i55 


5*15 


8 


6 '43 


6-5i 


6-470 


6*5i 


6-42 


6.465 


6*47 


9 


8-16 


813 


8-145 


8-i6 


8-n 


8-135 


8-14 


10 


9-84 


9-72 


9*78o 


972 


9-80 


9-760 


9'77 


11 


"•54 


11*57 


n'555 


11-57 


11-52 


ii*545 


11*55 


12 


13*27 


1 3 "3° 


13*285 


13*30 


13-27 


*3'285 


13-29 


13 


15*05 


- 

15*15 


15*085 


*5"*3 


15-08 


15-105 


15-10 


14 


16-89 


16-85 


16-870 


16-82 


16-88 


16-850 


1 6 -86 


15 


1838 


18-41 


l8 *395 


18-41 


18-38 


i8-395 


18*40 


16 


19-63 


19*75 


19-690 


i9'75 


19-61 


19-680 


19-68 



The next table shows the amount of rotation afforded by a solu- 
tion of glucose in each tube. The table is printed in full in order 
to show the degree of precision obtained in making the readings. 



37° 



Polarization by Mixtures. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1901. 



TABLE II. 



No. of 
Tube. 


Readings. 


Mean. 


Corrected 
for Zero 
Error. 


i 


o'9° 


OS" 


o-8° 


0-9° 


o-8° 


o-8° 


o-8° 


o-8° 


o-8° 


07° 


o-8i° 




0*35° 


2 


I.O 


i'i 


IO 


ro 


o*9 


i*.i 


ro j 


I '0 


1 


i - i 


1 -03 




°'57 






1*2 


I'i 


i*3 


i'i 


1*4 


1*3 


1*2 


r*i 


i'i 


1*22 




076 




r6 


r6 


i*5 


1*3 


i*4 


i*4 


1*5 j 


1*5 


1*2 


1 '4 


1 '44 




98 


c 

o 


i'9 


1-8 


1.5 


r8 


1*7 


17 


r6 


r6 


1*9 


1-6 


r; 2 




1-26 


6 


2-8 


2-6 


2-8 


28 


2-6 


2*6 


2*7 


2-9 


27 


2-8 


2 73 




2*27 




3'9 


3-8 


4'° 


4-0 


3-8 


4'o 


4"i : 


4'o 


40 


3-8 


3 94 




3 48 


8 


4*7 


47 


47 


47 


4*7 


. .0 
4 


4 


4*9 


4 8 


47 


475 




4' 2 9 


9 


57 


5*9 


5*8 


6-o 


5-8 


5-8 


5*8 1 


5*8 


5*7 


5*7 


5-80 




5 "34 


IO 




7*° 


6-9 


7-o 


7"? 


6*9 


6-9 | 


7'o 


7*1 


69 


6 9 3 




6"5 2 


II 


r 

S'o 


7*9 


8-o 


8-o 


8-3 


8-o 


S-o 


8-2 


8 - i 


8 2 


8-07 




7 -6i 


12 


9*4 


9*3 


9 -2 


9*5 


9'3 


9 2 


9*3 j 


9-2 


9*6 


9 '4 


9 34 




8-88 


13 


i°"5 


lo- 5 


io - 4 


107 


10-5 


io-6 


10-5 


io-5 


10 6 


io'5 


io-53 




1007 


14 


ii-6 


ii*7 


II 7 


n-6 


ii'7 


ii'7 


117 


117 


11 6 


"•5 


1 1 '65 






15 


12-6 


I2'6 


I2- 5 


12-6 


12-8 


T2-6 


12-6 ' 


127 


12-4 


126 


i2'6o 




I2'I4 


16 


i3'5 


*3*5 


I3'4 


13*4 




137 


137 


13-3 


I3"4 


1 3 "4 


13 50 




13 "04 



The curve which was obtained by plotting the tube-lengths and 
rotations as coordinates is shown below. It is so close an approxi- 
mation to a straight line that the accuracy of the methods employed 
in the subsequent work may be regarded as established. (See Fig. 3.) 




Fig. 2. — The double tube. 



The next part of the work consisted in determining whether two 
rotating liquids in tubes placed end to end will produce an effect 
equal to the sum of the rotations of each liquid separately. For 
the sugar solutions a double tube was constructed as represented 
in the figure. (See Fig. 2.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1901. 



Polarization by Mixtures. 



371 



The two parts of the tube are referred to as No. 1 and No. 2. 
Their lengths were made as nearly equal as possible, but a cane 
sugar test showed that No. 1 rotated the plane iy°-8s and No. 2 

















































































10 — 











































































































































































































































































































































































































— 











































































y 








































































p 














— 




























































A 










































































^ 1 





























































































































































— 








































































































































































































































































— 








































3 















































































































































































































































































& 
















































7 












































































































































































































































































































































y^ 












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 3.— Length of tube. Optical rotation. 
l 7°'79- Their ratios were, therefore, 1 : 1-002. The following 
table gives some of the results of this work: 

TABLE III. 



Liquid. 


Rotation 
Observed. 


Rotation 
Calculated. 


Per Cent, of 
Deviation. 


Granulated sugar sol. tube No. i. 


io°- 54 






Grape sugar sol. tube No. i. 


7° 99 






Cane sugar sol. tube No. 2. 


I7°79 






Cane sugar sol. tube No. 1. 


I7°*83 






Grape sugar No. 1. 1 
Cane sugar No. 2. j 


2 5 -8 3 


2 5 °78 


02 


Granulated sugar No. 1. \ 
Cane sugar No. 2. j 


28°-44 


28° 40 


0*1 



In making the test for oils it was found that enough of the pitch 
was dissolved to render the liquid somewhat opaque. Ordinary 



372 



Polarization by Mixtures. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1901. 



bottles covered with perforated paper answered the purpose very 
well, and in the results which follow, the short tube belonging to 
the saccharimeter was used with a bottle containing the second 
liquid. The next tube shows the result of comparing the separate 
and combined effects of various oils. 



TABLE IV. 



Number and Name of Substance. 


Rotation 
Observed. 


Rotation 
Computed. 


Percent, of 
Deviation. 


No. i, turpentine. 


-6°- 3 o 






No. 2, mixture of turpentine and orange. 


6 4 °- 4 2 






No. 3, orange oil. 


240-94 






No. 4, mixture of nutmeg, orange and mint. 


i7°6o 






No. 5. orange oil (small bottle). 


i3°-55 






No. 6, mixture of nutmeg, orange and\ 
mint (small bottle). J 


9°"43 






Nos. 1 and 3. 


i8° 7 2 


i8°64 


0-3 


Nos. 1 and 5. 


7 °-i6 


7°* 2 5 


0-4 


Nos. 2 and 4. 


8i°- 97 


82°'02 


O'l 


Nos. 2 and 6. 


73 0, 39 


73°8 5 


0-6 



In order to determine whether two substances mixed together 
would give the sum of the rotations due to the ingredients sepa- 
rately, solutions of the various sugars were placed in the double 
tube, and results reached as follow : 

TABLE V. 



Substance. 


Rotation 
Observed. 


Rotation 
Calculated. 


Per Cent, of 
Deviation. 


Tube 1, grape sugar. 


7°"99 






Tube 2, cane sugar. 


I7°79 






Mixture. 


i2°-8 5 


i2°-89 


o-3 



The calculated rotation was obtained by remembering that the 
relative lengths of the parts of the double tube were I : 1-002. 

12^ X 7°-99 = 4°-oo7 

2 002 



X I7°'79 = 8°.886 

2 002 

40-007 + 8°-886 = i2°-89 



[*' m -} International Congresses. 373 



A similar method was employed with the oils, the results of 
which are shown below. 

TABLE VI. 



Substance. 


Number. 


Rotation 
Observed. 


Rotation 
Calculated. 


Per Cent, of 
Deviation. 


Orange oil. 


1 


86°- 9 i 






Nutmeg oil. 


2 


2I°' 5 8 






Mixture of i and 2. 




53°77 


54° '24 


0-9 


Turpentine. 


3 


i 2 o-34 






Mint. 


4 


-34° 75 






Mixture of 4 and 5. 




-I 5 °-82 


-i 5 ° 7 i 


o'3 


Mixture of r, 2, 4, 5. 




I9 O- 02 


i8°- 97 


0-3 



The results of the experiments described in this paper indicate 
that in making saccharimetric determinations various substances 
contained in tubes placed end to end yield results which are equal 
to the sum of the results taken separately, and furthermore, sub- 
stances physically mixed together preserve their optical rotating 
properties independently of each other. This last law would 
enable one to determine the proportions of a mixture, if the amount 
of one substance and the rotating properties of each were known. 

Incidentally it was found that this method could be used in deter- 
mining the length of a column of liquid with greater accuracy than 
is afforded by the common methods of measurement. This was 
illustrated in measuring the lengths of the components of the 
double tube. 

The principal sources of error encountered consisted in errors of 
observation, which were fairly well eliminated by repeated trials, 
and temperature changes. The latter were undoubtedly of very 
little moment. 

THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL 

CONGRESSES. 
By Fr. Hoffmann. 
{Continued from page 325. ) 
FOURTH CONGRESS IN ST. PETERSBURG, 1 874. 

Early in 1874 the committee appointed by the Congress in 
Vienna addressed a circular letter of invitation and a programme 
for the fourth International Congress, to be held in St. Petersburg 
in August; 1874. The invitation was extended to all recognized 



374 



International Congresses. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1901. 



pharmaceutical associations and to pharmacists in general, each 
association being entitled to send one delegate for every one hun- 
dred of its members. 

The Congress assembled August 12th to 17th. Twelve societies 
were represented by seventeen delegates from Russia, Austria- 
Hungary, England, France and Denmark. No delegates were pres- 
ent from Germany and the United States ; the English delegation 
consisted of Mr. Thorn. Greeitish and Francis Sutton. Mr. Anton 
von W aid] mm, of Austria, was elected President and Messrs. Madsen, 
of Denmark, and Trapp, of Russia, Vice-Presidents. The German 
language was chosen for conducting the deliberations, whilst the 
use of English and French was also permitted, 

Three main questions were proposed for consideration. 

(1) How far are assistants personally responsible in the exercise 
of their professional duties ? — Upon this query the resolution passed 
that the proprietor was responsible for the good quality of all 
drugs, chemicals and galenicals, and for the proper management 
and conduct of the business, whilst the properly qualified assistant 
should be responsible for any mistakes committed by him or his 
fault and, during the absence of the proprietor, also for mistakes 
committed by apprentices. 

(2) How should the Committee of Inspection of Pharmacies 
most suitably be composed and appointed ? — This query, applying 
only to the usages in continental Europe, was answered by declar- 
ing that the periodical governmental inspection of pharmacies 
should be conducted by one medical practitioner and one practical 
pharmacist. 

(3) Is it necessary that the professorships of pharmacy should be 
occupied by pharmacists ? — In response to this query the resolution 
passed, that it is desirable that the professorship of pharmacy 
should be held by pharmacists and that there should be in the 
pharmaceutical curriculum two chairs, one for pharmacognosy and 
one for pharmaceutical chemistry. 

(4) Has not the time arrived for the preparation and introduc- 
tion of an international pharmacopoeia ? — This question had been 
answered in the Congress of 1867 by the American delegates in 
the negative. It again elicited a comprehensive deliberation. In 
general the necessity of uniformity in all pharmacopceial prepara- 
tion was recognized. The Society of Pharmacy of Paris presented a 



Am. Jour. Pharra. \ 
August, 1901. J 



International Congresses. 



375 



memoir and a draft of an international pharmacopoeia. Such a one 
should not exclude national pharmacopoeias, but the former one 
should serve as a standard in their revision so as to attain in the 
course of time as much as possible to a uniformity of all or the 
most commonly used medical preparations, particularely the more 
potent ones, as also to a uniform nomenclature and the general 
adoption of metric units and the use of the Latin language for the 
pharmacopoeias. 

A committee was appointed for examining the French elaboration 
and eventually for drafting a new one. The report should subse- 
quently be sent to the Pharmaceutical Society of St. Petersburg 
before or by December, 1875. This should have the revised draft 
printed and send copies to the pharmaceutical societies represented 
at the present congress for revision and approval in time before the 
next congress. 

The following suggestions were recommended to this committee 
for consideration : The language of the international pharmacopoeia 
should be the Latin, as determined at the preceding congresses at 
Paris and Vienna. Metric weights and measures should be used 
where absolute quantities are required ; but in pharmaceutical prepa- 
rations parts by weight or volume might be used. All temperatures 
should be stated in the centigrade scale, and specific gravities at 15 
C. The nomenclature of chemicals should be as simple and defi- 
nite as possible. The minimum of active principle of narcotic drugs 
permitted should be stated. Tinctures and other galenicals should 
be made on one principle with the greatest simplicity, avoiding 
unnecessary ingredients. In chemical preparations the maximum 
of impurities allowed should be stated. 

At the close of the Congress the invitation from the American 
Pharmaceutical Association* for holding the fifth Congress in Phila- 
delphia was read, but in no way acted upon. A subsequent pre- 
liminary invitation by the British delegates present to hold the 
meeting in London prevailed, subject, however, to a forthcoming 
official invitation by the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain. | It was furthermore resolved upon that the fifth 



*Page 324. 

t This invitation was unanimously adopted and acted upon by the Council on 
October 7, 1874 {Pharm. Jour, and Transactions, 1875, p. 285). 



376 International Congresses. { Km jl^t*ml m ' 

Congress should convene in the course of the next five years, or at 
the furthest in 1879. 



FIFTH CONGRESS IN LONDON, 1 88 1. 



The convocation of the fifth Congress was for various reasons 
delayed beyond the time appointed in St. Petersburg in 1874. It 
was not before the end of the year 1880 that the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain issued a circular letter of invitation to the 
pharmaceutical societies as well as to prominent pharmacists, with 
the request to send delegates and to attend the meetings of the 
congress to be held in London in August, 1 88 r. As mam objects 
for deliberation there were mentioned the international pharma- 
copoeia, pharmaceutical education, and the relations of pharmacists 
to the medical profession and the public. 

Forty- eight delegates, representing pharmaceutical societies ot 
England, France, Germany, Austria, Russia, Italy, Belgium, Hol- 
land, Denmark, Sweden and Australasia, attended the Congress and 
quite a number of visitors from Great Britain and abroad, among 
them two from the United States of America (Fr. Hoffmann and 
Oscar Oldberg). Dr. Theophilus Redzuood, of London, was elected 
President, and not less than sixteen honorary vice-presidents and 
five honorary secretaries were proposed and elected. 

The subject of an International Pharmacopoeia was introduced by 
papers read by Messrs. J % Dittrich, of Prague, J. Martenson, of 
St. Petersburg, and Madsen, of Copenhagen, each one presenting a 
number of suggestions and approving the principles recommended 
by the Congress at St. Petersburg. 

In regard to the draft elaborated by the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Paris and offered to and accepted by the Congress at St. Peters- 
burg, an unavailing controversy as to the final disposition of the 
manuscript occurred. It was stated that it had been burned in St. 
Petersburg by an unfortunate mistake or accident, while the French 
delegates claimed that the original draft was in their possession. 
The fact is that no available action whatever seems to have been 
taken with this initial draft for the elaboration of an International 
Pharmacopoeia. 

The lengthy discussions about a universal code resulted in the 
following resolutions unanimously adopted : 



Am. Jour. Pbarnj."! 
August, 1901. J 



International Congresses. 



377 



(1) The fifth International Pharmaceutical Congress held in London, August, 
i88r, confirms the resolutions at the previous congresses, as to the utility of an 
universal pharmacopoeia, but is of the opinion that it is necessary at once to 
appoint a commission, consisting of two delegates from each of the countries 
represented at this Congress, which shall prepare within the shortest possible 
time a compilation in which the strength of all potent drugs and their prepara- 
tions is equalized. 

(2) The Executive Committee of this Congress is requested to take the neces- 
sary steps that the resolution be speedily carried out. 

(3) The work, when ready, shall be handed over by the delegates to their 
respective governments or their pharmacopceial committees. 

(4) It is desirable that the commission establish a uniform systematic Latin 
nomenclature for the pharmacopoeias of all countries. 

(5) It is desirable that the commission take measures that an official Latin 
translation be made of the pharmacopoeias of different countries which are not 
now published in that language. 

(6) It is desirable that the commission be put in possession of all the manu- 
scripts, including the documents relating to the Universal Pharmacopoeia, com- 
piled by the Society of Pharmacy of Paris and presented at the fourth meeting 
of the Congress at St. Petersburg. 

(7) That the pharmaceutical societies of the respective countries be requested 
to nominate those members of the commission not appointed by this Congress, 
and to fill up any vacancies which may arise from time to time. 

The next subject of discussion referred to the equalization of the 
strength of official pharmaceutical preparations containing potent 
drugs. Mr. Madsen, of Copenhagen, presented, in a comprehensive 
address, a record of previous efforts for attaining to a satisfactory 
union in this matter, and papers about the subject were read by- 
Messrs. Peter Squire, of London, Professor Schaer, of Zurich, Dr. 
Brunnengraeber y of Rostock, Professor Maisc/i, of Philadelphia, and 
others. 

The preceding resolutions in regard to the International Pharma- 
copoeia embody the conclusions reached by these writers and the 
discussions. 

The question of pharmacopceial revision was introduced by Mr. 
Carteighe, of London, giving a concise sketch of the condition of 
pharmacy in England before the foundation and the educational 
exertions of the Pharmaceutical Society in 1 841, as well as of the 
origination of the British Pharmocopceia in 1864 by the fusion of 
the pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh and Dublin, until then 
in use. The modus of revision prevailing in the various countries 
was commented upon by Mr. Peter Squire and Dr. Theoph. Red- 
wood, of England, Dr. C. Schacht, of Germany, Dr. Pcehl f of Russia, 



378 



International Congresses. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1901. 



Mr. von Waldheirn, of Austria, Mr. Sinimberghi, of Italy, Dr. de 
Vrij, of Holland, Mr. Lotze, of Denmark, Dr. Gille, of Belgium, 
and Professor Oldberg, of the United States of America. 

The opinions and propositions as to the interval between the 
successive revisions of the national pharmacopoeias were somewhat 
divergent, five years being considered the minimum and ten years 
the maximum. The opinion prevailed that a Standing Pharmaco- 
pceial Committee was preferable to a temporary one at the time of 
each revision, and that such committee should consist of a majority 
of pharmacists. 

A discussion on pharmacopoeial nomenclature also took place. 
This question, as well as that of revision, was duly taken in consid- 
eration in the final resolutions passed in regard to an international 
pharmacopoeia, stated on page 377. 

The question of pharmaceutical education being a permanent 
feature of pharmaceutical congresses, was again discussed at great 
length, each speaker reflecting the methods and views prevailing in 
his country. The general opinion shared by all seemed, however, 
to be that higher requirements as to preliminary and to professional 
education, both in apprenticeship and university or college instruc- 
tion, are requisite, and that the curriculum of the branches of instruc- 
tion should be enlarged in compliance with the recent extensions 
in the domains of chemical, pharmacognostical and microscopic 
knowledge and application. An approximate uniformity in the 
methods and the scope of professional education was also recom- 
mended as desirable. 

A motion by Mr. Petit, of Paris, " that it is desirable in all 
countries that the curriculum of professional education of the phar- 
macist should be made uniform with that ot the grade of doctor of 
medicine," was laid upon the table, and, in conclusion, the whole 
question was left an open one to be considered by subsequent con- 
gresses. 

The last question discussed was on the relations of pharmacists to 
the medical profession and the public. This intricate subject of 
long standing evidently met with little interest, as its bearing is a 
very different one in the various countries, and no special action 
was taken. 

In conclusion, the place for holding the next Congress was taken 
into consideration. Only one invitation had been received, namely, 



A in. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1901. J 



International Congresses. 



379 



from the American Pharmaceutical Association. The officers of the 
Congress, however, had come to the conclusion that a more accessi- 
ble country would be preferable, and the city of Brussels was se- 
lected for holding the next Congress in 1884. 

SIXTH CONGRESS IN BRUSSELS, 1 885. 

The sixth International Pharmaceutical Congress should have 
been called to Brussels in 1884, but on account of a general indus- 
trial exposition taking place in Antwerp in 1885, it was postponed 
to this year. The local committee at Brussels had succeeded in 
securing the interest of the highest authorities of the State in the 
Congress, so that it was for the first time in the history of pharma- 
ceutical congresses favored with royal patronage, and by the par- 
ticipation of high State officers. This fact was a novel one, as well 
as the latitude in the programme issued with letters of invitation by 
the local committee early in 1885. This proposed, among other 
things, the consideration of the following questions : On theo- 
retical and applied pharmacy ; on hygiene and public health ; on 
biological and legal chemistry ; on the international pharmacopoeia 
elaborated and to be presented by the commission appointed at the 
Congress in London, in 1 88 1 ; on pharmaceutical education; on 
sophistication of alimentary substances, and, finally, on potable 
waters, their requisite quality, and the best methods for their exam- 
ination. . 

Other innovations of this Congress were that it invited delegates 
from governments, universities, schools of pharmacy and from phar- 
maceutical, chemical and hygienic associations, and all those inter- 
ested in the subjects pertaining to pharmacy in its broadest scope, 
who desire to attend the meeting and pay a fee of 10 francs ($2) for 
admittance. Another novel feature was that all questions brought 
for discussion before the Congress should first be considered and 
reported by sections. 

The Congress convened at its first meeting in Brussels, August 
31, 1885. It was opened, on behalf of the King of Belgium, by 
his representative, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Prince Caraman- 
Chimay. It was of all the preceding pharmaceutical congresses the 
most frequented one, consisting of approximately 300 delegates and 
visitors, representing twenty-three countries and seventy-two 
societies, whilst at the meetings in Vienna only eight countries, at 



3 8o 



International Congresses. 



f Am. Jour. Pharna. 
1 August, 1901. 



St. Petersburg five countries, and at London eighteen countries were 
represented. The United States were, as in London, not represented 
by a delegate, while Mr. Fred. Stearns, Sr., of Detroit, attended as 
a visitor. 

Mr. Van BasUlaer, of Brussels, was elected President, and quite a 
number of honorary vice-presidents and sectional presidents. As 
much as this Congress differed from the preceding ones in its organ- 
ization, sections and the admittance to membership, it deviated also 
in the nature and variety of questions proposed and introduced in 
its deliberations. Besides the inveterate questions of an interna- 
tional pharmacopoeia, equalization of the strength of pharmaco- 
pceial preparations, pharmaceutical education and examination, the 
relation of pharmacists to physicians, and nostrums and specialties, 
such questions as veterinary pharmacy, the regulation of the supply 
of patent medicines, the repetition of prescriptions containing poi- 
sonous alkaloids, the sale of morphia and opiates, the relative advan- 
tage of self-made chemicals and galenicals over purchased ones, the 
danger of lead pipes for water supply, of poisonous pigments, of 
the adulteration of food, the freedom of movement of assistants, 
etc., were introduced and more or less discussed, and resolutions 
passed thereon. Of these only those questions may be briefly men- 
tioned here, which strictly apply to the practice of pharmacy. 

The question of pharmaceutical education was, as at the pre- 
vious congresses, fully ventilated with the same variety of diverging 
opinions, according to the usages and the conditions prevailing in 
each country. The delegates from Belgium submitted the follow- 
ing propositions : 

(1) That in all countries where it is not already the case, a diploma should 
be established, giving the exclusive privilege to practise pharmacy. 

(2) To require candidates for pharmaceutical qualifications to pass through 
the same preparatory course of study as medical men and doctors of science. 

(3) That the minimum of knowledge to be required of the pharmacist should 
be defined. 

(4) The various titles now in use should be replaced by that of " doctor of 
pharmacy." 

(5) To obtain as a subsidiary object, limitation of the number of pharmacies 
proportional to the population. 

These motions were controverted, particularly by German, Aus- 
tian and Russian delegates, as also the proposition to continue, as 
in France, or introduce two grades of pharmacists, one for those 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1901. 



International Congresses. 



381 



who serve the practical and mercantile side of pharmacy, and one 
for those who aim higher and desire to devote themselves to the 
scientific objects and aims of the modern application of pharmaceu- 
tical knowledge and practice. Other delegates argued that it would 
not do to aim too high in the extent of erudition and too far in the 
practical domain of the pharmacist, as also that the professional and 
social standing of the pharmacist could not be raised by mere titles 
and diplomas, but only by personal qualification and character. Aca- 
demic degrees should not be degraded for the sake of professional 
vanity and convenience. It would be better and proper, as Messrs. 
von Waldheim and Genevoix stated, to be conservative and not to 
enter upon extravagant experiments in regard to the consonant 
position and requisite attainments of the practising pharmacist. 
Professor Cannizzaro stated that in Italy the government had been 
compelled to recede from its too high requirements at the pharma- 
ceutical examinations, because young men refrained from entering 
under such conditions a profession with so limited chances. 

Mr. A. von Waldheim, President of the commission for the elab- 
oration of a draft of an international pharmacopoeia, appointed by 
the Congress in London in 1 881, had performed this duty and 
submitted his elaboration to the Congress. The paper contained a 
historical introduction; 232 drugs and preparations had originally 
been proposed to be incorporated into the pharmacopoeia ; of these, 
188 were approved by the commission, but further propositions 
from various countries carried this number up to nearly five hun- 
dred articles. Upon further consideration and voting, 293 articles 
were accepted and adopted in the draft; of these, 188 were con- 
sidered as indispensable in a pharmacopoeia, whilst 112 were of less 
consequence. In the draft the former ones were printed in larger, 
the latter ones in smaller type, and on the margin it was stated in 
what national pharmacopoeias they are contained. 

This draft and its principles met with so general appreciation and 
approval, that the French delegates retracted their draft presented 
to the Congress in St. Petersburg, in 1874. 

It was resolved to have the draft of Mr. Waldheim distributed 
for consideration and further suggestions and to have it subsequently 
printed and published. 

The question of the limitation of pharmacies in proper proportion 
to the number of inhabitants, was discussed by the delegates of the 



382 



International Congresses. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1901. 



continental countries. Mr. Bratimos, of Athens, advocated strict 
limitation ; his views were supported by others ; Professor Gode- 
froy, of Vienna, described the legal regulations in Austria, Mr. 
Krohn, those of Norway, and Mr. Bernaco, those of Italy. Delegates 
from Holland thought it sufficient to exact limitation only by 
stricter requirements in the professional qualification of the phar- 
macist. 

The resolution was finally passed that the Congress approve of 
the principle that the public interest of every country requires a 
limitation in the number of pharmacies, and that this Congress elect 
a committee to report to the next Congress on the condition of the 
pharmacists in the various countries and to collect statistical and 
other evidence of the advantages derived from the limitation of the 
number of pharmacies. 

A voluble and acrimonious discussion was brought about by the 
question of nostrums and specialties. Professor Zanni, of Constan- 
tinople, moved that this Congress appoint an international commis- 
sion, charging it with the examination of the prevailing nostrums 
and specialties of the market and to discriminate between those 
which may be admitted and those which should be prohibited. 
Belgian and other delegates depreciated the nostrum trade, while a 
number of Parisian pharmacists pleaded in favor of specialties and 
proprietaries. They called attention to the great economic import- 
ance of this ever increasing industry, the export of such remedies 
from France alone amounting to, approximately, 14,000,000 of francs 
per annum. They also controverted the assumption that this in- 
dustry was based indiscriminately upon barter and gain without 
any scientific and therapeutical principles and merits. Such reme- 
dies were justified and sanctioned by their undeniable success and 
popular confidence and approval and were largely of recognized 
value and advantage to both the poor and the wealthy. 

Notwithstanding this warm endorsement, the following resolu- 
tion was passed with a considerable majority : " The Sixth Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress deems it desirable in the public 
interest that nostrums and pharmaceutical proprietaries be strictly 
prohibited in all countries." 

Attention was called by Mr. Limousin, of Paris, to the fact that 
' twenty years ago a similar resolution had been passed by the Con- 
gress at Brunswick without any appreciable success or effect. The 



Am. Jour. Pnarrr>.\ 
August, 1901. J 



Story of the Papaw. 



383 



industry of specialties had wonderfully progressed and prospered 
ever since. 

The question of the dispensation of potent and poisonous sub- 
stances in prescriptions and the indiscriminate repetition of these 
was fully taken in consideration, as well as the sale of morphia and 
opiates, and it was agreed that a strict regulation is imperative, but 
is mainly in the function of medical and sanitary authorities and the 
special legislation of each country. 

Papers were read and a lengthy discussion took place on the 
questions of adulteration of food and the quality and purity of 
potable waters, and comprehensive resolutions were passed for 
instituting national and international regulations for their control 
and examination as well as for adopting standards defining the 
requirements to be made upon water to be considered of normal 
and healthy condition. 

The question of the freedom of movement (Freiziigigkeit) of 
pharmaceutical assistants and some other questions of the lengthy 
programme, more or less irrelevant to pharmacy of non-European 
countries, were briefly discussed without any definite result, or 
altogether dropped. 

At the final close of the meetings it was resolved that the seventh 
Congress shall be held at Milan in 1888. 

( To be continued.) 



THE STORY OF THE PAPAW. 
By F. B. Kilmer. 
( Concluded from p. 348. ) 
GLUCOSIDE OF THE PAPAW. 

The Carica Papaya contains a glucosidal body, caricin. This I 
have never been able to obtain except from the seed, in which it is 
fairly abundant. From this source it may be extracted after boil- 
ing the seeds with 75 per cent, alcohol. The residue after alco- 
holic extraction is then exhausted with water. The aqueous ex- 
tract after the addition of barium carbonate is evaporated to the 
consistency of a soft extract from which the glucoside may be ex- 
tracted with hot alcohol. From such a solution the glucoside 
separates upon concentration. This glucoside resembles sinigrin. 



3§4 



Story of the Pa paw. 



( Am. Jour. Pharin. 
1 August, 1901. 



It is decomposed by the glycoside splitting ferment, myrosin 
(obtained from mustard), giving a volatile, odorous, pungent flavor 
suggestive of the Cruciferae, but not so marked. 

The seeds of papaw also. contain the glucoside splitting ferment, 
myrosin. The glucoside resides within the hard inner coating of 
the seed, while the myrosin ferment is secreted in the gelatinous 
outer envelope. Myrosin may be extracted from this mucilaginous 
substance with water and precipitated from the watery solution by 
alcohol. 

By pursuing the methods here briefly outlined, we may separate 
the glucoside from the inner section of the seed and the ferment 
from the outer coating ; and by bringing the two substances 
together in the presence of water, the glucoside will be decomposed 
with the production of a volatile essence and glucose. 18 

The myrosin ferment extracted from the mucilaginous coating of 
the papaw seed will decompose sinigrin. The action of this ferment 
and decomposition of the glucoside is apparent to the sense of taste 
when the seeds are chewed. The taste and odor indicate that the 
glucoside and ferment are present in the bark of the root. 

ALKALOID. 

An alkaloid — carpaine — has been separated from the Carica 
Papaya. The source so far noted has been the leaves. 

The usual method of extraction is to digest the leaves in alcohol 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid (5-100) ; evaporate the extract, 
wash with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid (2-ico). This 
solution is then washed with ether; made alkaline with sodium hy- 
drate and the alkaloid washed out in chloroform or ether. Jn my 
experiments the yield was small. I have noted indications of alka- 
loidal reaction with Mayer's reagent in the alkaline ether washings, 
from the latex, but it cannot be stated that the alkaloid is present 
in this product. 

The alkaloid, carpaine, is soluble in absolute alcohol, amylic alco- 
hol, chloroform, benzine and in water acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid. 



18 It has been demonstrated that in many instances the ferment and the 
glucoside upon which the ferment acts are enclosed in different cells in plant 
tissue. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1901. j 



Story of the Papaw. 



385 



A solution of carpaine reacts with indicators as follows: — red 
litmus paper is turned blue; hematoxylin, deep rose or wine ; roso- 
lic acid, deep rose; cochineal, deep rose; methyl-orange, yellow; 
lacmoid, no change. Phenolphtalein causes a turbidity with the 
usual red, but the reaction is obscure in the presence of alcohol. 

The physiological action of this alkaloid is quite similar to that 
of digitalis, a heart depressant. 





Carica Papaya cultivated. 
MARKET PREPARATIONS OF THE PAPAW. 



There are numerous preparations in our own and in the Euro- 
pean markets claiming to be the ferment of the papaw. These 
are sold under the name of "papain,"" papayotin," " caroid," " pa- 
poid," etc. 

From a somewhat extended examination I am quite satisfied that 
several of the preparations named are the dried and powdered 
papaw milk. In this case they bear the same relation to the true 
separated ferment as the dried mucous membrane of the stomacl 



Story of the Papaw. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1901. 



might bear to purified pepsin. Some of these so called papains 
retain the waxy, rubber-like constituents and the acrid, irritating 
resins of the milk. 

The application to such crude material of the term " papain," or 
any similar name which would imply the isolated ferment, is mis. 
leading and should be abandoned. Tne dried juice of the papaw, or 
a mixture of the dried juice with any other ferments, should be 
properly labelled. From these crude preparations, the true fer- 
ment can be separated by extraction with water and precipitation 
with alcohol. In a few experiments which I have tried, some of 
the crude preparations were found to contain about twenty per cent, 
of the ferment-bearing bodies (albuminous). 

There are, however, preparations in the market which consist of 
the more or less purified and separated ferment, or, more accurately 
speaking, consisting of the separated proteids; with which the 
ferments are associated. 

I know of no standard by which these market preparations can 
be judged. They vary greatly in their proteolytic action. In such 
as may be prepared by simple drying of the milk, no two lots can 
be alike. These will be found to vary in color, to emit an offensive 
odor and to have a marked acrid disagreeable taste, producing, in 
several instances in my experience, quite a sharp caustic action. 

The dried papaw juice is usually the more energetic in the begin- 
ning of digestive action than is the purified ferment, but this ener- 
getic action of the dried juice apparently soon ceases, while the pure 
ferment, though slower in immediate action, continues its activity 
for many hours. Upon treating the preparations made of the dried 
juice with ether, chloroform, benzine or alcohol, evaporating the 
solvent, the waxy resinous and rubber-like residue elsewhere spoken 
of will remain. 

The amount of residue left after extraction with water may be 
taken as a rough estimate of the foreign material present, the fer- 
ment itself being associated with a more or less soluble albumose. 
A more accurate method of estimation as to the amount of ferment- 
bearing bodies is as follows : — Extract a weighed portion of the 
powder with water (two or three successive portions with tritura- 
tion) ; combine the aqueous solutions and saturate with crystals of 
magnesium sulphate and sodium sulphate in about equal propor- 
tions. If the solution is warmed the precipitate will be quicker. 



Ain. Jour. Pharm. 1 
August, 1901. J 



Story of the Pap aw. 



387 



The precipitate thus obtained, freed from salts by dialysis, will con- 
sist of albumose and globulin, and the weight of these when dried 
will give the measure of soluble bodies with which the ferment is 
associated, or the amount of ferment-bearing bodies in the sample. 

In the best of the market preparations which I have examined I 
have found, in addition to these soluble bodies, insoluble globulins 
and an appreciable amount of peptone, the latter not being precipi- 
tated by the foregoing methods. 




Carica Papaya, split open to show sections in centre of trunk. 
DIGESTIVE ACTION. 

The digestive action of the ferment of the papaw plant has been 
quite fully described. The actions which are here summarized 
have been made with one of the market ferments sold under the 
name of " Papoid." 19 

19 This preparation was used on account of its convenience and because of the 
lack of sufficient material, separated by the processes outlined in another part 
of this paper. 



388 



Story of the Pap aw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, lfiOl. 



Papoid is a German production, and, according to the statement 
of the manufacturers, it is prepared by precipitation from a watery 
extract of the papaw juice or milk. It consists essentially of globu- 
lin and albumose, associated with the ferments, and in addition it 
contains a small amount of natural inorganic salts. This prepara- 
tion was used by the writer in a previous communication, and by 
Chittenden, (See " Papoid Digestion " Transactions of Connecticut 
Academy, Vol. IX, 1892.) 

The action of this ferment presents features which contrast 
peculiarly with those of the ordinary digestive ferments. Direct 
comparison of the enzyme of the papaw with any other ferment is 
practically impossible, and this is especially true as to its behavior 
in comparison with the animal ferments. 

The action of most ferments is inhibited by the products of diges- 
tive action ; such does not seem to be the effect in the case of the 
papaw enzyme. It acts in a concentrated solution, even when 
carrying products of its own action. Certain of my experiments 
tend to show, however, that this enzyme has a notable action in a 
stream of running water. In other words, its action seems to be 
continuous, and the ferment is not removed by washing or by the 
action of fluids in which it is soluble. One such experiment was as 
follows : 

Two ounces of raw lean beef were cut into slices, over which was 
poured an alkaline solution of the papaw ferments. The beef was 
allowed to remain in this solution for half an hour, during which 
time the solution was fairly well absorbed and the beef somewhat 
softened. The whole was then wrapped in a filter paper, transferred 
to a fine muslin bag ; this bag and contents were placed under a 
faucet of running water and allowed to remain for five hours. 
Upon opening the bag it was found that only a few shreds of meat 
remained. 

In order to demonstrate that the action was not that of a washing 
away process due to force of the water, a check experiment was 
made without the ferment, here the loss in weight only amounted to 
about fifty per cent. 

This experiment seems to show that the enzyme combined with 
and hydrated the fibres of the meat. The products of this combi- 
nation are soluble, and are removed by the action of water or other 
fluids; furthermore, in the process of washing away the soluble 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1901. 



Story of the Papaw. 



389 



products, the ferment is left behind to act upon a fresh portion of 
the fibre, in turn giving rise to soluble products or peptones. 

This experiment was made in order to imita'e certain known 
conditions present in the process of digestion, where there is a con- 
stant stream of fluid in the intestinal tract. Taken with other 
experiments this result seems to show that ferments of the papaw 
act very energetically in a small amount of fluid, and will also act in 
a stream of water. 





Wild Papaw. 

The influence of reaction upon the ferments of the papaw form an 
interesting comparion with those of the animal ferments. 

The power of pepsin is destroyed in alkaline solution, such as 
lime water, sodium bicarbonate, ammonia, etc.; on the other hand 
the activity of pancreatin, ptyalin or diastase is inhibited in acid 
solution. The papaw enzyme is active in acid, neutral or alkaline 
solution; but pepsin and pancreatin cannot be mixed together in 
solution either acid, alkaline or neutral, and still preserve their 



390 



Story of the Pap aw. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1901. 



characteristics ; whereas, the ferments of the papaw can be mixed 
with other ferments in a solution of any reaction. Pepsin is inert 
in a neutral solution, and is destroyed in solutions containing traces 
of alkalinity. If an alkaline solution of pepsin be made acid, the 
pepsin action is not restored ; pancreatin acts slowly in neutral 
solutions, and is destroyed in acid solution. If an acid solution of 
pancreatin be made alkaline, the pancreatin action will not be re- 
stored. The papaw ferments are active in neutral solutions ; their 
activity is enhanced when such solution is made acid, and if such 
acid solution be in turn made alkaline, the ferment will still remain 
active. In fact, the changing of solution of the papaw ferments 
from acid to neutral, then to alkaline; then reversing the order to 
neutral, acid and alkaline, or, in fact, changing the order of reaction 
almost indefinitely, does not thereby destroy the ferment which 
seems to remain active under all reactions and conditions. 

Certain physical changes in the proteid substances acted upon 
are characteristic of these enzymes of the papaw. For instance : 
when raw blood fibrin or raw beef is acted upon with an alkaline 
solution of these ferments, there is an immediate softening to a 
jelly-like mass in which the fibres lose their individuality, this jelly 
gradually becoming thinner under the further action of the ferment. 20 

In the case of cooked beef in either alkaline or acid solution, the 
action of the ferment of the papaw is quite different. There is a 
rapid disintegration of the fibres which separate into tiny fragments. 
Finally the undigested portion becomes a pultaceous residue. 21 

A most interesting feature of the papaw enzyme is its action at a 
wide range of temperature. With the animal ferments, especially 
pepsin and trypsin, digestion is very slow at room temperature, 68 
to 70 F. While at this temperature the papaw enzyme acts as 
energetically as at 1 10 F., the animal ferments act most energetic- 
ally at body temperature (diastase at 130 F.) 



20 This action in the case of blood fibrin is quite striking, and advantage is 
taken of this property in therapeutics where a solution of the ferments is used 
as a solvent for the false membrane of diphtheria, a substance quite analogous 
to blood fibrin. 

21 It is notable that with meat proteids, both cooked and uncooked, in acid 
or alkaline solutions containing no ferment, there is a marked swelling of the 
fibre. In an alkaline solution this becomes a solid jelly, but this swelling 
seems to be entirely counteracted by the presence of the papaw ferment. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1901. J 



Story of the Papaw. 



391 



With the animal ferments, if the temperature be raised to near 
140 F., there is a diminution in the digestive action, and at about 
158 F., pancreatin is destroyed ; pepsin at about 160 F. Quite the 
reverse is the influence upon the papaw ferments. Here the action, 
beginning as low as 50 or 60 F., increases slightly with the rise of 
temperature until between 155-160 F. it reaches the maxi- 
mum. The action is not entirely destroyed even at a fe.v moments' 
exposure at the boiling point. A digestive ferment active at 
temperatures ranging from 50 F. to the boiling point is notable. 




Papaw fruit as a tropical dessert. 
PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION BY THE PAPAW FERMENT. 

A peculiar phenomenon arises in the digestion of albumen by the 
papaw enzyme. It is particularly noticeable in the digestion of egg 
albumen in alkaline solution, but it is manifest in the digestion of 
raw flesh albumen in either acid, neutral or alkaline media. After 
every prolonged digestion there is found an undissolved residue, 
which many observers have characterized as an unchanged albumen, 
and which is usually measured as undigested residue. But such is 
not the case. This residue is an altered albumen ; is soluble in 0-3 
to 5 per cent, solution of sodium carbonate or 0'2 per cent, hy- 
drochloric acid. From such solution it is reprecipitated upon neu- 
tralization, and re-dissolved by an excess of the precipitant. It is 
insoluble in salt solutions. Its solution in sodium carbonate upon 
dialysis becomes almost entirely soluble in water. 



392 



Story of the Pa paw. 



/Am. Jour. Fharm. 
I August. 1901. 



The dialyzed solution noted above gives a precipitate with acetic 
acid and potassium ferrocyanide, but nitric acid gives no precipitate. 
The solution gives the ordinary proteid reactions, and apparently 
the whole of the proteids are reprecipitated by the addition of a large 
quantity of alcohol. This body is further digested after washing 
and treatment with a fresh solution of the ferment, and also in an 
acid solution of pepsin ; it is almost completely digested in an alka- 
line solution of trypsin, yielding (as shown at one trial) the ordinary 




Method of collecting Papaw latex. 

products of digestion. This body corresponds quite closely to the 
antialbumid found in digestions by hydrochloric acid and by 
trypsin. 22 

The products arising in the digestion of egg albumen, blood 
fibrin or beef albumen are quite alike either in acid, alkaline or neu- 



22 A quite similar body is found in Brometin digestion of albumen. (See 
Chittenden— -Journal of Physiology, No. 4, 1893.) It is quite evident that this 
body would be readily converted into soluble absorbable products in the diges- 
tive tract. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1901. 



Story of the Pap aw. 



393 



tral solutions, with the exception of certain slight modifications de- 
pendent upon the conditions of trial, reaction, etc. Hemialbumose 
(protoalbumose, deuteroalbumose and, in some instances, hetero- 
albumose), hemipeptone, peptone products, and the amid bodies, 
leucin and tyrosin, are all found in addition to the peculiar 
body above noted which is present only in minute amounts. 

All of these bodies seemingly make their appearance in the early 
stages of digestion, and each one is found at the end of prolonged 
digestion, although under ordinary circumstances deuteroalbumose 
and true peptone predominate to a high degree. 

The close identity of the products of the action of the enzyme of 
the papaw and that of tryptic and pepsin digestion can be seen in 
the accompanying diagram : 



PAPAW FERMENT DIGESTION. 

Albumen. 



P. Albumose 



Hemialbumose 



Hemipeptone 



Leucin, Tyrosin 



TRYPSIN DIGESTION. 

Albumen. 



Antialbumose 
Antipeptone 



Hemialbumose 
Hemipeptone 
Leucin, Tyrosin 



394 



Story of the Papaw. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1901. 



PEPSIN DIGESTION. 



Albumen. 



Antialbumose 



Hemialbumose 



Antipeptone 



Hemipeptone 



NITROGEN IN DIGESTIVE PRODUCTS. 



It is well known that the hemialbumoses and peptones formed by 
pepsin or trypsin show an increase of nitrogen above that of the 
original proteids. In the case of the ferments under consideration 
this is reversed ; the proteid products show a decrease in the nitro- 
gen content. The following experiment illustrates this : The 
clear filtrate resulting from a prolonged digestion of egg albumin in 
a neutral solution, was concentrated, filtered and precipitated with 
alcohol, extracted with hot alcohol ; the resultant mass (consisting 
for the most part of peptones) was then subjected to analysis by the 
Kjeldahl process. The average result of three trials expressed in 
percentage was N, 14-14. 

The following comparison with the nitrogen content of proteids 
will illustrate the point: — 

Egg albumen N. 16.02 Hamerstein ..... 

Hemialbumose . N. 16.55 - • ■•' Kuhne 

Soluble proteoses 

(papaw ferments) N. 14.14 (3 trials) Kilmer 

The action of the papaw ferments upon milk is quite identical to 
the action of pancreatin. There is first the act of curdling in which 
the casein is separated into a soft flocculent precipitate ; this is 
followed by a digestion of the proteids, during which process they 
are converted into soluble and diffusible products. The curdling 
takes place at ordinary temperature in neutral or alkaline reaction ; 
is delayed by increase of alkalinity, and hastened by increase of 
temperature. The digestive action proceeds independent of the act 
of curdling, and whether the reaction is neutral, acid or alkaline. 
(Best digestion is with 2 per cent, bicarbonate of soda or 25 per 
cent, lime water.) 



Ain. Jour. Pharm.\ 
August, 1901. > 



Chromic Acid and the Chromates. 



395 



In addition to the proteolytic and rennet ferments noted, and the 
probable presence of pectase, there is present in the papaw latex, 
amylolytic ferment capable of acting upon cooked starch. The 
amount of this starch- converting ferment is not large, or else it is 
weak. The fresh latex acts promptly upon starch paste, thinning it, 
and converting a portion at least into soluble starch and dextrin. 
(The amount of reducing sugar produced is slight.) 

The starch-converting action of the separated ferment (or dried 
latex) is not very pronounced. The most that can be said is that 
it is present. 23 

Altogether we are warranted in the statement, that the digestive 
action of the ferments contained in the papaw latex and the pro- 
ducts formed in such are quite identical with that of the animal and 
vegetable ferments in general. 



A RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE VALUE 
OF - CHROMIC ACID" AND THE SOLUBLE CHROMATES. 

By Lyman F. Kebeer, B.S. 

The principle involved in the beautiful and exact method for 
estimating iodine by means of sodium thiosulphate was brought 
forward by A. du Pasquier, 1 but the original method gave neither 
satisfactory nor concordant results. Bunsen - took up the process 
and pointed out the cause of its shortcomings. These researches 
on the volumetric estimation of iodine, in connection with Schwarz's 3 
proposed use of sodium thiosulphate instead of sulphurous acid, 
produced a very beneficial effect on the whole domain of chemical 
analysis. The value of the process is not so much in the estimation 
of iodine in iodine compounds, but rather in the determination of 
such substances as will liberate iodine when brought in contact 
with potassium iodide, either by direct displacement [e. g., the 
chlorinated compounds, chlorine water, bromine, etc.) or by reduc- 
tion in the presence of hydrochloric acid, either with or without 



23 The pronounced amylolytic action of some of the papaw ferments in the 
market is probably due to the addition of diastase. 

1 1840, Anal, de Chimie et de Physique, 73, 310 ; Silliman's Jour., 40, 123. 

2 1853, (Liebig) Anal., 86, 265-291. 

3 1853, Anleit. zu Maassanal. Nachtrdge, 22. 



39^ 



Chromic Acid and the CJiromates. 



( Am. Jour. Pharai. 
I August, 1901. 



heat {e.g., Cr0 3 , PbO, 2 , Mn0 2 , As 2 5 , FeC) 3 , etc.). The details of 
the various methods must be worked out for each substance to be 
estimated. If a chromate is boiled with an excess of strong hydro- 
chloric acid, chlorine is liberated, which can be distilled and con- 
ducted into a solution of potassium iodide, contained in a suitable 
apparatus. The distillation may be avoided by mixing the chro- 
mate, a saturated solution of potassium iodide and the hydrochloric 
acid in a strong bottle, provided with an accurately ground stopple. 
The stopple is firmly tied in, the bottle with its contents immersed 
in water and the temperature raised to boiling, where it is kept for 
one hour. The bottle is then removed, cooled and the amount of 
liberated iodine estimated by means of N io sodium thiosulphate. 

Both of the above methods are more or less tedious and are 
liable to give abnormally high results, on account of the proneness 
of the hydriodic acid formed to decompose. A blank should always 
be carried. 

The writer has used the following method with considerable sat- 
isfaction : Dissolve about I gramme (accurately weighed) in enough 
distilled water to make exactly 100 c.c. Of this solution transfer 
20 c.c. into a porcelain evaporating dish containing 75 c.c. of water, 
add 2 grammes of potassium iodide, 15 c.c. of 10 per cent, sulphuric 
acid and mix well. Then add, from a burette, N/10 sodium thiosul- 
phate until a distinct blue color, without yellowish cast, results, or 
the end may be determined by means of a starch solution. 

It was at first thought that some time must be allowed for com- 
plete reaction of the above mixture, before the liberated iodine can 
be estimated, but the writer soon found that the reactions were 
almost instantaneous. 

The reactions involved are represented by the following equa- 
tions : 

(1) 2 Cr 3 + 6 KI + 6 H 2 S0 4 == 3 I 2 -j- Cr 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + 3 K 2 S0 4 
+ 6 H 2 0. 

(2) 3 I 2 6 Na,S£> 8 3 Na 2 S 4 6 + 6 Nal. 

(3) K CrX> 7 4- 6 KI 4- 7 H. 7 S0 4 = 3 I 2 4 K,S0 4 4- Cr„ (S0 4 ) 3 
+ 7 H 2 0. 

(4) 3 I 2 4- 6 Na 2 S 2 3 = 3 Na 2 S 4 6 4- 6 Nal. 

According to equations (1) and (2), one equivalent of Cr0 3 
requires three equivalents of Na 2 S 2 3 , or the decinormal factor of 
CrO s is one-third of 0-009988 or 0-003329. In the same way the 



An A5ust,^9oi!' m * 1 Chromic 'Acid and the Chromates. 397 

decinormal factor of potassium bichromate is one-sixth of 0-029378 or 
0-004896. 

An examination of several samples of " chromic acid" gave the 
following results : 



Number. 


Color of Crystals. 


Sulphates. 


Per Cent, of Cr0 3 . 


Aqueous Solution. 




Brownish red 


Much 


6666 


Clear 


2 


Dark crimson 


None 


9571 




3 


Iyight brick red j 


60-53 per cent, calculated 
as NaHS0 4 , H 2 


} 38-28 




4 




59-76 per cent, calculated 
as NaHS0 4 , H 2 


} 38-89 




5 


Crimson j 


4'2 per cent, calculated 
as H 2 S0 4 


} 93-83 





There certainly is a marked difference in the physical appearance 
of the above samples. No. 2 was of satisfactory quality. No. 5 was 
a beautiful crystalline product and the writer was very much sur- 
prised to get a reaction for sulphates. It also gave evidence of 
containing a sodium salt. Nos. 3 and 4 were fairly good physically. 
According to the above analysis they consisted of nothing but a 
mixture of chromic acid and sodium acid sulphate, obtained by mix- 
ing the proper proportions of sulphuric acid and sodium bichromate ; 
Na 2 Cr 2 7 , 2 H 2 + 2 H 2 S0 4 = 2 CrO s + 2 NaHS0 4 + 3 H 2 ; 
then evaporating the mixture to dryness. These samples may 
have been intended for technical purposes, but no such information 
could be found anywhere on the container. It appears to be the 
custom of some manufacturers, however, to deliver some of their 
goods without the semblance of a label as to contents or quality; 
which appears to the writer to be a very dangerous practice. 

The above method has also been applied to the soluble chro- 
mates with satisfactory results. 

Laboratory of Smith, Kline & French Co. 



Dr. Charges Mohr, the well-known botanist, died July 17, at Asheville, 
N. C. He was to be classed with the school of botanists who contributed so 
much to the development of American Botany. 

Dr. Henry C. C. Maisch, eldest son of the late Professor John M. Maisch, 
died July 1st, in Philadelphia. In recent years he had devoted himself to phar- 
maceutical chemistry and analytical work. 



39« 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ August, 1901. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Procter Memorial. 

In response to a letter from the editor of this Journal concern- 
ing the feasibility of establishing a Research Laboratory as a 
memorial to the life and work of Prof. William Procter, Jr., by the 
American Pharmaceutical Association at its semi-centennial in 1902, 
the following are some of the replies which have been received : 

Dear Sir: — If sufficient money can be obtained from the phar- 
macists of America to establish a properly equipped Research 
Laboratory in Philadelphia, or elsewhere, it seems to me as if no 
more fitting memorial could be started. Without doubt it is more 
in accordance with the scientific spirit of the age than anything else 
yet proposed. In every respect it is ideal in that it alone stands 
forth as at once a blessing to the future and the payment of our 
obligation to the past for the heritage of good things it has accu- 
mulated for us. 

Let us then, if possible, standing as we do in the very centre 
of the first century of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
project into the second half of that century work that will show 
that we had our hearts in the right place and sought in deeds more 
than words to prove it. Such a laboratory could do far more for 
the good of future pharmacists and for the future of the Association 
than the same amount of money spent in any other direction con- 
ceivable. Like a well of pure water it would ever flow on, making 
the uncultivated and at present desert regions of pharmacy blossom 
as the rose. A single important discovery made therein might 
bring, in hard cash, to the pharmacists of the world all that the 
project would cost and multiply that amount many fold. Other 
proposals, hitherto made, can only give pleasure to a few. This 
proposal covers the good of the whole race for all time to come 
and if carried out will multiply blessings far beyond anything fore- 
seeable. By all means let us try and establish a Research Labora- 
tory, thus proving that we are really alive to the spirit of the 



1 For other information and correspondence on this subject, see this Journal, 
November, 1900, and February, March, April, May, June and July, 1901. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1901, J 



Corre spon dence. 



399 



twentieth century and not sessile, non-progressive imitators of the 
methods of the nineteenth and earlier centuries. 



Dear Sir : — -Responding to your letter of the 5th inst. relative to 
the establishment of a research laboratory, in our opinion there is 
but little room for discussion of the additional proposition or that 
something of the kind will be an accomplished fact in the near 
future. Regarding the management, scope and modus operandi of 
such a laboratory, these will furnish ground for considerable discus- 
sion and we are not prepared to express ourselves at the moment. 
In view of the importance of individual research work that would 
be connected with the better equipped manufacturing laboratories 
of the country, the work of such a laboratory as you suggest would 
naturally follow more general lines and should, we think, have 
special reference to the needs of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. In the 
writer's opinion there is room for vast improvement and additions 
to this valuable work, and he would be glad to see a movement 
inaugurated that would tend to bring our National Formulary up to 
the standard of the times. Outside of this, there is a large field in 
connection with the development of scientific pharmacy as opposed 
to the commercialism which unfortunately is such a feature of the 
day. The Wm. S. Merrell Chemical Company. 

Cincinnati, O. 

Dear Sir: — We acknowledge your favor of April 5th and beg 
to state that we certainly approve of the idea mentioned, but we 
hardly know how we can enter into any detailed discussion or 
expression of opinion other than to endorse the project of a research 
laboratory. 

We are in favor of the undertaking, and we remain, 

New York City. Lehn & Fink. 

Dear Sir: — Referring to your favor of April 5th would say, that 
in reference to the establishment of a research laboratory, that we do 
not care to express ourselves for publication upon this project, 
except that you are at liberty to use our name as favorable to the 
scheme. Pressure of other matters prevents our taking part in the 
discussion at the present time, although we may do so at a later 
date. Johnson & Johnsom- 

New Brunswick, N. J. F. B. Kilmer. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. 



R. G. Eccles. 



400 



Correspondence. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1901. 



Dear Sir : — Your typewritten letter of February 9th forwarded 
here where I am wintering. 

I, of course, knew Mr. Procter intimately and well, and thought 
very highly of him. I do not get the Journal, as I am many years 
retired from any active part in my company, and now an aged man 
waiting my time to pass over to the great majority. 

Mr. Procter was an exceedingly modest man, and I feel as if his 
best wish in regard to a memorial would be in establishing a schol- 
arship or to secure a medal to the person (student) who did the best 
work each year in some scientific institution in the line of study he 
enjoyed most. 

Thanking you for your letter, and wishing you success, I am 

Very truly, 

Cairo, Egypt. Frederick Stearns. 

Dear Sir: — I do not know enough about the history of research 
laboratories to give you an opinion worth anything, regarding the 
probability of the success of such a project in this country. 

Most of the discoveries in science are the result of work to an 
objective point which is necessary either to the routine or success 
of some purpose, and if a research laboratory were established by 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, or by other joint owner- 
ship, where skilled and confidential research could be had for a 
fair consideration, I believe it would be measurably successful, but 
it seems to me that it would be difficult to raise a large fund for a 
laboratory in which the interest would be purely scientific and 
unselfish, and the ends indefinite. Horatio N. Fraser. 

New York City. 

Dear Sir: — I am not exactly sure that I fully understand the 
purport of your proposition upon which to base an intelligent 
opinion. 

The first essential to success in the establishment of a " Research 
Laboratory," whether by itself or in connection with some pharma- 
ceutical school, is an ample endowment, a definite revenue, sufficient 
to attract and compensate the best talent. Upon this basis there 
would be hope of progress and permanence, for decadence sets in 
as soon as progress ceases. This principle applies to institutions as 
well as to individuals. 

Again, the field o! pharmaceutical research s already somewhat 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
August, 1901. J 



.Correspondence. 



occupied by the more or less complete equipment of our large 
pharmaceutical manufacturing establishments, whose incentive is 
not alone influenced by a sentimental love of science, but rather by 
the hope of the material rewards following in the wake of successful 
discoveries. 

Human observation and experience teaches that the most enthu- 
siastic advocates of the ideal and abstract are the most tardy in 
handing out their cash in the realization of the positive and con- 
crete. 

As an ample endowment, then, must be the sine qua non to the 
establishment of a research laboratory to commemorate the fiftieth 
anniversary of the American Pharmaceutical Association, the con- 
tribution to that end must be the measure of the sentiment in its 
favor. John F. Patton. 

York, Pa. 

Dear Sir : — I should heartily favor the establishment of a 
Procter Research Laboratory provided some benign pharmaceutical 
Croesus could be found to furnish the necessary building fund and 
an endowment of $250,000 or more. Possibly John D. Rockefeller 
or your own John Wanamaker can be made to see the desirability 
of adding a sister institution to the proposed medical research 
laboratory about to be started by the Standard Oil magnate. At 
present I feel confident that our wish cannot be realized and some 
more modest memorial must be selected. I should favor, first, a 
gold memorial medal like the Hanbury testimonial, to be awarded 
every two or three years ; second a scholarship to be awarded every 
two or four years. The first is more likely to be realized as it will 
cost less money and is more likely to be within the grasp of the 
A. Ph. A. The second would require a much larger fund to be raised 
by outside subscription. Chas. Caspari, Jr. 

Dear Sir: — Your request for an expression of opinion with 
regard to the various suggestions for a suitable memorial for Prof. 
Wm. Procter has received careful consideration. 

(i) The proposition to establish a research laboratory at Wash- 
ington is not, in my opinion, feasible ; not that the money could 
not be raised to establish the laboratory, but the difficulty would be 
to cany it on successfully for a term of years. It would be far 
better not to attempt such an ambitious scheme, if it were noi 



402 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
July, 1901. 



reasonably certain that it could be maintained successfully and 
creditably for a long time. To start such a laboratory and under 
the excitement and enthusiasm of a semi-centennial meeting in 
Philadelphia, collect the money with a " hurrah," and then find a 
committee, writing begging letters a few years afterwards, to secure 
the money for its maintenance, would in my opinion be anything 
but complimentary to the memory of Professor Procter, and yet 
this has been the history of many such movements. 

(2) The proposition to erect a massive bronze monument, to be 
placed in the City of Washington, in the Capitol Building, or the 
Smithsonian, is an ambitious plan, without some of the faults of the 
research laboratory scheme, but it has the disadvantage of being 
something which would be utterly repugnant to Professor Procter 
and it is not favored at all by the members of his family now living. 

(3) The plan to establish a travelling scholarship, has an element 
of instability about it which is not attractive. Such a scholarship 
could, no doubt, be established and it might be maintained for four 
or five years and then the committee might probably have to send 
around begging letters to keep it up and the memory of William 
Procter would suffer to such an extent that those who subscribed 
would be apt to regret that they ever entertained such a project. 
In addition to this, Professor Procter's life was spent in building up 
American pharmacy, and whilst some European institutions are 
greatly in advance of America in teaching chemistry, it has yet to be 
shown that they are superior to the colleges and universities on 
American soil in teaching pharmacy. We must net forget that 
whilst Professor Procter was a chemist, pharmacy was the science 
which he ennobled by his writings, his teaching and his experi- 
ments. 

(4) Mr. Whitney's plan of a well-designed certificate and medal to 
be issued by the American Pharmaceutical Association, to be awarded 
to worthy followers of Procter for special services or attainments, 
would undoubtedly be practicable, and serve to extend the influence 
of Procter's life amongst the present and future generations, and, in 
my opinion, this is the direction in which the memorial should be 
established, the guiding principle being to place before the young 
pharmacists of America the life of William Procter, and keep it befou 
them as long as possible. Now, to do this, a permanent fund must 
be created, say 38,000 or £10,000. Let this sum be securely 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
August, 1901. J 



Correspondence. 



403 



invested, which would probably yield $300 per annum ; this would 
be sufficient to found a Procter Memorial gold medal to be awarded 
annually to those who have rendered distinguished service to phar- 
macy and collateral sciences, and be the American counterpart of 
the British Fliickiger-Hanbury medal. This sum would also permit 
the annual awarding of a smaller gold medal and beautifully en- 
graved certificate to young American pharmacists by a plan like 
that of ex-President Whitney's. My reasons for preferring these 
two forms of memorials are, that in the first place the memory of 
William Procter would be maintained for a much longer term of 
years, and that the interests to which his life was devoted, i.e. that of 
pharmaceutical education, would be most directly touched and bene- 
fited by making the name and work of William Procter, household 
words among the present and future generations of young pharma- 
cists ; and, lastly, the plan is stable and permanent, because the 
principal would be secured and in hand, and the interest devoted to 
the objects named, with no cost for maintenance . 

Joseph P. Remington. 

Philadelphia. 

Dear Sir : — Concerning the feasibility of establishing a Re- 
search Laboratory under the auspices of the American Phar- 
maceutical Asssociation, I entertain so much doubt that I would 
rather not place myself on record except in so far that I should 
consider its accomplishment a great step in advance. I take 
this opportunity, however, to say something in reference to a 
" Procter Memorial." It goes without saying that I am heartily 
in favor of some emphatic recognition of the life-work of my dear 
friend and teacher, the late Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and I regard the approaching semi- 
centennial meeting of that association as the most fitting time for 
the purpose. I moreover heartily endorse the idea that the name 
of Wm. Procter, Jr., should be coupled with that of Edward R. 
Squibb, his life-long friend and most intimate co-laborer in the 
cause of pharmaceutical advancement. As to the character of the 
memorial — bearing in mind the natural modesty, earnestness of pur- 
pose, and simplicity so characteristic of both, their averseness to all 
ostentation — it seems to me that it would most fittingly take the 
shape suggested by Dr. Frederick Hoffmann, namely, "the institu- 
tion of a prize medal to be granted by the American Pharmaceu- 



404 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1901. 



tical Association in recognition of superior discoveries or literary 
accomplishments in the domain of theoretical and applied pharma- 
ceutical sciences and arts." This medal, of appropriate and artistic 
design, should be simply constructed of bronze; but its award 
should carry with it — as something of substantial and permanent 
value — a life membership in the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, and prominent publicity in the printed proceedings of that 
Association. C. Lewis Diehl. 

Louisville, Ky. 

Dear Sir: — Concerning the research laboratory; after having 
revolved the matter carefully in my mind I give you herewith the 
benefit of my decision, if of any value whatever to you. In my 
opinion, a step in that direction would be desirable provided it 
could be inaugurated in such a w r ay as to make it a success without 
any question of doubt whatever. There must be no mistake of 
management, there must be no error of judgment, and that we may 
comprehend what we have to meet in this direction in order to 
make the work creditable to the fiftieth anniversary of the Associa- 
tion, I will take the liberty of jotting down a part of the problem 
that has come to my mind since I began to reflect over the subject. 

This research laboratory, if instituted, would have as friendly 
rivals, or perhaps, I might say as friendly competitors for position, 
the research work that is being done now in the universities of this 
country, the colleges of pharmacy in this country and the great 
manufacturing establishments. It would not be creditable to the 
American Pharmaceutical Association to institute a research labora- 
tory that would not in every way meet the work done in these other 
directions. In order to accomplish this result a certain amount of 
money would be necessary. Let us not close our eyes to this fact. 
It is not a question of will, or wish, or hope or desire, but a ques- 
tion of business. A research laboratory, in order to be a research 
laboratory, must be conducted by men who make this work their 
thought, by men who have the ability to act and to do, by men who 
in order to have an opportunity to devote their time in this direc- 
tion should be paid a salary commensurate with the responsibility 
they take upon themselves. It should not be a charity matter, it 
should not be an imposition on men who cannot afford to devote 
their time in this direction, but it should be in every sense of the 



Am iSsM9o a iy m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 405 

word a research laboratory conducted on broad grounds and con- 
ducted by men of unimpeachable education. 

The question is, then, in thinking over this matter, can such a 
laboratory be founded ? A research laboratory that will not only 
last for a day, or for a year, but for a period of time that will credit 
the laboratory established by a great society on its fiftieth anniver- 
sary of existence. In matters of this kind, the thought problem 
which I present herewith, is, in my opinion, the first problem to 
consider, and in matters of this kind it strikes me, persons enthu- 
siastic, and justly so, in behalf of the work to be accomplished 
should properly consider it fairly and squarely. 

I will sum up by the single sentence. Admit without a question 
that a research laboratory for the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation is desirable and could be made creditable and useful under 
proper conditions, ate the conditions such as to warrant us in moving 
in this direction f Let me hope that the answer may be yes, and 
that the answer to this part of the question may be a reply which 
will make no doubt concerning the question of finances. 

Cincinnati, O. John Uri Lloyd. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

PRESENCE OF COPPER IN NUX VOMICA. 

There have recently appeared in the pharmaceutical press, reports 
of considerable quantity of copper found in nux vomica, even to 
of 1 per cent. A. Beitter (Ber. dtsch. Ph. Ges., 1900, 411) 
discusses the subject, reporting that his examinations of nux vomica, 
while showing copper, indicated such minute quantities that assay- 
ing was out of the question. He found in many cases that the cop- 
per was not indicated by its well-known tests with hydrogen sul- 
phide and with ammonia water. He, however, obtained positive 
results from practically every specimen of nux vomica and ignatia 
bean, and also from the seed of Strychnos Gaultheriana by testing 
with the Klunger-Schar reaction, viz.: treatment of the suspected 
copper compound with dilute solution of aloin, when a yellow color 
results. A trace of sodium chloride and gentle warming brings red 
color. This test he finds indicates copper in a I to 100,000 
solution. H. V. Arny. 



406 Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. { Al ^gas r t,i9oi rm ' 

EMODIN IN SENNA. 

Tschirch and Hiepe~(Sch. Woch. Ch. u. Ph., 1900, 55) reports on 
the assay of senna based on the quantity of emodin contained. The 
results are somewhat surprising. For instance, the senna pods 
yield more emodin (115 per cent.) than the leaves (-7 to 1 per cent.). 
Moreover, the Alxeandria and Tripoli senna yield more emodin than 
the much vaunted Tinnevelly senna, the latter yielding but -8 per 
cent. Frangula yields 2*6 per cent, of emodin. Cascara sagrada -6 
per cent., while rhubarb contains 1-5 per cent. This report seems 
to show that in the purgative drugs, save perhaps senna, emodin is 
not the sole active principle. H. V. A. 

EXAMINATION OF COOKING OILS. 

Comparing methods of distinction between olive, cotton seed, maw 
seed and nut oils, Kreis and Grob (Schw. Woch. Ch. und Ph., 1901, 
88), find Billier's reaction the best. This consists in shaking the oil 
with a benzol solution of resorcin and with nitric acid, under which 
treatment the color of olive oil is unchanged, while that of cotton- 
seed and nut becomes red violet, and maw seed oil is turned brown 
red. H. V. A. 



PHARMACY LAWS AND LEGISLATION. 

Contributed by Prof. J. H. Beai,, Scio, O. 

(Under this title it is designed to give each month a brief resume of proposed 
and accomplished pharmacy legislation, and of decisions of importance to 
pharmacy boards and pharmacists. On account of space limitations, proposed 
legislation cannot be more than briefly mentioned, but bills enacted into law 
will be discussed and their principal features pointed out. Pharmacy boards 
and members of legislative committees and others are requested to send copies 
of such measures and news of this kind either to the editor of this Journal, 
or to Prof. J. H. Beal, Scio, O.) 

DECISIONS OF INTEREST TO PHARMACISTS. 

An interesting decision, although along the line of decisions in 
similar cases, has been handed down by the Supreme Court of 
Iowa in the case of Burgess vs. The Sims Drug Company. 

In this case the defendant's clerk made a mistake in the prepara- 
tion of an eye lotion which resulted in the loss of an eye to the 



Am ASu?t, P i9o£ m "} Pharmacy Laws and Legislation. 407 

plaintiff. The line of the defendant's argument was that he had 
exercised due care and caution in employing a graduate pharmacist 
and therefore was not responsible, citing in defense of this position 
that railways were not responsible for damages resulting from the 
negligence of their surgeons, nor banks for the mistakes of their 
notaries. The court denied the validity of this argument, holding 
that as the practice of surgery was not the province of a railway 
company, nor notarial services the business of a bank, these had 
exercised due care and skill when they had selected properly quali- 
fied surgeons and notaries, but that the filling of prescriptions 
being the special province of a pharmacist, the latter could not 
escape liability by delegating his own proper function to another 
person. 

In the case against Maurer, of Philadelphia, for the sale of 
Canadian phenacetine in the United States, the United States Cir- 
cuit Court, for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, has handed 
down a decision affirming in general terms the validity of the Hins- 
berger patent. As this was generally regarded as a test case, the 
decision may fairly be regarded as settling the right of the patentee 
and his assigns to the exclusive right to sell phenacetine within 
the territories of the United States. 

A temporary injunction has been obtained by Ralph P. Hoag- 
land, a cutting druggist of Boston, in his suit against the Eastern 
Drug Company and others, to restrain them from interfering with 
the plaintiff's business. The allegations of the plaintiff's bill set 
out that the defendants have interfered with his buying and selling 
of drugs because he has refused to join the defendants' association 
which seeks to maintain prices, etc. 

A recent decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Court holds 
that a person who pleads guilty of the illegal sale of intoxicating 
liquors has been " convicted " within the meaning of the law which 
authorizes the Board of Pharmacy to revoke the registration certifi- 
cate of a druggist " convicted (for such offense) before a court of 
competent jurisdiction." 

Two recent Cincinnati decisions regarding the sale of poisons, 
are of interest to pharmacists. 

In one case the defendant druggist sold arsenic to a servant, a 



408 Pharmacy Lazvs and Legislation. { Xm 'J^i^m\ m ' 

stranger, who claimed that the poison was desired for rats, but who 
instead mixed the same with the breakfast oatmeal, causing the 
dangerous illness of those who ate of the same. The petition being 
demurred to, was held by the court to present a good cause of 
action. 

In the second case a colored boy purchased <( Rough on Rats " 
which he placed in a pot of coffee, killing his brother and nearly 
causing the death of his father. In deciding against the demurrer 
to the complaint the court held, That (under the Ohio law) the sale 
of a poison to a minor without a prescription renders the seller 
responsible to the innocent sufferer from its administration. 

Coincident with the extension of the work* of the N.A.R.D. came 
the news of suits in different parts of the country brought by cut- 
ters against the local associations for conspiracy in attempting to 
prevent the cutters from obtaining supplies. As the conditions 
are in a certain sense new, and unlike the cases in restraint of trade 
which have heretofore engaged the attention of the courts, the out- 
come of the cases will be watched with interest. The fortunes of 
the several suits will probably vary with the manner in which the 
issues have been presented by the pleadings, but it is coming to be 
more and more recognized that manufacturers and others have the 
right to require a contract from those who handle such goods to 
sell them at the price agreed upon, and to enforce such contracts 
when made. 

ILLINOIS. 

The Bill amending the Pharmacy Law has become a law, and 
will be printed in a later number of this Journal. 

Two other bills now pending require the formulas of proprietary 
medicines to be printed upon the label, and still another would 
require such preparations to have attached a copy of a certificate of 
the Board of Health, stating that the preparation has been examined 
by the Board, that it is harmless, and an appropriate remedy for 
the disease for which it is recommended. 

The so-called " Soda Fountain Bill " which sought to regulate 
the structure of soda fountains and the manner of keeping syrups, 
etc., has been defeated, as it ought to have been. The benefits to 
be derived from such a law are largely, if not altogether, imaginary, 
the injury done by it would have been real and immense. 



Am A5usi P i5oi rm '; Reviews and Bibliographical Notice s. 409 

NEW YORK. 

The bill to regulate the storage of explosive and combustible 
substances in the city of New York, mentioned in the May number 
of this Journal, alter passing both houses of the Legislature was 
vetoed by the Governor on the ground that its provisions are 
already embraced in the new charter which is to take effect January 
i } 1902. 

The Costello Bill, previously mentioned in this Journal, has been 
enacted into law. While in some respects the bill is not far from 
justice, as a whole it is not to be commended. It permits the dis- 
pensing of medicines by physicians, allows general dealers to sell 
domestic remedies, and authorizes the State Board to grant permits 
without examination to persons having experience in dealing in 
drugs and medicines to compound and dispense upon payment cf 
an annual ; fee of S3. 00. The text of the bill will be given in a later 
issue. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

A recently enacted law prohibits the distribution of trial 
samples of medicines, dyes, inks, etc., in such form or manner as 
will permit them to come easily into the hands of children, but 
does not interfere with the distribution of such articles directly to 
adults. 

OTHER NEW LAWS. 

Other laws have been enacted in California, Rhode Island, and 
Nevada. The latter is quite a comprehensive measure, and presents 
a number of commendable features. It is intended to print these 
laws in full in a subsequent number of this Journal. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Annual and Analytical Cyclop.ecia of Practical Medicine. 
By Charles E. de M. Sajous and one hundred associate editors, 
assisted by corresponding editors, collaborators and correspondents. 
Illustrated with chromo-lithographs, engravings and maps. Vol. 
VI. Philadelphia, New York, Chicago: F. A. Davis Company. 
1901. 

This volume is the last of the first series and contains, like 



410 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { An AjgMt.i5nf m ' 

the preceding volumes, a large number of valuable articles. Among 
these maybe mentioned: "Rheumatism," by F. Levison ; " Dis- 
eases of the Stomach," by D. D. Stewart ; " Surgery of the Stomach 
and Intestines," by W. W. Keen and M. B. Tinker ; " Surgery of the 
Spine," by R. H. Sayre; "Syphilis," by G. F. Lydston ; " Surgery 
of the Urinary System," by J. W. White and A. C. Wood; "Dis- 
eases of the Uterus," by H. T. Byford ; "Diseases of the Uterine 
Adnexa," by E. E. Montgomery; Wounds and Injuries of the 
Chest," by L. A. Stimson and E. L. Keyes, Jr., and " Yellow 
Fever," by W. Wyman. 

These remarkable books are probably not duplicated in medicine, 
as they contain not only what is usual, in books on practice of 
medicine, but considerable space is devoted to surgical subjects. 
The progress of the past decade is recorded and in many instances 
original work was instituted to solve the problems that the research 
workers had not as yet attempted. The various specialties have re- 
ceived consideration, the newer the rapeutics has been introduced 
and, in short, everything has been done to make the work an origi- 
nal, valuable and advanced encyclopaedia of the entire field of practical 
medicine. The general index accompanying this volume is a model 
of its kind, and illustrates how much matter is usually lost sight of in 
the encyclopaedic works because of this lack of systematic arrange- 
ment. There have been few books so ably edited, so full of infor- 
mation, and so arranged that every subject on which information is 
desired may be readily consulted. 



Notes on Equation Writing and Chemical and Pharmaceu- 
tical Arithmetic. Second edition, revised and enlarged. By J. 
H. Beal. Pittsburg: The Calumet Publishing Company. 

The first edition of this book was published by the author for the 
benefit of his students, without any thought of a more extended cir- 
culation. But as with all books on such subjects, if there is any- 
thing to commend them, they are likely to be used in a much wider 
sphere than is anticipated. This is the case with Beal's " Equation 
Writing and Chemical and Pharmaceutical Arithmetic." The work 
is a good pharmaceutical stoichiometry, and the chapters on equa- 
tion writing will make the work of such value that it will doubt- 
less replace Barker's " Chemistry," for this purpose, which has so 
long been used by students beginning the study of chemistry. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1901. J 



Obituary, 



411 



The work consists of: Part I — Equation Writing; (1) General 
Principles ; (2 and 3) Nomenclature, Notation and Classification of 
the Elements, and Inorganic Compounds ; (4) the Writing of Chemi- 
cal Formulae; (5) Construction and Interpretation of Equations; 
(6) Oxidation and Reduction, Spelling and Pronunciation of Chemi- 
cal Terms. Part II — Chemical and Pharmaceutical Arithmetic ; (7) 
Important Data Employed in the Problems in Part II ; (8) Calcula- 
tions Based on Chemical Formulae ; (9) Calculations Based on Equa- 
tions ; (10) Calculations Involving the Weights and Volumes of 
Gases; (1 1) Calculations Involving the Weights, Volumes and Spe- 
cific Gravities of Liquids and Solids; (12) Percentage Solutions and 
Mixtures; (1 3) Alligation or Adjustment of Percentages and Spe- 
cific Gravities. 

There are a number of new things in the book, or rather a new 
way of treating modern facts and theories, as in the use of the term 
Microcrith ; the nomenclature of alkaloidal salts ; the theory of 
doubled formulae, etc. The book is one which not only beginners 
in chemistry will use with profit, but teachers and others will enjoy 
having, as there is a good deal of valuable matter contained therein. 



OBITUARY. 

HANS M. WILDER. 

Hans M. Wilder was born in the island of Iceland in March, 
1 83 1. His parents were Danes and lived in the city of Copen- 
hagen, Hans having been born while his parents were on a visit 
to Iceland. He spent his boyhood in Denmark, entering the gym- 
nasium when he was five years old. In his eleventh year he was 
transferred to the Latin school. On account of his father's death, 
and the straitened circumstances of the family, he was unable to 
continue at school, and he was therefore apprenticed to an apothe- 
cary; at the end of four years he took his junior examination, and 
three and a half years afterwards passed his Major Candidatus. 
While still a clerk in the drug store his mother died, and soon after 
with a small sum of money which had been bequeathed to him, he 
began to satisfy his roving disposition, going first to France, where 
he stayed six months with a relative in Rheims. After travelling 
through France he set sail for St. Croix, West Indies, and after be- 
ing here three years he sailed for the United States in i860, land- 



412 



Obituary. 



(Am. Jour. Phariru 
1 August, 1901. 



ing in Philadelphia. He subsequently travelled from Chicago down 
the Mississippi on a steamboat to New Orleans. 

In 1861 he returned to New York, and in 1863 he sailed for 
Puerto Plata, San Domingo. He was present in this island during 
one of the periodical revolts, and had some hairbreadth escapes^ 
sailed for New York, and subsequently, in Philadelphia, enlisted 
as a surgeon steward on the " Tunxis " (a light draft monitor). He 
did not relish a lite on the monitor, and going ashore, enlisted 
in Company I, Thirty-fourth New Jersey Regiment, and was sent to 
Cairo, 111. From here the Army of the Gulf went to New Orleans, 
but before Hans Wilder saw a battle he was taken ill, and sent home 
from Mobile Bay to New York. 

Soon after he went to Chicago, where he was employed as a drug 
clerk in different stores for two years. He then returned to New 
York, and sailed for San Francisco, and upon his arrival here he 
determined to try silver mining at Silver City, Nev. He was a sil- 
ver miner for half a day, then went back to the drug business ; but 
he was only three months in his position before he returned to San 
Francisco, and a few months afterward he was a sailor before the 
mast on his way to Liverpool. 

From here he went to Copenhagen, only to remain a short time, 
when he left for Philadelphia in 1868 ; here he bought a drug store 
on Girard Avenue, which he sold out soon afterward, and bought 
another at Fifth and Poplar Streets; this he sold out in 1876, and 
then went again to New York as relief clerk. 

From 1879 to 1881 he was the clerk of the College of Pharmacy 
in the city of New York, then travelled to Detroit, Chicago, Cin- 
cinnati and Louisville, and was called back to Detroit to edit the 
New Idea for Frederick Stearns & Co. He stayed here for two 
years, and then returned to Philadelphia, where he died January 
25, 1901. 

Hans M. Wilder was a pharmacist of ability, and he had rare 
linguistic talents. He was particularly fond of making indexes and 
abstracts from journals, having compiled indexes for the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, and other scientific bodies. He frequently contributed 
articles to the pharmaceutical journals ; " Polyhistor " was his nom 
de plume, and he was engaged for two years as a writer for the 
Druggists' Cinidar. Probably his most remarkable achievement was 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1901. J 



* Obituary. 



413. 



the cataloguing and arranging of coin collections. His knowledge 
of various languages was of great assistance here, while his careful, 
accurate pharmaceutical habits were of much assistance in training 
for this work. 

His was a familiar figure in the halls ot the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, and he had an excellent working knowledge of phar- 
maceutical and medical books in all languages. He was unmarried, 
and up to the time of his death enjoyed good health. He died sud- 
denly in the library of the American Philosophical Society, January 
25, 1901, of a stroke of apoplexy, His sorrowing friends took 
charge of the remains, which now lie peacefully in Northwood Cerne- 



On October 24, 1900, this eminent medical practitioner passed 
away at his home, in this city. He was born in Shotts, Lanark- 
shire, Scotland, in 182 1. At the age of 17 he came to America and 
shortly thereafter engaged in the drug business with John Bring- 
hurst. He entered the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and was 
graduated therefrom in 1842. His inaugural thesis was a meritori- 
ous paper upon the bark of the American Aspen, Populus tremu- 
loides, his investigation proving the presence of salicin as the 
active constituent (American Journal of Pharmacy 1843, page 



Subsequently, he was employed in the chemical laboratory of the 
late Frederick Brown, and while engaged there he published several 
contributions to pharmaceutical literature. His formulas for the 
preparation of the scale salts of citrate of iron and citrate of iron 
and quinine, which have since become popular remedies, attracted 
considerable attention and in recognition of his skill the Franklin 
Institute awarded him a certificate of merit. Dr. Turnbull is 
credited with the discovery of the bleaching effect of sodium borate 
upon ointments and oils. 

Deciding upon the study of medicine he secured as his preceptor 
Dr. John K. Mitchell and was graduated in 1845 fr° m tne Jefferson 
Medical College. 

For several winters he lectured at the Franklin Institute on 
chemistry as applied to the arts. 

In 1850, the chair of Materia Medica in the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy became vacant by the resignation of Professor Joseph. 



tery, Philadelphia. 



J. P. R. 



DR. LAWRENCE TURNBULL. 



275). 



414 



Obituary. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1901. 



Carson and Dr. Lawrence Turnbull was mentioned as a candidate 
to fill the vacancy. 

He selected as his special field of study the diseases affecting the 
ear, and soon became recognized as an authority in this department 
by such able surgeons as Professor D. Hayes Agnew and Professor 
Samuel D. Gross. 

He took great pleasure in establishing this department of tuition 
in the Jefferson Medical College. For many years, he was also 
connected with the Department of Diseases of Eye and Ear at the 
Howard Hospital. 

Dr. Turnbull contributed a number of valuable papers to medical 
literature and also several text-books on diseases of the ear and 
aural surgery which have been standard works and have added 
greatly to his established international reputation as an authority 
on Otology. 

While only a short period of his life was occupied with the duties 
of the apothecary, yet in the sphere of the pharmacist his ability 
received the first recognition. His training in pharmacy and chem- 
istry, undoubtedly, whetted his appetite for study and his ability for 
keen observation that were prominent characteristics in his alter 
success. , G. M. B. 

WILLIAM R. WARNER. 

William Richard Warner was born on December 25, 1836, in 
Caroline County, Maryland. His parents dying when he was quite 
young, he lived with an uncle for a short time, when the uncle 
likewise died and thus William was thrown on his own resources 
at a very early age. 

He obtained a rudimentary education in a country school and 
a limited course in the academy at Easton, Md. 

He entered the employ of Chamberlain & Anderson, druggists, 
of Easton, Md., and assiduously applied himself to mastering the 
details of his chosen calling. He roomed in the loft over the store 
and fortunately he found stored away here, a number of valuable 
scientific books. With a yearning for more extensive acquaintance 
with the sciences, William was not slow to take advantage of this 
fortunate circumstance. The natural bent of his mind was demon- 
strated and we find him studying geology, botany, palaeontology 
and chemistry and applying them practically to his surroundings. 

While a mere youth he is said to have contributed to the local 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1901. j 



Obituary. 



415 



papers, several contributions on scientific subjects. He possessed 
considerable skill as a taxidermist and made extensive collections 
of birds. 

Entering the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, he was graduated 
therefrom in 1 85 6 and immediately engaged on a lecturing tour 
through Pennsylvania, delivering a series of lectures on chemical 
physics. 

Mr. Warner opened a store at Second and Girard Avenue. Being 
ambitious, he was not content with the retail business and grad- 
ually engaged in manufacturing, and selling out his retail business, 
he now located at 154 North Third Street as a wholesaler. He 
engaged extensively in the manufacture of sugar-coated pills and 
granules and sought foreign as well as home markets for his 
products. 

In 1876, the firm removed to a six-story building, 1228 Market 
Street, and there engaged in manufacturing a more extended line of 
pharmaceuticals. This building becoming inadequate for their 
manufacturing business, a lot at Broad and Wallace Streets was 
procured and a ten-story building, known as " Warner Hall," was 
erected. Here the laboratories were established and after the dis- 
astrous fire in 1899, which destroyed their Market Street building, 
the entire business of the firm was removed to this place. 

Wm. R. Warner joined the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 
1858 and was a life member. For several years after graduating 
from the College he took quite an interest in matters relating to 
scientific pharmacy and contributed a number of articles to phar- 
maceutical literature, ten papers appearing in the American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy. For several years he served on the Herbarium 
Committee, associated with the late Prof. John M. Maisch. Later, 
the details of business engrossed his thoughts and here he exhibited 
the same energy and avidity for mastering the problems of com- 
merce and manufacture. He was also the possessor of a valuable 
collection of paintings, especially rich in portraits of noted men. 

Wm. R. Warner was taken ill in New York while on a business 
trip and was brought home suffering from a general collapse. After 
suffering for three weeks he was striken with a second stroke of 
paralysis on the morning of April 3d and died in a short time. He 
is survived by three sons, who will continue the business of manu- 
facturing pharmacists under the old firm title. G. M. B. 



416 



Obituary. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
I August, 1901. 



AUGUST WEBER. 

Mr. August Weber, who was a member of the College for many 
years, died March 7, 1901, at the age of 63 years. He was born at 
Hessen-Darmstadt, July 12, 1838. He was educated in Germany, 
and entered a drug store to learn the business. He pursued his 
studies in chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Giesen, 
graduating from that institution. He came to this country in 1857, 
and went to Allentown, where he took charge of Mr. Clump's drug 
store. He moved to Ashland in . 1 861, and three years later came 
to Philadelphia, where he opened a drug store at 634 Washington 
Avenue. In 1 866 he removed to the corner of Sixth Street and 
Washington Avenue, where he successfully carried on his business 
till the time of his death. He became a member of the College 
June 4, 1872, and while prevented by his duties from attending its 
meetings, he always took a lively interest in pharmacy, and spent 
considerable time in reading the literature related to that subject. 
Mr. Weber was exceedingly conscientious and exact in all his work 
and dealings, a good and kind husband and father, upright and just 
and respected by all who knew him. In the spring of 1897 Mr. 
Weber had an attack of sickness, and by the advice of his physi- 
cian went abroad and spent several months in his native land, seek- 
ing rest and renewed strength. He returned much benefited, and 
was able to resume his duties up to the present year, when he was 
stricken with paralysis, which, in a short time, was followed by his 
death. He leaves a widow and five sons and a daughter. One of 
his sons, Herman Weber, continues the business. G. P. 

JAMES G. WELLS. 

James G. Wells was born June 24, 1839, near Port Kennedy, in 
Norriton Township, about two miles from Norristown, Pa. His 
parents were William Ellis and Hepsey (Norris) Wells. He was a 
descendant of Isaac Norris, who was the close friend of William 
Penn, and owner of the greater part of Norriton Township, includ- 
the present site of Norristown. 

His father died while he was quite young, and the family subse- 
quently removed to Norristown. He was educated at the school of 
Rev. Samuel Aaron, in Norristown. 

In 1856 he came to Philadelphia and engaged in the drug busi- 
ness with David Stackhouse, at Eighth and Green Streets, and enter- 



A, ASSt,i«5f m -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 417 

ing the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy he was graduated there- 
from in i860. In August, 1862, he entered the Union Army as 
Hospital Steward of the 138th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, and served as such until the close of the war. 

He then secured the drug store at Ninth and Spring Garden 
Streets. He was a man of sterling qualities, and successfully con- 
ducted his business here for twenty-eight years, when he disposed 
of his store and retired. 

Mr. Wells joined the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1872, 
and was a life member. He was a prominent Mason, and a mem- 
ber of Post No. 2, G. A. R. He was a director of the People's 
Bank. He was greatly interested in the work ot the Spring Garden 
Soup Society, of which he was President for many years. 

Mr. Wells married Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth 
Walker, of Chester Valley, who, with one daughter, Hepsey Norris 
Wells, survives him. 

For several years Mr. Wells had been in declining health, and 
had two slight strokes of paralysis within a year. He died suddenly 
on July 19, 1900, of angina pectoris, in Chester Valley, where he and 
his wife and daughter had been accustomed to spend the summer 
months. C. A. W. 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was held June 24, 1901, the President, Howard B. French, in the chair ; 
twenty-five members were present. The minutes of the annual meeting, held 
March 25th, were read and approved as read. 

The minutes of the meeting of the Board of Trustees for April and May 
were read by the Registrar, W. Nelson Stem, and approved as read. The 
minutes of the June meeting were not read, the President ruling that as 
they had not been approved by the Board it would be premature for the College 
to approve them. 

Mr. Beringer, for the Committee on Necrology, presented the report for the 
year. He stated that he had been assisted by other members of the College 
and would read the memoirs except that of Dr. E. R. Squibb by title, and 
moved their acceptance and that they be referred to the editor of the Journal 
for publication. So ordered. 

Memoirs were presented of August Weber, prepared by Gustavus Pile ; of 
Wm. R. Warner and Dr. Lawrence Turnbull, prepared by George M. Beringer ; 
James G. Wells, prepared by Dr. C. A. Weidemann ; of Dr. E- R. Squibb and 
Hans M. Wilder, by Prof. Joseph P. Remington ; of Dr. Theodore Husemann, 
by Prof. Henry Kraemer. 

The Committee on Resolutions on the death of Dr. Charles Rice, consisting 



41 8 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A ^™ s r t,?£jL rm - 

of Messrs. Remington, Beringer and Kraemer, presented the following, which 
was adopted : 

Whereas, The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has learned of the death 
on Monday, May 13,^ 1901, of our esteemed honorary member, Charles Rice, 
Ph.D., Ph.M., Chairman of the Committee of Revision of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, be it therefore, 

Resolved, That we hereby express our appreciation of his great natural 
ability, scholarly attainments and nobleness of character, which not only gained 
for him the profound admiration of the pharmaceutical and medical professions 
throughout the world, but which endeared him to all who either came in con- 
tact with him personally or who had more remote relations with him. 

The enormous amount of efficient work that he accomplished on the United 
States Pharmacopoeia during the last twenty years as Chairman of the Revi- 
sion Committee has done much toward elevating our national standard to its 
acknowledged advanced scientific standing. His personality is indelibly 
impressed on its pages and his influence will extend throughout future revi- 
sions, and thus continue to attest his especial fitness for conducting Pharmaco- 
pceial work. 

Perfection of style, simplicity and thoroughness have always characterized 
his contributions to pharmaceutical literature, and not less marked has been 
his willingness to sacrifice time, efforts and means to advance the interests of 
his profession. 

The results accomplished during his life remain as a lasting memorial, more 
impressive than any monument in his honor, and one which will always appeal 
to the pharmacist as an ideal worthy of our emulation. 

Resolved, That the officers and members of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy by this memorial minute, desire to express their profound sorrow at 
the removal by death of this unselfish and zealous worker in the field of phar- 
macy, and to record their admiration for the personal character and services of 
Dr. Charles Rice, and with it their appreciation of the immeasurable loss 
which American pharmacy has sustained by his demise, a loss which must be 
severely felt throughout the pharmaceutical world. 

The President appointed the following committees : Committee on Necrol- 
ogy, George M. Beringer, Prof. Henry Kraemer, Gustavus Pile. Committee 
on Nominations, Joseph W. England, Harry D. Stiles, Jacob M. Baer, Theodore 
Campbell, Henry C. Blair. 

Dr. C. B. Lowe alluded to the botanical specimens gathered in the vicinity of 
Washington, Pa., by Mr. Isaac M. Weills, and donated to the College by him, 
and moved that a vote of thanks be tendered the donor, which was adopted. 

Communications were read from Charles Mohr, of Asheville, N. C, Helen 
Abbott Michael, of Boston, Mass., and Prof. Dr. Arthur Meyer, of Marburg, 
Germany, acknowledging receipt of notification of their election to honorary 
membership in the College. Professor Kraemer also read a portion of a letter 
from Dr. Charles Rice which he received a short time before his death, in 
which he expressed his appreciation of his election as an honorary member in 
this College. 

Two applications for membership were received and referred to appropriate 
committees. C. A. WeidEmann, M.D., 

Secretary. 




EDWARD ROBINSON SQUIBB, M.D. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, igoi. 



EDWARD ROBINSON SQUIBB, M.D. 




By Joseph P. Remington. 

Edward Robinson Squibb was born in Wilmington, Del., July 4, 
1 8 19. His parents were James R. Squibb and Catherine H., his 
wife. His early education was received in Wilmington, and at the 
age of eighteen he was apprenticed to Warder Morris, a druggist 
in Philadelphia, and from 1837 to x ^4 2 ne learned the drug business 
with the houses of Warder Morris and J. H. Sprague. 

He had long desired to acquire a medical degree, and he rightly 
judged that there could be no better preparation for his work than 
experience in the drug business. In addition to this, as his parents' 
means were slender, he could earn something, and, at least, be self- 
supporting during these early years of study. 

As is so often the case with distinguished men, these early 
years were not marked by any especial aptitude for medicine or 
pharmacy, as he was himself frequently heard to declare. In 1842, 
at the age of twenty-three, he matriculated in Jefferson Medical 
College, of Philadelphia, and received the degree of Doctor from that 
College on March 20, 1845. 

His steadiness and ability were at once recognized by his Alma 
Mater, and he was elected Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, 
Curator of the Museum and Clerk of the Clinic. 

He practised medicine in Philadelphia until 1847, when he con- 



1 The accompanying likeness of Dr. Squibb first appeared in the Medical 
News, November 3, 1900, trie photograph having been made two years before 
Dr. Squibb's death. — Editor. 

(419) 



420 



Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. 



/Am. Jour. Piiarm 
t September. 1901, 



eluded to enter the Navy, and, passing the examination before the 
Naval Board, received his commission as Assistant Surgeon in the 
United States Navy on April 26, 1847, the- document bearing the 
signature of James K. Polk, then President o r the United States, and 
J. Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy. 

At the close of the Mexican War he was assigned to service on 
U. S. Brig " Perry;" subsequently, the " Perry " was engaged in 
breaking up the South American slave trade, which was then actively 
carried on by vessels owned in the United States. He saw active 
sea service for four years, and became, as he often said, very tired of 
having so little to do. In January, 1852, he was fortunately ordered 
to the Naval Hospital in Brooklyn, which at that time had for its 
Director, Dr. Benjamin Franklin Bache, a worthy member of a dis- 
tinguished family whose services to their country should never be 
forgotten. 

While serving in the Navy, Dr. Squibb had abundant opportu- 
nities of observing the poor quality of many of the medical sup- 
plies furnished to the Navy ; these goods were bought upon the 
contract system, and from the lowest bidders; but through the efforts 
of Dr. Bache, Dr. Squibb and other officers, Congress was induced 
to make an exception in the case of medical supplies and gunpow- 
der, and " quality first and price second '' became the rule of the 
Department. 

In addition to this, the Navy Department was authorized to estab- 
lish a pharmaceutical laboratory for the manufacture of important 
articles on the list of naval supplies. This laboratory was organized, 
built and equipped with the names of Dr. Benjamin Franklin Bache 
as Director, and Dr. Edward Robinson Squibb as Assistant Direc- 
tor, in 1852. At this time, ether was coming into general use as an 
anaesthetic, and it was here, probably, that ether was first made by 
steam heat, thereby lessening the great danger of explosions and 
accidents through the inflammability of the liquid and its vapor. But 
one thing is certain, that Dr. Squibb gained in his small laboratory 
a practical knowledge and experience in manufacturing which was 
destined to yield enormous results. 

The success of this laboratory induced Dr. J. Lawrence Smith to 
make a proposition to build, equip and start a similar enterprise in 
the city of Louisville, Ky. Dr. Squibb accepted the proposition, 
and in 1857 he resigned his commission in the Navy and returned 
to civil life. 



^ptemberS*) Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. 421 

In 1858, the naval laboratory, having proved its value to the 
government, attracted the attention of the War Department, but 
opposition to the establishment of an army laboratory was devel- 
oped, and Dr. Squibb was induced by Dr. R. S. Satterlee, Chief 
Medical Purveyor of the Army, to establish a laboratory of Irs 
own, and sell to the Army such of the products as might be 
required. 

Towards the close of the year 1858 the four-story brick building, 
No. 149 Furman Street, Brooklyn, was secured, and Dr. Squibb at 
last found himself in the position towards which he had been looking 
forward for many years, that of owning and directing a laboratory 
where he would be untrammeled by traditions of any kind, and 
have the opportunity of establishing his own standards. This 
laboratory had for its nucleus the furnishing of such supplies to the 
Army as were needed, but it could readily be seen that the medical 
wants of an army of 25,000 men would not support even a labora- 
tory of this size. The medical profession of Brooklyn at once took 
a great interest in this movement, and success was fairly in sight, 
when, on the evening of December 24, 1858, the building was 
entirely destroyed by fire, and the owner so badly burned that his 
life was despaired of for many months; but his strong constitution, 
the enthusiastic attentions of his medical friends in Brooklyn, 
coupled with the devoted services of his wife, saved him. But his 
face and hands were badly disfigured for life through the burning 
ether which was thrown on his face. 

The accident occurred through the carelessness of one of the 
employees overturning a bottle of ether on the counter, the liquid 
quickly taking fire from an alcohol lamp which was burning some 
distance away. Dr. Squibb's face and hands were very badly 
burned in attempting to save his books, and when he emerged from 
the building he could scarcely be recognized. Kind friends took 
him home, and his wife was summoned, she happening to be with 
her sister at the time. A sad shock awaited her when she found 
the doctor lying quietly on his bed, but suffering terribly. It was 
undoubtedly the saddest Christmas Eve that they ever experienced. 
For months his life hung in the balance, and when he emerged 
from his room, no trace of his once handsome features remained. 
His eyelids were everted permanently, and lor many years he was 
compelled to wear protectors when out in the open air, during the 



422 Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. {^pfembeM™' 

winter season. This accident greatly influenced the doctor's future 
life. Having a sensitive disposition, he shrank from publicity, and 
when he was compelled to meet strangers, he knew that even if 
they were polite enough not to ask him the cause of his disfigure- 
ment, that they would feel a curiosity to know the details of the 
accident. A little incident which occurred when the writer was 
crossing in the ferryboat in company with the Doctor will illus- 
trate some of the daily annoyances to which he was subjected. A 
badly bred young girl, noticing his eye protectors, rushed up in front 
of him, and barring his way as he passed through the cabin, ex- 
claimed loudly, " Why just look. at this man; he's got no eyes ! " 
The doctor simply and quietly said, " No, little girl, I can see well 
enough ; " but the cheerful tone of his conversation stopped 
instantly, and it could be easily seen why he never cared to be 
prominent in such mixed company. He never spoke of these 
annoya'nces, and rarely alluded to his accident, and then never com- 
plainingly. The tears ran from his eyes continually, some of the 
ducts being partially destroyed or injured permanently. And when 
to this is added the fact that for forty-two years he was compelled 
every night to strap his eyelids together with strips of isinglass 
plaster in order to obtain rest for them, one can form some idea of 
the lasting results of that unfortunate Christmas Eve fire. 

His indomitable spirit, however, was not quenched; he set to 
work with more determination than ever. His medical friends 
never deserted him ; they furnished him capital, and by the middle 
of 1859 the laboratory was rebuilt and active work resumed. Upon 
the outbreak of the Civil War, in 1861, the needs of the Army 
became very large, and additional buildings were hired and equipped, 
and for the time, run night and day, but under such ^disadvantages 
that in 1862 another site was purchased and a large and commodi- 
ous laboratory was erected on Doughty Street, Brooklyn, which was 
occupied January 1, 1863. 

These laboratories have been models ever since their erection. 
Their massive walls and foundations and solid floors bespoke the 
character of the man. Nothing for show or ornament, but every- 
thing for simplicity, stability and strength. 

Dr. Squibb had an especial aptitude for devising apparatus, and 
he not only exercised his talents in this direction constantly, but he 
was willing to give freely the result of his labors to any who called 



A s?^SbeMwiT'} Edzvard Robinson Squibb, M.D. 423 

upon him. He more than once furnished working plans to his 
competitors in business for the famous apparatus for making ether. 
He did not believe it proper from a scientific point of view, to with- 
hold any secrets in manufacturing from those who were interested 
in the work. The files of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
reveal many cuts and drawings which were used to illustrate his 
numerous pharmaceutical papers, which he freely furnished to his 
friend, Prof. William Procter, the former editor of this publication- 
We find by consulting this Journal that his first paper was pub- 
lished in 1855, and was entitled "Preparation of Citrate of Iron and 
Quinine and its Constituents." After this appeared the following: 

1855. Examination of the Sulphate of Quinine of Powers & 

Weightman. 

1856. Elementary Analysis of Sperm Oil. 
On Spiritus Aetheris Nitrosi. 

Apparatus for Preparing Ether by Steam Heat. 
Improved Method for Carbon and Hydrogen Determina- 
tion in Organic Analysis. 

1857. Examination of Grain Weights. 
Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum. 

Oleum Aethereum and Spiritus Aetheris Compositus. 
On Tinctura Ferri Chloridi. 

On Hydrargyrum cum Creta and Pilulae Hydrargyri. 
On the Manufacture, Impurities and Tests of Chloroform. 

1858. On the Purification of Liquids in a State of Vapor. 
On a New Apparatus for Rectifying Spirits. 

On the Process of Percolation. 

1859. On the Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 

1860. On Opium as a Therapeutic Agent. 

Observations upon- Some Formulae and Processes that 
may be Brought Forward for Admission into the Next 
Pharmacopoeia. 

1 86 1. On Oleum Aethereum. 

1863. On Statistics and Assay of Virgin Scammony. 
On Extractum Cinchonas Fluidum. 

1864. On Permanganate of Potassa. 

1866. Economy of Alcohol in Percolation in Making the Fluid 
Extracts. 
Advice on Epidemic Cholera. 



424 Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. {^^SS/SSSl- 

1867. Letter Relative to Alcoholic Extract of Colocynth. 
On an Improved Formula for Fluid Extract of Buchu. 
Pharmacy of the Cinchonas. 

Calx Saccharatum and Syrupus Calcis. 

1868. On the Economy of Alcohol in Percolation. 
On the Preparation of Resin of Podophyllum. 
On Podophyllum Pills. 

On Commercial Jalap. 
Syrupus Ferri Iodidi. 
On Syrupus Calcis. 

1869. On Carbolic Acid or Coal Tar Creosote. 

On the Contamination of Hydrochloric Acid with Oxides 
of Sulphur. 

1870. On Liquor Opii Compositus. 
1872. Note on Pareira. 

1878. Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 
Hydrobromic Acid. 

1879. Minim Pipettes. 
1882. Opium Assay. 
1884. Aconite Root. 

1887. Cascara Sagrada. 

1888. Notes on Antipyretics. 

1890. Pharmacopceial Revision and Assays. 

1895. Improvement in the Manufacture of Acetone. 

1896. Acetone and Acetone Chloroform. 

1898. Acetic Acid as a Menstruum. 

1899. Acetic Acid as a Substitute for Ethyl Alcohol in the 

Extraction of Drugs. First and Second Papers. 

1900. Acetic Acid as a Substitute for Ethyl Alcohol in the 

Extraction of Drugs. Third and Fourth Papers. 

He joined the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1858, 
becoming a life member in 1900. He received the unusual compli- 
ment of being made Vice-President at the first meeting at which he 
was elected a member. The proceedings of the Association con- 
tain many papers of great practical and scientific value emanating 
from his pen. It is hardly necessary to say that he was many times 
asked to accept the presidency, which he always politely declined. 

The papers which he contributed to the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association were as follows: 



pSe^i™'} Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. 425 

1858. On Preparations of the Pharmacopoeia. 

1860. On Oleum Aethereum. 
Remarks on the Sale of Poisons. 
Remarks on the Subject of Alcohol. 

1 861. On Virgin Scammony. 

On Bleaching Morphine Sulphate. 

1862. On Amendments to Processes of the Pharmacopoeia. 
Preparations of Metallic Mercury. 

1863. Report on Drug Market. 

1865. Economy of Alcohol in Repercolation. 
Remarks on Revenue Law. 
Remarks on Vacuum Apparatus. 

On Press Cloths. 

1866. Improved Process for Fluid Extract of Buchu. 
Report on the Internal Revenue Law. 

1867. Commercial Jalap. 
Repercolation. 

1868. Contamination of Hydrochloric Acid with Oxides of 

Sulphur. 
Hydrocyanic Acid. 
Note on Carbolic Acid. 
Note on Rhubarb. 
Specimens of Indigenous Drugs. 

1869. Note on Rhubarb. 
Report on Pharmacopoeia. 

1870. Fluid Extracts and their Menstruum. 
Note on Rhubarb. 

Remarks on Chloral. 
Aconite Poisoning.- 

1 87 1. Cantharides and a Blistering Liquid. 
Chloral. 

Commercial Bicarbonate of Soda. 

Extract of Jalap. 

Fluid Extract of Senega. 

Litmus Paper. 

Pareira. 

Rhubarb. 

1872. Citrate of Bismuth and Ammonia. 
New Form of Percolation. 



426 Edward Robinson Squibb, M.I). { A £ptZhe^m™- 

Note on Aconite Root. 
Note on Aloes. 
Note on Rhubarb. 
Note on Triplex Pills. 
Acid Phosphoric Glacial. 
1873. Bumping of Distilled Spirits. 
Ergot and its Preparations. 
General Apparatus Stand. 
Note on Rhubarb. 
Physicians' Pocket Cases. 

1876. Administration of Phosphorus. 
Revision of the Pharmacopoeia. 

1877. Salicylic Acid. 

1878. Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 

On January r, 1882, Dr. Squibb commenced the publication of a 
pharmaceutical journal which he called An Epliemeris. The an- 
nouncement, which he wrote (see page I of the journal), is so thor- 
oughly characteristic that the following abstracts are here quoted : 
" It will be sent gratuitously to all. No subscribers are solicited, nor 
any subscription list kept, nor are exchanges with other journals 
asked for. It may be issued bi-monthly or quarterly, or irregularly, 
or not at all, as the occupations of a very busy life may determine. 
The contents should be accepted, if at all, as information — not as 
knowledge. To the professions of Medicine and Pharmacy them 
whatever may be here offered is respectfully dedicated by the writer 
and his two sons." 

The publication of the Epliemeris afforded Dr. Squibb and his 
sons an outlet for the dissemination of a vast deal of information 
which came to them in the course of their business and professional 
lives. Five volumes had appeared up to the time of his death, and 
2551 pages, and the journal has always proved a most welcome vis- 
itor to the members of both professions. 

Dr. Squibb possessed in a remarkable degree, the faculty of im- 
parting information. It may be said that he always took delight in 
explaining in detail the working of an apparatus, a process, a theory, 
or in fact, anything which had been to him a subject of thought or 
labor. Many of his papers have seemed to thoughtless or uninter- 
ested readers to be prolix or verbose, but his large experience had 
taught him the value of detail in his business. He had spent 



A sS*S&SSSF*l Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. 427 

thousands of dollars in devising apparatus, only to find that some 
important detail had been omitted, and time had been lost and 
money wasted until the defect was remedied, and if the careless 
reader had realized these facts, criticism would certainly have been 
withheld. 

Sterling honesty, and right because it was right, were his guiding 
principles. If an error occurred in making a preparation in the 
laboratory, the standing rule was to report it at once. The writer 
well remembers an occasion when some mistake was made in the 
menstruum for a lot of fluid extract of cinchona. It contained pos- 
sibly 10 per cent, too much or too little alcohol. The culprit, a 
most worthy German pharmacist, appeared before the doctor and 
confessed his sin. Without a moment's hesitation the doctor said, 
" That's too bad, that's too bad; empty it all down the culvert;" 
and fully $500 worth of fluid extract of cinchona found its way into 
the East River. 

The writer had the hardihood to ask the doctor, a week after the 
occurrence, why this had been done. The answer has never been 
forgotten. He admitted that it would be possible to make an equal 
lot of fluid extract of cinchona with the menstruum so altered that 
when the two were mixed the result would have the proper alco- 
holic strength; he turned almost fiercely and said, "Such work can 
never be done in this laboratory. These mistakes are costly, but 
the example and lessons to be learned are valuable, and I will not 
permit a patched up fluid extract to leave this place." He never 
referred again to the incident, but it may well be said that mistakes 
of that kind were never made again. 

When the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York was 
younger and lacked the financial support it has since secured, Dr. 
Squibb gave it his services as a teacher without remuneration. This 
was in 1869-71, when the faculty consisted of Professor Chandler, 
Professor of Physics and Chemistry; Dr. Squibb, Professor of Phar- 
macy, and Dr. Day, Professor of Botany and Materia Medica. At 
a meeting of the college, held in October, 1900, it was resolved to 
present an engrossed testimonial to Dr. Squibb, the occasion of this 
token ol appreciation, being the rounding out by the Doctor of his 
four score years. 

He was a member of the American Medical Association, the New 
York State Medical Association, the Kings County Medical Asso- 



428 



Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( September, 1901. 



ciation, and a life member of the New York Society for the Relief ot 
Widows and Orphans of Medical Men. He was elected an honor- 
ary member of the British Pharmaceutical Conference in October, 
1872, and an honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society ot 
Great Britain on May i, 1878. The degree of Master in Pharmacy 
was conferred on him February 6, 1 894, by the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy. He was elected a member of the American Chemical 
Society on March 3, 1877. He was a resident member of the Lin- 
nean Society in New York, a life member and Fellow of the Brook- 
lyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, a Fellow of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the 
American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Squibb took a most active part in the development and 
improvement of the United States Pharmacopoeia since the i860 
Revision. He was a member of the committee at that time, but in 
subsequent revisions he declined membership in the committee, 
but, nevertheless, rendered most valuable service until almost the 
day of his death. 

An incident in connection with Pharmacopoeia revision in i860 
was told the writer by Professor Procter, and it is reproduced be- 
cause it is characteristic of the man. The meetings of the Com- 
mittee were held periodically in Philadelphia, and Dr. Squibb came 
over from New York and spent the day in the Quaker City with 
his friend Procter. The meetings were held at Dr. George B. 
Wood's residence. The subject under discussion on one occasion 
was aloes, Dr. Squibb stating that the commercial aloes which 
came to this market was filled with mechanical impurities of all 
sorts — sticks, stones, earth, goatskins, bits of iron and. lead, etc., etc. 
Dr. Wood, Professor Procter, Alfred B. Taylor, and other members 
of the committee thought that Dr. Squibb was exaggerating, and 
one of them said playfully, that New York aloes might have all of 
those impurities in it, but he did not believe that the aloes imported 
into Philadelphia was of that character. Thus challenged, Dr. 
Squibb promptly asked Professor Procter to buy the best cask of 
aloes he could get in Pniladelphia, on his account, ship it to New 
York, and he would melt and soften the aloes, adding alcohol and 
water, strain it, weigh the impurities, ascertain the percentage, and 
send to the committee the record with the package containing the 
debris, accompanied by a sample of the purified product. 



A sfpt J embeSr-} Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. 429 

The result was profoundly surprising to the committee. It 
showed conclusively that there was not an original package of aloes 
brought into the country which was not loaded up with gross 
impurities. The committee acknowledged the result of the doctor's 
work, and Aloe Purificata has been retained in every revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia since. 

In reviewing the life of Dr. Squibb, one cannot help being 
impressed with his striking individuality. He never forgot or 
minimized the importance of his mission. He consecrated his life 
to the object of furnishing honest medicines for the relief of disease, 
and naturally his laboratory work had the first place ; morning, 
noon, and night found him there. Habits of order and cleanliness 
he instilled in all who were under his guidance or instruction. He 
hated a lie, even a little one, and he was always the soul of honor. 
To many he appeared to be stern ; it was true he was never yield- 
ing or weak. One could almost say in advance just where to place 
Dr. Squibb upon any question. He delighted in original investiga- 
tion and chemical research if they had any bearing upon making 
medicines. Abstract subjects he took little interest in* although he 
was fond of arguing upon such subjects, but he would not waste 
time upon anything which he did not believe productive of results 
of immediate practical value to mankind. 

His standards of purity for pharmaceutical products were the 
highest attainable, and he believed that if he was to work long 
enough and hard enough, keeping his eye single to this one object, 
the time would come when his labors would be recognized, and it 
can' safely be said that he lived to see the time when they were not 
only appreciated by his fellows, but substantially rewarded. 

His liberality in giving aid to all who were in sympathy with his 
life purposes was shown at all times. He never hesitated to share 
with others the benefits of his great ingenuity and wide experi- 
ence, but probably his greatest influence in the advancement of 
chemical science lay in the encouragement and assistance which he 
gave to young men, so that his services to the profession were far 
reaching, not only on account of the enormous volume of work 
which he himself accomplished, but als3 because he enabled others 
to do much. 

In the latter part of his life, a number of years were spent in 
foreign travel, in Europe and the Orient, Russia, Norway and 



430 Edward Robinson Squibb, M.D. {^^SS' 

Sweden, Germany — in fact, there was scarcely a country which he 
had not visited. 

He died early in the evening of October 25, 1900, at his home, 
152 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, after only a few hours' confine- 
ment to his room ; his suffering was mainly due to difficulty 
in breathing. The immediate cause of his death was cardiac 
dyspnoea, due to occlusion of the coronary artery. 

Dr. Squibb enjoyed excellent health during the greater part ot 
his life. He took regular exercise in his gymnasium until his eye- 
sight failed, and he was thus incapacitated. He bore suffering 
stoically. He was very punctual in his habits, keeping his engage- 
ments conscientiously, and followed a regular plan, with fixed times 
for performing his duties, and his industry was amazing. He had 
a natural taste for art and was an excellent judge of painting, of 
which he was especially fond. Without being luxurious in his 
tastes, and knowing the value of works of art, he enjoyed the pos- 
session of the rare and beautiful objects, which denotes a cultured 
and refined mind. He married, on October 7, 1852, Caroline 
Lownds Cook, daughter of Elisha Worth Cook and Lois Crowell 
Cook, of Philadelphia. His widow and the following three chil- 
dren survive him : Edward Hamilton Squibb, M.D.; Charles Fel- 
lows Squibb and Mrs. John Munro (Mary King Squibb). The sons 
were graduated from Harvard University, and both have succeeded 
to the business founded by their father. 

American Pharmacy lost one of its greatest exponents and its 
sturdiest figure when the summons came by the grim messenger, 
to a higher life. Eighty years were vouchsafed to him, and he was 
honest, not from policy, but because it hurt him sorely to be other- 
wise, and surrounded as he was by those who sought temporary 
advantage by questionable business practices, trickery or even 
doubtful methods, his life work was carried on in the face of active 
warfare. It would be impossible for any one to meet him and then 
forget him ; he stamped his personality indelibly on one's memory. 
He w r as a leader among leaders. 

He might wound the feelings of some by the frank, outspoken 
condemnation of what he believed to be wrong, but it was the sin 
and not the sinner that he denounced. It would be impossible for 
him to yield to any course of doubtful morality. He often stood 
alone and would make no effort to win others to his views when 



A s^pSef, h i9oi m *} International Congresses. 431 

they were founded on principle and the rock of truth itself. In 
non-essentials he would often yield because he knew that the great 
principles for which he contended, would be all the stronger 
if he did not degenerate into a mere pessimist or chronic objector. 
He loved to quote when standing alone, bereft of the support of his 
friends on some important question, the famous words of the orator, 
" God a7id one are a majority." 



THE INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL 
CONGRESSES. 

By Dr. Fr. Hoffmann. 

( Concluded from p. 383. ) 

A FURTHER MOVE TO HAVE THE CONGRESS MEET IN THE UNITED 

STATES. 

The choice of Milan as the place for convening the seventh 
meeting of the International Pharmaceutical Congress had been 
made without a preceding invitation by, or inquiry at, Italian 
pharmaceutical associations. The choice, however, was politely 
accepted by them and a general committee on organization formed 
consisting of Professors Cannizzaro, of Rome, Vitali, of Milan, Dr. 
Pessina, of Milan, and Messrs. Castoldi and Ventutini, of Milan. This 
committee, as well as that of the Pharmaceutical Societies of Lom- 
bardy, made strenuous efforts for a creditable and successful consum- 
mation of the duty imposed upon them. Invitations \vere sent out, but 
again repealed and the time of meeting postponed for another year. 
In 1889 a new law affecting the admission to, and the exercise of, 
the practice of pharmacy had been promulgated in Italy and en- 
gaged the interest and anxiety of the pharmacists to such an extent 
that they felt little disposition to diverge their attention and concern 
to outside affairs. In consequence the committees formed failed to 
meet with the requisite encouragement and support by both the 
authorities and the pharmacists. 

In 1889 the committee by a circular letter again postponed the 
meeting to 1 89 1 on account of the International Exposition taking 
place in Paris in 1889. In this circular a remarkable departure 
occurred both in the matter of the objects and in the choice of the 
participants of the congress. As entitled to admittance the follow- 



43^ 



International Congresses. 



/Am. Jour. Pham . 
1 September, 1901. 



ing were designated : Professors of universities, polytechnic schools 
and colleges, professors of physical and natural sciences of any 
school, pharmacists and chemists delegated by pharmaceutical asso- 
ciations or by sanitary boards, members of such boards, assistants 
of institutes, laboratories or museums devoted to physical and 
natural sciences, medicine or pharmacy, chemists, directors and 
assistants of municipal laboratories, proprietors and directors of all 
laboratories for public service, proprietors and directors of chemical 
industrial establishments and chemists employed in such. 

As stated on pages 324 and 379 the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation had twice extended an invitation to the congress to meet in 
the United States, in 1874 and in 1881. At this juncture of delay 
and uncertainty, and in consideration of the prospective World's 
Fair in Chicago in 1893, the association passed at its meeting in 
Old Point Comfort in Virginia, September 12, 1890, the resolution 
" that it would be desirable that the International Pharmaceutical 
Congress meet in Chicago in 1893, that a hearty invitation be ex- 
tended to the pharmacists of all countries to be present at the meet- 
ing of this association in 1893 J anc * that a committee be appointed 
to report upon the matter at a future meeting." 

At the next meeting of the association, in New Orleans in April, 
1 89 1, the following local committee to co-operate with the World's 
Fair Auxiliary in the work of preparing for an International Phar- 
maceutical Congress was elected : Messrs. O. Oldberg, E. H. Sargent, 
A. E. Ebert, D. R. Dyche, C. S. N. Hallberg, all in Chicago. 

Very likely in consequence of the action of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association in its meetings in 1890 and 1 891 the 
following circular letter was issued on May 15, 1 89 [ : 

The directors and proprietors of Italian pharmacies, especially those of the 
northern provinces of the Kingdom, perturbed by the changes of the material 
conditions of phaimacy, brought about by a new law of December 22, 188S, for 
the protection of public hygiene and sanitation, and by legal contests with the 
authorities over the new and stringent exactments, have not been able to co- 
operate towards the success of the Pharmaceutical Congress in Milan, to the 
extent they promised before the new law went into effect. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, the Committee on Organization would 
have persevered in its efforts, had it not been for the very discouragingly 
small number of adherences received, every hope of success being thus cut off. 
Despite the announcements and invitations made in the principal Italian and 
foreign periodicals, and the 25,000 circulars forwarded, the committee received 
scarcely thirty assents. 



Am. Jour. Pharnj. \ 
September, 1S01. J 



International Congresses. 



433 



The committee, therefore, resolved to postpone the convocation of the 
Congress to a more opportune time. 

[Signed] 

Cannizzarro, Vitali, Pessina, Casloldi, Venturini. 

Hereupon and perhaps being unaware of the previous efforts 
made for having the Congress meet in the United States of Amer- 
ica, the general secretary of the Parisian pharmaceutical societies, 
Mr. H. Bocquillon-Limousin, addressed, July I, 1891, a circular letter 
to the presidents of the various pharmaceutical societies, asking for 
opinions and advice as to the desirability of a speedy meeting of 
the Congress for the consideration of those questions which affect 
the immediate interests and prosperity of the pharmacists, and of 
completing the work initiated by previous congresses. In the event 
of approval, Madrid or Prague were suggested as convenient places 
for holding the meeting. 

To this communication the following response was returned from 
the United States of America : 

The undersigned beg to acknowledge the receipt of your circular letter of 
July 1, 1891, and to state in repty thereto, that by a resolution passed at the 
meeting in September, 1890, the American Pharmaceutical Association has 
expressed itself in favor of holding the next International Pharmaceutical Con- 
gress in 1893, in the city of Chicago, during the time of the Columbian 
Exposition. 

This resolution has been communicated to Mr. Van de Vyvere, Secretary- 
General of the Sixth International Pharmaceutical Congress, and to Professor 
Cannizzarro, President of the Committee on Organization for the seventh con- 
gress. 

At a meeting held May 1, 1891, the American Pharmaceutical Association 
appointed a committee for perfecting the arrangements for the contemplated 
pharmaceutical congress at Chicago, and invitations will be issued at an early 
date. We beg you to use your influence and that of your Society in favor of 
holding the next International Pharmaceutical Congress in Chicago, in the 
year 1893. 

[Signed] A. K. Finxay, 

President. 
John M. Maisch, 

Secretary. 

New Origans and Philadelphia, September 5, 1891. 

To this communication the following reply was received by the 
President of the American Pharmaceutical Association: 

We have duly received your letter, in which you communicate to us the 
resolution passed by the American Pharmaceutical Association, inviting the 
pharmacists of all countries to a congress which is to meet in Chicago, in 1893. 



434 



International Congresses. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September, 1901. 



Since we do not know whether the Italian conmittee will convene the 
Ssventh International Congress, we have confirmed to the same your decision, 
and have requested the committee, in case the pharmacists are not to be con- 
vened at Milan, to cede to you the powers received from the International Con- 
gress of 1885. 

[Signed] D. A. Van Bastelaer, 

President. 
E. Van de Vyvere, 

General Secretary. 

Brussels, November 26, 1891. 

Early in 1893, the presiding officers of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, and the local committee on the Seventh Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress appointed by the Association, 
issued separately the following circular letters of invitation in three 
languages, to the pharmaceutical societies and other organized 
bodies of pharmacists, as well as to the pharmacists of all countries. 

Philadelphia, March 30, 1893. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association had extended an invitation to 
the Third International Pharmaceutical Congress, held at St. Petersburg, in 
1874, to call the Fourth Congress in Philadelphia, in 1876, during the Centen- 
nial Exposition ; but the selection of a city in the United States was deemed 
unadvisable at that time. 

After it had been decided that the World's Columbian Exposition should be 
held in the city of Chicago in 1893, the American Pharmaceutical Association 
again invited the pharmaceutical congress to meet in this country. The Ital- 
ian Committee on Organization having, by circular of May 15, 1891, and for 
reasons stated therein, renounced the convocation of the Seventh International 
Pharmaceutical Congress at Milan ; the Executive Committee of the Sixth 
Congress, at Brussels, by letter of November 26, 1891, confirmed the invitation 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, and in a communication of Feb- 
ruary 16, 1892, the former Committee on Organization at Milan, expressed the 
view that there was nothing, under the circumstances stated, to prevent the 
organization of the Seventh International Pharmaceutical Congress in 1893, in 
Chicago. 

Now, in view of the above facts, the undersigned officers of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association take pleasure in extending a heart} 7 invitation to 
the pharmaceutical societies of all countries to appoint delegates to the Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress, which is to assemble in the city of Chicago 
during the year 1893, and in which teachers to pharmaceutical institutions 
and pharmacists in general are likewise cordially invited to participate. 

It is especially desired, that the contents of this circular letter be brought to 
the notice of kindred societies, and that information be given to the under- 
signed secretary, relating to suggestions of subjects of general importance, 
suitable for discussion and action by the Congress, as well as to the intention 
of pharmaceutical societies, of teachers of pharmacy and pharmacists in other 
countries, of being present or represented at the Congress of 1893. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm.) 
September, 1901. j 



International Congresses. 



435 



" Further steps for promoting the objects and deciding upon the date of the 
congress will be taken at the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion at the meeting in July of the present year. Meanwhile, the undersigned 
desire to assure all who may come as delegates, as members or as visitors, to 
the International Pharmaceutical Congress, at Chicago, in 1893, of the very 
cordial reception on behalf of the Pharmacists of the United States of America. 

[Signed] Ai,ex. K. Finlay, 
President of the American Pharm. Association. 
John M. Maisch, 

Permanent Secretary. 

Chicago, May 26, 1892. 
The American Pharmaceutical Association has invited the Seventh Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress to meet in the city of Chicago during the 
season of the World's Columbian Exposition, in 1893 ; the assent of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Sixth Congress at Brussels, and its Committee on Organi- 
zation at Milan, has been formally given, and the American Pharmaceutical 
Association has appointed a special committee to arrange the preliminaries. 

In the performance of its function, this committee has the honor, therefore, 
to invite all pharmaceutical societies and other organized bodies of all countries 
to appoint delegates to the Seventh International Pharmaceutical Congress, to 
be held in Chicago in 1893 ; and an invitation is also extended to all teachers 
in pharmaceutical schools and members of pharmacopceial commissions to par- 
ticipate in the congress. 

The precedents established by previous International Pharmaceutical Con- 
gresses will be followed in regard to all preliminaries as far as practicable. 

On behalf of the American Pharmaceutical Association, all who will honor 
the occasion by their presence are assured of a most hearty welcome. 
By the committee : 

[Signed] Oscar Oedberg, 

Chairman. 
ALBERT E. EBERT, 

Secretary. 

These letters of invitation were accompanied by a preliminary 
announcement and programme, containing among others the follow- 
ing items: 

" The general scope and object of the International Pharmaceutical Congress 
will be to stimulate pharmaceutical progress, to discuss the status of pharma- 
cists and promote an intelligent appreciation of the work they do, and to con- 
sider matters and measures affecting the further advancement of pharmacy and 
a nearer approach to international agreement in education and practice. 

" The subjects to be considered by the congress will be classified into the 
following four sections : (1) Historical and ethical pharmacy ; (2) pharmaceu- 
tical education and legislation ; (3) pharmacopceial matters ; (4) general ques- 
tions pertaining to pharmacy and not assignable to any of the three preceding 
sections. 

" The congress will be constituted of delegates accredited by the governments 
of the various countries, of the pharmaceutical societies, of examining boards, 



43^ 



International Congresses. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm 
1 September. 1901. 



of colleges of pharmacy, of pharmaceutical departments of universities, and of 
national pharmacopceial commissions. It is proposed that each of these bodies 
should be represented by three delegates. 

" The proceedings of the congress shall be in the English language and 
interpreters shall be employed for the benefit of German, French and Spanish 
visitors for translating letters, papers, etc. 

SEVENTH CONGRESS IN CHICAGO, 1 893. 

The congress assembled in first session, August 21, 1893. Great 
Britain, Canada, Nova Scotia, Holland, Belgium, Austria, Sweden, 
Norway, Costa Rica, the Bermudas and Australasia were represented 
by twenty delegates, the United States by 114. Not represented 
were Germany, France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Denmark. 

The meeting was opened with addresses by the Chairman of the 
Local Committee, Professor Oldberg, of Chicago ; Mr. CarteigJie, 
President of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and Pro- 
fessor Patch, President of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
The nomination of officers resulted in the election of Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington, of Philadelphia, as President, and of fifteen vice-presi- 
dents and four secretaries. 

The main interest of pharmaceutical gatherings in Chicago in the 
month of August, 1893, na< ^ been exhausted by the meetings of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association immediately preceding the 
International Congress, which was little more than a supplementary 
function to the meeting of the National Association. Its proceed- 
ings fell far short of adequately dealing with the imposing array of 
subjects drawn up under four sectional divisions. 

The first question considered was: What progress has been made 
toward the preparation of an international pharmacopoeia for potent 
remedies ? — The few who participated in the discussion agreed in 
the opinion that an international pharmacopoeia including all im- 
portant pharmaceutical remedies and suitable to all countries would 
be impracticable, whilst an international conspectus of potent reme- 
dies, as a standard for the various national pharmacopoeias, would 
be attainable, so as to approach in the course of new revisions of the 
same to greater uniformity of the composition and strength of 
galenical preparations containing potent drugs. As a result of the 
brief discussions the following resolutions were adopted : 

That a commission be empowered by this congress to compile and publish 
an international pharmacopoeia ; that this commission consist of one represen- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
September, 1901. i 



International Congresses. 



437 



tative from each of the countries represented in this congress, and from other 
countries as may hereafter be determined. 

That a committee of five, of whom the President of this congress shall be 
chairman, be now chosen, and that said committee shall decide what other 
countries besides those here represented shall be invited to join in the work. 
The committee shall also determine how the members of the commission shall 
be appointed. 

That this congress accept, with thanks, the proffer of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association of the sum of $1,000 to help in defraying the expenses 
of compiling, publishing and distributing an international pharmacopoeia. 

The drafts heretofore offered and accepted at the congresses at 
St. Petersburg (page 374), and at Brussels (page 381), had failed of 
realization. 

As a nucleus of an international pharmacopoeia commission, 
Messrs. Remington, of the United States of America, Carteighe % of 
Great Britain, and von Waldheim, of Austria, were proposed and 
elected as members. 

The seeond question discussed referred to pharmaceutical educa- 
tion and examination, and to a compulsory curriculum. Notwith- 
standing the great divergences of opinion and usages prevailing in 
the various countries, the following resolutions were finally agreed 
upon : 

" No person should be admitted as an apprentice in pharmacy unless he shall 
have given evidence, by satisfactory passing a preliminary examination, that 
he possesses a general education sufficient for that purpose, and as advanced as 
the conditions of the practice of pharmacy in each country may permit, and 
this term of apprenticeship in pharmacy should in no case be counted so far as 
it may antedate such evidence of sufficient preliminary education. 

"The compulsory period of apprenticeship should be no less than four years, 
including the time devoted by the apprentice to regular attendance upon a 
course of instruction in a college or school of pharmacy. 

" Recognizing the inadequacy of examinations as a means of determining 
the qualifications of persons seeking the important privilege of dispensing and 
compounding medicines, this Congress approves of the establishment of a 
compulsory curriculum of pharmaceutical education, and holds that no person 
should be regarded as a qualified pharmacist who has not pursued to completion 
a systematic course of instruction in the various branches of pharmaceutical 
sciences, and delegates in this Congress are requested to lend their aid toward 
securing the recognition of a principle of so much fundamental importance to 
pharmacy." 

The third and final question from the comprehensive array of the 
programme was the relation of the pharmacist to public sanitation, 
particularly in the matter of the adulteration of food. After brief 



438 



International Congresses. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X September, 1901. 



discussion the following resolution was offered by a committee of 
five and adopted : 

"That, in the judgment of this Congress, the educated pharmacist is a 
natural and proper expert on measures for public health, not only in prevention 
of food adulteration, but in the inspection of water supplies, the enforcement 
of good sewerage, etc. The pharmacist, by virtue of his profession, is the 
common chemist to the common people." 

The President of the Congress called attention to one important 
subject of the programme, namely, the influence exerted upon the 
practice of pharmacy by the introduction of chemicals and other 
medicinal substances controlled or limited by patents, copyrights, 
trademarks or other legal restrictions. 

Should such limitations as foster monopoly in the manufacture 
and sale of such medicinally used products be removed in the in- 
terest of the public good ? — The fact was, as shown by Mr. Wm. Bode- 
mami, of Chicago, at the preceding meeting of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, that the price of most synthetic products 
imported into the United States is very largely out of proportion to 
their cost of production and real value. 

No action, however, was taken upon this subject, nor was the 
perennial topic of specialties and nostrums entered upon, likely as 
being a rather delicate object in a country where this much-abused 
form of medication has attained to such a dominant